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week determined. The investigation normal in weight at enlistment. In ordinary covered the first five weeks after enlistment times recruits for the regular army are drawn for Class A and the first four weeks fter chiefly from the laboring classes and show an enlistment for Class B, at the end of which average weight of approximately 147 pounds periods it was found necessary to discontinue for the age and height of the groups here the study. Fig. 3 shows graphically the re- studied.3 The difference of seven pounds in sults obtained. The average energy value per the average weight of regular army recruits man per day of the food consumed during in peace times and these National Army men each week is represented by a series of blocks. is probably a result of the changed character The average weight per man was measured of the army due to the draft. It will be noted at the beginning of each week and at the that Company A of the 377th Infantry conend of the last week and is shown as a solid sists of colored men; the average weight of line. The scales on which the two quantities these men at enlistment is practically that of are plotted are shown at the left. The note- the average peace time recruits for the regular worthy features of the study are the drop in army. Also the average rate of gain in weight during the first week, in part presum- weight of this organization is less than in any ably a result of the typhoid prophylaxis, and other of those here studied. With the one subsequent rise for both groups of men result- exception just noted, all of these National ing in a net increase of 1.4 pounds per man Army men, although they closely approximate for Class A for a five-week period and 2.6 the normal civilian weight, made a considerpounds per man for Class B for a four-week able gain under the rather strenuous training period. The consumption of food in the mess régime of the camp. There is no doubt that shows a very large increase in both cases. In this is a gain almost entirely in muscular examining Fig. 3 it should be borne in mind tissue. A weighted average of the increases that up to the beginning of the third week the made by the three companies shown in Fig. 1 group of recruits had not been divided into and of the men of the 303d Field Artillery Class A and Class B.
gives 6.4 pounds as the mean increase in body It is of interest to compare the averages weight for the men of the four organizations. for these studies with similar averages made The average weight of these men after trainin the past. Before doing this it should be ing (146.8 pounds) is about the same as that stated that all of the groups reported here of the average peace time recruit (145.1). average approximately 68 inches in height in
According to Munson the peace time recruit, their stocking feet, and were approximately who is undoubtedly a much more robust type 25 years of age. All were National Army
physically than the National Army recruits, men, secured by draft from civilian life. The
gains about 2.8 pounds as a result of three average weight for civilians of this height and a half months of military training and and age has been determined to be 145 pounds
the gain of 6.4 pounds of the National Army in ordinary clothes. As the army examina
men is thus not at all surprising. The twentytion uses stripped weight a deduction must be
three per cent. increase in chest motility made for the weight of the clothes. Assuming
shown by the men of the 303d Field Artillery six pounds as the probable value of this, 139
is scarcely second to their weight increase as pounds may be taken as the stripped weight
an index of improvement in physical condiof civilians 68 inches tall. According to this
tion. The men of this regiment showed an standard the men of all the organizations except Company A, 366th Infantry, were about
average motility at enlistment of three inches.
This is a little higher than that shown by the 2“Medico-actuarial Mortality Investigation,” Vol. I. Association of Life Insurance Medical 3"The Theory and Practise of Military HyDirectors and Actuarial Society of America, New giene,” E. L. Munson, New York, William Wood York, 1912,
& Co., 1901.
Peace time recruits to Regular Army at Columbus
4 mos. 99 men (colored) Co. A, 366 Inf., Camp Dodge .
4 mos. 100 white men, 331 Mch. Gun Bn., Camp Grant. 107 men (white) Co. E, 356 Inf., Camp Funston. 4 mos. Class “A” Recruits, 134 men, Camp Pike..
5 wks. Class “B” Recruits, 123 men, Camp Pike. 4 wks.
145.07 | 147.88
6.6 2.6 4.0 10.7 1.40 2.57
group of regular army recruits mentioned by
RECRUITS, CAMP PIKE Munson, whose motility at enlistment averaged 2.8 inches. The regular army recruits in
Weight, Average creased 0.6 inches in motility as a result of
July 7 July 13 July 20 July 28 Aug. 4 three and a half months' training, while the 523 men of the 303d Field Artillery showed an
A (134 men) 139.54 137.69 138.93 140.02 141.46 140.94
B (123 men) 139.50 137.78|139.20 139.55 142.07 average increase of 0.7 inch in five months.
