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He was largely instrumental in securing from sanitary experts arrived in Panama, on April the telephone and telegraph companies of the 3, and left April 7, for Guayaquil, Ecuador, to United States the best talent available to meet investigate sanitary conditions. the urgent requirements of the Signal Corps

PROFESSOR HERBERT E. GREGORY, of Yale at the outbreak of the war. He has served

University, leaves on May 8 for Honolulu to with marked distinction as a member of the

assist the trustees of the Bernice Pauahi American Expeditionary Forces and his bril

Bishop Museum in developing plans for scienliant professional attainments and sound

tific work in Hawaii. By arrangement between judgment have rendered his services of excep

the museum and Yale University, Professor tional value to the government."

Gregory is to be absent from New Haven for MAJOR GENERAL SIR ROBERT JONES, lecturer the remainder of the present academic year in orthopædic surgery, Liverpool University, and also during the second half of the year will act as honorary consultant to the British 1919-20. Ministry of Pensions for orthopædic cases.

DR. A. HAMILTON RICE, of Boston, will start Sir Robert Jones is inspector of military

early in June on his sixth journey of exploraorthopædics and has been very largely respon

tion in South America. The United States sible for the surgical and training arrange

government will receive from Dr. Rice the rements carried out in the special military

sults of his geological discoveries upon his resurgical centers.

turn, as has been the case following each of Miss LUCY MINNEGERO, of Fairfax, Va., chief

his previous voyages. His biological and ethnurse of the American Red Cross Unit, which

nological collections have been presented to was sent to Kief, Russia, in 1915, and later

the Peabody Museum, Harvard University. superintendent of nurses at Columbia Hos

To navigate the shallow waters of the Upper pital, Washington, D. C., and who since 1917,

Amazon, Dr. Rice has had built a 45-foot has been in charge of the preparation of the launch, which is of 14-foot beam and only 20 Red Cross nurses for assignment overseas, has inches draught. It will be shipped by freight been appointed superintendent of the U. S.

to one of the South American ports and there Public Health Service Nurse Corps.

assembled. The boat contains living quarters PROFESSOR C. M. CHILD, president of the

and a laboratory. American Society of Zoologists, has nominated

At a meeting of the International Associaand the executive committee has unanimously

tion of Poultry Instructors and Investigators elected the following members of the society held in London, England, March 11-15, 1919, as its representatives in the reorganized Di

Edward Brown, Fellow of the London Society, vision of Biology and Agriculture of the Na

was reelected president, and William A. Liptional Research Council: F. R. Lillie, G. H.

pincott, professor of poultry husbandry, KanParker and M. F. Guyer.

sas State Agricultural College, as has been DR. C. Lovatt Evans, professor of physiol- noted in SCIENCE, was elected secretary to sucogy and pharmacology at Leeds, has resigned ceed Dr. Raymond Pearl. Dr. Pearl recently to undertake research work in the department resigned, since, in becoming head of the deof pharmacology and biochemistry of the med; partment of biometry and vital statistics in ical research committee.

the school of hygiene and public health, Johns DR. Solon SHEDD, head of the department of Hopkins University, he is no longer carrying geology, State College of Washington, has been on investigations with poultry. Dr, Pearl was granted leave of absence for a year to engage made first fellow of the association in recogin the production of casing head gasoline in nition of his untiring service as secretary since the Oklahoma oil fields.

the organization of the association in 1912. By MAJOR GENERAL WILLIAM C. GORGAS, former invitation of the Netherlands government, a Surgeon-General of the Army, and a party of World's Poultry Congress will be held at the Hague in 1921 under the auspices of the Inter- famous chemist Wöhler. Three years later he national Association of Poultry Instructors became director of the Agricultural Chemical and Investigators.