Food Consumption, Calories per Man per Day The recruit study at Camp Pike indicates the relation between gain in weight and food
13 consumption. It is of course obvious that
Class A without proper feeding physical improvement
2,640 2,931 3,085 3,227 3,715
Class B 2,640 | 2,931 | 3,085 / 3,675 of the men is greatly retarded no matter how favorable other conditions are. It is possible, The material discussed in the above parahowever, with conditions as they exist in the
graphs is summarized in Table I. It should army, to feed men very satisfactorily from a
be said in closing this article that the typical nutritional point of view and at the same time
army mess furnishes a sufficient amount of very econo nomically. A consideration of the
nutritious well-cooked food to meet the reremarkable physical gain outlined above of
quirements of the average soldiers. . This is men in the 303d Field Artillery, taken in con
supported by such evidence as has been adjunction with the regimental waste record,
duced above and obviously also by the fine shows this very conclusively. During the
army turned out in the training camps of week of the survey made in order to determine
this country for service overseas. the food consumption of the men of the regiment there was no waste of edible food. This
F. M. HILDEBRANDT means that every man left the table with an empty mess kit, and that all left-overs from
SCIENCE the kitchen were utilized in subsequent meals. While such a remarkable record is exceptional, A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of mess economy in this regiment was at all Science, publishing the official notices and pro times of a high order. The beneficial effects ceedings of the American Association for of the discipline necessary to secure such re
the Advancement of Science sults will probably never be lost by the men
Published every Friday by who were in the organization. The average
THE SCIENCE PRESS energy value of the food consumed per man per day in the 303d Field Artillery was 3,699 LANCASTER, PA.
GARRISON, N. Y. calories, a figure typical of the consumption
NEW YORK, N. Y. found in army messes generally.
Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., us second clan manier
CORNELL UNIVERSITY | Washington University
School of Medicine
In the City of New York
REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION
Candidates for entrance are required to have completed at least two full years of college work which must include English, German, and instruction with laboratory work in Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
Holders of a Baccalaureate degree or Seniors who can present a degree before entering the Second Year, who also present the requisite courses in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology, are admitted from recognized Colleges or Scientific Schools. The Session opens on the last Wednesday in September. The first year is devoted to Anatomy, Chemistry, and Physiology and may be taken either in Ithaca or New York City. The last three years are chiefly Clinical and must be taken in New York City.
INSTRUCTION Instraction begins on the last Thursday in September and ends on the second Thursday in June. Clinical instruction is given in the Barnes Hospital and the St. Louis Children's Hos pital, afiliated with the medical rehod, the St. Louda Che Har pital, med la the Weeblington Universita Dironm. COURSES LEADING TO ACADEMIC
DEGREES Students who have taken their promedical work in Washington University, are eligible for the degree of B.S. upon the completion of the first two years of medical work.
Students in Washington University may pursue study in the fundamental medical sciences leading to the degree of A.M. and Ph.D.
TUITION The tuition fee for under redunto medioul student in Ho por amna. Women are admitted
The catalogue of the Medical School and other information may be obtained by application to the Dean,
Euclid Avenue and Kingshighway St. Louis
COLLEGE OF MEDICINE
Johns Hopkins University
(Established in 1834)
School of MedicineCandidates for admission must be graduates of approved colleges or scientific schools with at least one year's instruction,
After January 1 1918, all students entering the inciuding laboratory work, in physics, chemistry, and biology, Freshman Class will be required to present credits and with evidence of a reading knowledge of French and
for two years of college work, which must include German. Each class is limited to 90 students, men and women being
Biology, Chemistry and Physics, with their laboraadmitted on the same terms. Except in unusual circumstances, tories, and one year in German or French. applications for admission will not be considered after July 1st.
Graduate School of Medicine I vacancies occur, students from other institutions desiring advanced standing may be admitted to the second or third year, A school for physicians desiring practical clinical provided they fulfill all of our requirements and present ex. opportunities, review, laboratory technic or cadaceptional qualifications.
veric work in surgery or gynecology. Excellent INSTRUCTION
facilities offered in all special branches. The post academio year begins September 30, 1919 and
School of Pharmacydones on the second Tuesday in Juno. The course of instruo- Admission: Three years of high school work, or hon oooupies four year, and especial emphasis is laid upon praotical work in the laboratories, in the wards of the Hospital
12 units. Two years for Ph.G. degree. Three and in the Dispensary.
years for Ph.C. degree.