Laboratory of the Agricultural Institute, ocLORD RAYLEIGH, who recently accepted the

cupying that position up to the time of his presidentship of the British Society of Psy

retirement in 1911. Professor Theodore Dietchical Research, gave his presidential address

rich, known for his work on animal nutrition, on April 11.

was director of one of the earliest German ex

periment stations, established at Haidau in PROFESSOR FRANCIS CARTER Wood, director

the district of Cassell in 1857, and removed to of cancer research under the George Crocker

Marburg in 1880. He died on October 1, 1917, Special Research Fund, Columbia University,

in his eighty-fifth year. lectured on April 15, before the Georgia State

We learn from Nature that at a special genMedical Society and the students of Emery University, at Atlanta, Ga.

eral meeting of the Geological Society, held in

London on March 26, the following resolution Dr. C. K. EDMUNDS, president of the Canton

of council was carried by 55 votes against 12: Christian College, spoke at the Cosmos Club,

“ That it is desirable to admit women as felWashington, D. C., on April 14, on “Thirty

lows of the society.” In submitting the moThousand Miles in China.” The lecture was

tion, Mr. G. W. Lamplugh, president of the illustrated by lantern slides. Dr. Edmunds is

society, said: “It will be within the recolleclecturing on scientific aspects of China at

tion of most of the fellows that the question of different institutions.

the admission of women to candidature for MR. G. S. BAKER has given £500 for the the fellowship of the society has been raised foundation at University College, London, of on more than one occasion in the past. It was a prize for the encouragement of botanical re- considered in 1889 and 1901, and, again, more search to be named after his daughter, the late systematically in 1908–09, when a poll of the Dr. Sarah M. Baker, an old student and mem- fellows was taken and three special general ber of the staff of the college.

meetings were held, with inconclusive results. GEORGE CARLTON WORTHEN, of the Bussey

It is generally recognized that the course of Institution, Harvard University, known for

events since these dates has materially changed his work in economic botany, died on April 10,

the situation. Women have been welcomed to aged forty-eight years.

our meetings as visitors, and we have had

many examples of their qualifications for fel. DR. HENRY WILDE, F.R.S., the English pbys- lowships in the excellent papers which they icist died on March 29, at eighty-six years

have from time to time contributed to the so

ciety. The value of these papers has been apSIR EDWARD CHARLES STIRLING, professor of preciated by all geologists, and has been rephysiology at the University of Adelaide, and peatedly acknowledged by the council in its director of the South Australian Museum, died awards. Therefore, in the opinion of the counon March 20, aged seventy years.

cil, it is no longer reasonable to maintain a The Experiment Station Record notes that

sex-bar against qualified candidates for the the renewed receipt of scientific literature from fellowship of the society, and I am empowered Germany brings news of the death of Geheim- by the council to submit the above-mentioned rat Bernhard Tollens, of the University of Göt

resolution for your consideration." tingen. He died on January 31, 1918, in his The summer session of the Hopkins Marine seventy-seventh year. A graduate of Göt- Station of Stanford University, situated on tingen, Dr. Tollens spent several years as Monterey Bay, California, begins on June 17. assistant in chemistry at Heidelberg and in This session corresponds to the summer quarParis, going for a year to Portugal, but re- ter of Stanford University, the first half quarturned to Göttingen in 1879 as assistant to the ter ending on July 23, and the quarter, August

of age.

29. There will be six instructors in attendance and only 7,542 births, which seems to indicate and ten regular courses are offered, including that the population has been reduced by 14,work in general zoology and physiology, the 373. But this last figure can not be regarded classification and ecology of marine inverte- as accurate because there are always a number brates, economic zoology with reference to ma- of persons who fail to comply with the official rine invertebrates and to fishes, invertebrate regulations for notification in the respective embryology, marine botany and special work. bureaus of the birth of their children. But An announcement will be sent on application even making allowance for all this, there is to the Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, no doubt that the death rate exceeded the California.

birth rate. Influenza was responsible for 1,935 PROFESSOR J A. UDDEN, director of the Bu- deaths, syphilis for 232, bronchitis for 1,556, reau of Economic Geology and Technology bronchopneumonia for 1,456, pneumonia for of the University of Texas, reports that much 2,312, enteritis for 5,496, and various ailments light upon the possible mineral contents of for the other deaths. Texas may be obtained by the keeping of Nature states that the Linen Industry Rerecords of the holes that are being drilled in search Association of Belfast is about to apsearch of oil in various parts of the state. point a director of research at a salary of not It is the theory of many geologists that large

less than £1,000 per year. The selected candipotash beds underlie parts of west Texas, dates will be expected to make a survey of and it is thought that this, or other valuable

the entire field of research in the linen inmineral may be discovered in the wild-cat oil

dustry, to draft a program of research, and wells that are now being drilled in nearly all to organize and supervise the carrying out of the counties of west Texas, though oil is the scheme. not brought to light. Two years ago the