School of Dentistry-
Admission: Four years of high school work, with The charge for tuition is $250 per annum, payable in three 15 units. Thorough, practical, as well as compreinstalments. There are no extra fees except for rental of microscope, certain expensive supplies, and laboratory breakage.
hensive technical training in dentistry.
Women admitted to all Schools on the same terms
as men. The annual announcement, application blanks, and circular describing graduate courses may be obtained by addressing the
For catalogs and all other information, address Doan of the Johns Hopkins Medical School Wasbington and Monumont Sta. BALTIMORE, MD. TULANE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE
P. O. Box 770, New Orleans, La.
THE LONG ISLAND COLLEGE HOSPITAL
BROOKLYN-NEW YORK Sixty-first Annual Session begins Sep
tember 22, 1919 The medical college requires two years of study in a college of liberal arts or sciences for admission.
See specifications for Class A Medical Colleges by the Council on Medical Education, A.M.A.; also those for a Medical Student's Qualifying Certificate by the University of the State of New York. Conditioned Students not admitted
For particulars address THE DEAN OF THE COLLEGE
Henry and Amity Streets Brooklyn,
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
SCHOOL OF MEDICINE The One Hundred and Fifty-Fourth Annual Session Dill open
Seplember 26, 1919 REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION Candidates for admission are required to have completed at least two full years of college work which must include specified amounts of English, French or German, Physics, Biology and Chemistry (including Organic). Laboratory work is required in the three sciences.
The first and second year classes are limited to 100 students, Women are admitted. Application should be presented before July 1st, as on that date the selection of the entering class will be made.
About 125 students can be accommodated in the third and fourth year classes and applications for admittance on advanced standing will be considered from students who have made ex. cellent records in other “Class A” medical schools.
INSTRUCTION Clinical instruction is given in the University Hospital on the campus with 400 beds and the immediately adjoining Philadelphia General Hospital with 1600 beds, The fundamental branches are taught in the Hare Laboratory of Chemistry, the combined Laboratories of Pathology, Physiology and Pharmacology, and the Laboratory of Hygiene and Bacteriology.
GRADUATE COURSES Information concerning courses in the recently organized Medico-Chirurgical College Graduate School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, which includes as a unit the former Philadelphia Polyclinic Hospital and Polyclinic Graduate School of Medicine, can be obtained from the Dean as well as information about courses leading to the degree of Doctor of Public Hygiene (Dr. P.H.) and courses in Tropical Medicine.
TUITION Undergraduate study, $200 annually; fees for graduate and special courses on application.
The annual announcement, application blanks and other information may be obtained by application to the
Dean of School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania
University of Georgia
University of Alabama
School of Medicine
Mobile, Alabama Entrance Requirements The satisfactory completion of two years of study, in an institution of collegiate grade, toinclude Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and a reading knowledge of French or German. In addition to four year High School diploma.
Combined Course The Combined Course which is now offered by the University in connection with its Medical Department gives to the student the opportunity of obtaining the B.S. and M.D. degrees in six years.
This course is recommended to all intending students.
The equipment of the schoolis complete. The clinical facilities ample. Eight full time teachers.
For catalog and any desired information, address Tucker H. Frazer, M.D., Dean
School of Medicine
ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS The succossful completion of at least two years of work including English, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology in an approved college. This in addition to four years of high school.
INSTRUCTION The course of instruction occupies four years, begin. ning the second week in September and ending the first week in June. The first two years are devoted to the fundamental sciences, and the third and fourth to practical clinic instruction in medicine and surgery. All tho organised medical and surgical charities of the oity of Augusta and Richmond County, including the hospitals, are under the entire control of the Board of Trustees of the University. This Agreement affords a large number and variety of patients which are used in the clinical teaching. Especial emphasis is laid upon practical work both in the laboratory and clinical do partments
TUITION The charge for tuition is $150.00 a year except for residents of the State of Georgia, to whom tuition is free. For further information and catalogue address
The Medical Department, University of Georgia
WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY School of Hygiene and Public Health
SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
The Johns Hopkins University
ONLY MEDICAL SCHOOL IN
The second academic session will begin September 30, 1919. Opportunities for instruction and investigation will
be offered in Bacteriology, Immunology and Serology, Pro| Admits only college students and seniors in
tozoology and Medical Zoology, Epidemiology, Biometry
and Vital Statistics, Sanitary Engineering, Physiology as absentia.