Two new greenhouses are being completed United States government sent seven men, experts in their several branches, to Cliffside,

at the New York Botanical Garden, built twelve miles north of Amarillo, where a per

through a gift of $100,000 made for the purmanent camp · was established, a first-class

pose two years ago by Daniel and Murray Gug.

genheim. These greenhouses form a part of derrick put up, and a complete laboratory

Public Conservatory Range No. 2 on the established to make exhaustive studies of the

eastern side of the garden. The larger of the salts that might be obtained. The results of

two is designed as a central display greenhouse. this investigation have not been published so

Included is a large room where lectures on far, but it is believed enough has been found

plant life will be delivered. The smaller of the to warrant further observations. Potash has

new greenhouses is designed as an orchid been found but not in workable quantities.

greenhouse to hold the large collection of For the present it is not expected that further

orchids already accumulated at the garden and explorations will be made by the government.

others which will be brought from tropical The laboratory established at Cliffside, how

America. ever, will continue to examine cores from any

Owing to a reduced appropriation for its wells that may be sent in. The Bureau of

work, the American Museum of Natural HisEconomic Geology and Technology of the university has also made similar analyses and

tory finds it necessary greatly to curtail its

activities, and announces that one half of the will continue to make them.

exhibition halls-about 17, it is estimatedTHE Mexico City correspondent of the have been closed because of lack of funds to Journal of the American Medical Associa- pay attendants. The museum is now open tion write that ac ding to recently pub- from 10 to 4, instead of from to 5, daily. lished statistics, there were 21,915 deaths Retrenchment plans include also the eliminarecorded in the city of Mexico during 1918, tion of evening lectures in the museum build

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ings and in public schools under the auspices continue scholarships and a valuable collection of the museum and a 50 per cent. curtailment of paintings, tapestries and objects of art. of lectures for school children in the museum. PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. Noyes, head of the All of these measures are designed to cut down

department of chemistry of the University of expenses for fuel, light, and service, as the Illinois; Professor Frank Morley, of the minimum appropriation of $240,000 asked for Johns Hopkins University, and Professor by the museum, figured to cover regular ex- William T. Sedgwick, of the Massachusetts Inpenses only without provision for further de

stitute of Technology, will be included in the velopment, has been cut down to $200,00 in

faculty of the summer session of the University the city budget.

of California, giving respectively courses in By the will of the late Major S. Field Thorn, chemistry, mathematics and public health. who died recently in San Francisco, the Cali- At the agricultural college of the University fornia Academy of Sciences is to receive of Idaho, Herbert P. Davis, dairy husbandCragthorn Park," near Santa Cruz, Cali

man, Dairy Division, U. S. Department of fornia. The place consists of 242 acres and Agriculture has been appointed dairyman of the was Major horn's country home. After the Agricultural Experiment Station, and vice various specific bequests have been paid the director of the station, and J. E. Nordby, academy is to receive the balance of the estate, lately first lieutenant in the Motor Section of which it is thought will be considerable. the Aviation Service, has been appointed assoMajor Thorn was at one time manager of the ciate animal husbandman of the Agricultural Palace Hotel in San Francisco and was for Experiment Station, and will have charge of many years interested in the Academy of experimental work in animal husbandry. Sciences.

CAPTAIN JAMES RIDDICK PARTINGTON, has In connection with the spring meeting of been appointed to the newly established unithe American Physical Society at the Bureau

versity chair of chemistry, tenable at East of Standards, Washington, on April 25 and London College. 26, there will be an exhibit of physical ap

Nature states that Professor Ludwig Jost, paratus illustrative of war developments in

of Strasburg, succeeds at Heidelberg Professor physics. The exhibit was opened on the after

G. Klebs, who died last October in his sixtynoon of the 24, all day on the 25 and 26, the

first year, and Dr. W. Ruhland, of Halle, sucevening of the 25 and the afternoon of the 28.

ceeds Professor von Vöchting at Tübingen.