applied to hygiene, including the principles of industrial E cellent laboratories and facilities for research and educational hygiene, Chemistry as applied to hygiene and advanced work.
including the analysis of foods and the principles of nutri
tion, Social and Mental Hygiene, etc. The courses in these Large clinical material. Sole medical control of subjects are organized upon a trimestral basis and students Lakeside, City, Charity and Maternity Hospitals may enter the School as candidates for a degree or as special and Babies' Dispensary. Clinical Clerk Services
students at the beginning of any trimester, fall, winter or with individual instruction.
spring. Men and women students are admitted on the
same terms. Wide choice of hospital appointments for all For regularly matriculated students courses are arranged graduates.
leading to the degree of Doctor of Public Health, Doctor of
Science in Hygiene and Bachelor of Science in Hygiene. | Fifth optional year leading to A.M. in Medicine,
The details in regard to the requirements for matriculation Vacation courses facilitating transfer of advanced in these courses are described in the catalogue of the School students.
which will be forwarded upon application.
A certificate in Public Health may be awarded to qualig Session opens Oct. 2, 1919; closes June 17, 1920
fied persons after one year of resident study. Tuition, $150.00.
Persons desiring to take one or more courses not as applicants for a degree may enter as special students on ap
proval of the Faculty. For catalogue, information and application
For further information address the Director of blanks, address
the School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hop
kins University, 310-312 West Monument Street, THE REGISTRAR, 1353 East 9th St., Cleveland Baltimore, Maryland.
Syracuse University College of Medicine Rush Medical College
The University of Chicago
Entrance Two years of a recognized course in arts
IN AFFILIATION WITH
Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and French
ogy, Bacteriology, etc.) are taught in the Departments of
Science at the Hull Biological and the Ricketts LaboraThe First Two are spent in mastering by laboratory toriee, University of Chicago. The courses of the three
methods the sciences fundamental to clinical years are given in Rush Medical College and in Years clinical medicine.
the Presbyterian, the Cook County, The Children's Me
morial, The Hospital for Destitute Crippled Children, The Third Year is systematic and clinical and is devoted to
and other hospitals. the study of the natural history of disease,
Classes Limited. The number of students admitted to each Course to diagnosis and to therapeutics. In this
class is limited. Applications for admission nert Autumn year the systematic courses in Medicine, quarter should be made now. Surgery and Obstetrics are completed.
Hospital Year - The Fifth Year, consisting of service as an
interne under supervision in an approved hospital, or of
advanced work in one of the departments is prerequisite The Fourth is clinical. Students spend the entire fore.
for graduation. poon throughout the year as clinical clerks Year Course in hospitals under careful supervision. The
Summer Quarter.—The college year is divided into four
quarters, three of which constitute an annual session. clinical clerk takes the history, makes the physical examination and the laboratory
The summer quarter, in the climate of Chicago is advanexaminations, arrives at a diagnosis which
tageous for work. Students are admitted to begin the he must defend, outlines the treatment
medical courses only in the Autumn and Spring quarters. under his instructor and observes and
Elective System.--A considerable freedom of choice of courses records the result. In case of operation or
and instructors is open to the student. of autopsy be follows the specimen and
Graduate Courses.-Advanced and research courses are identifies its pathological nature. Two gen.
offered in all departments. Students by attending summer eral hospitals, one of which is owned and quarters and prolonging their residence at the University controlled by the University, one special
of Chicago in advanced work may secure the degree of hospital and the municipal hospitals and A.M., S.M., or Ph.D, from the University. laboratories are open to our students. The
Prizo Scholarsbip.-Six prize scholarships-three in the first afternoons are spent in the College Dispen.
two years and three in the last two (clinical) years-are sary and in clinical work in medical and
awarded to college graduates for theses embodying original surgical specialties and in conferences.
The Spring quarter commenced March 31, 1919. Summer School-A summer course in pathology covering a period of six weeks during June and July will be given in
TUITION$60.00 per quarter, no laboratory fees. cause there is a sufficient number of applicants.
Complete and detailed information may be secured by addressing Address the Secretary of the College,
THE MEDICAL DEAN 307 Orange Street SYRACUSE, N. Y. | The University of Chicago