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

NEWS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY and the Smithsonian Institution receive $50,000 each by the will of Mrs. Virginia Purdy Bacon. Columbia University receives $25,000 for scholarships.

By the will of Alexander Cochrane, late of Boston, and head of the Cochrane Chemical Company, Peter Bent Brigham Hospital will receive $10,000 for the establishment of a free bed, and at the termination of a trust fund created for benefit of the members of Mr. Cochrane's family the principal of the trust is to go to Harvard College.

The University of California receives by the will of Mrs. Phoebe Hearst, $60,000, to

DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE
BASIS OF THE GEOMETRICAL MEAN AS A

B. COLI INDEX
Could I have realized that Professor Cairns
would honor by mathematical consideration
the “ Geometrical Mean” (SCIENCE, March 8,
1918) method of obtaining a bacteriological
index, I should have hesitated to "wander into
paths outside my own domain.” However, no
elaborate discussion of the mathematical rela-
tion between the theory of chance variation
and the geometrical mean can be expected to
induce the empirical bacteriologist to use it as
a B. coli index. The simplicity of application
and practical utility in daily routine will in
the end be its recommendation. Still a brief
mention of the grounds on which it seemed to

mean.

be based may help to establish it until fuller very good index of the measurement. In treatment is possible.

biology, and especially bacteriology, the variaProfessor Phelps has thrown light on the tions, as in the number of bacteria, are many problem by distinguishing between the dis- times as great as the mean value and the tribution of B. coli in space and its distribu- geometrical effect becomes so pronounced as to tion in time. The former alone is discussed require a logarithmic average or a geometrical by McCradyl in treating of fermentation

Francis Galton2 discovered the wide tubes made from a single sample. The latter practical application of this law and Mcfurnished the data for suggesting the “geo- Allister3 fully discussed it mathematically. metrical mean," which was based on a large In the end, therefore, we are thrown back number of samples taken at different times upon the data themselves to determine the from single sources, as, for example, given most fitting method of reduction and, as the points on a river. Both methods accomplish Pearson School of statistics teaches, the sole the same practical purpose by obtaining a purpose of such methods is to obtain some weighted mean which eliminates the undue representative value of the data. Fortunately, influence of positive high dilutions and the Allen Hazen has given us in probability paper, results differ from each other only by a factor a simple and sufficiently accurate graphical which is nearly constant. Whether we wish method of analyzing such rough data. Proto base the method à priori on the theory of fessor Whipplet has summarized and plotted a probability or upon the actual form of the large mass of bacteriological results and shows data, becomes an academic problem, but in that they follow a logarithmic probability practise the simpler is naturally to be pre- curve closely enough. The results obtained in ferred.

the Investigation of the Potomac Riverő show The arbitrary application of the conven- also that the logarithmic summation curves tional theory of chance to physical data can are strikingly symmetrical about the median always be questioned. Bertrand in his “ Cal- line. In the results obtained at the Washingcul des Probabilités " calls attention to the ton Filtration Plante over a five-year period, fact that if a quantity varies as the law of the distribution of turbidity readings were chance, any observed function of that quantity found to agree with this form of curve, and does not, whereas the choice of the quantity is the bacteriological results are almost parallel. arbitrary. This distinguishes the mathemat- It is further believed that the practical evoluical theory of probability from the theory of tion of the geometrical scale of dilutions inchance variations of observed quantities. The dicates that where variations are great the number and magnitude of the forces acting to arithmetical scale is but an approximation change a physical quantity may vary accord- over short portions of the more natural and ing to the law of chance, whereas the observed fundamental geometrical scale. change is some function of those forces.

2 Galton, Francis, “Geometric Mean in Vital Generally those forces combine as a product

and Social Statistics,Proc. Roy. Soc., 29, p. instead of a sum and so it is believed more

365, 1879. fundamental that proportional variations in- 3 McAllister, Donald, “The Law of the Geostead of absolute variations follow the con- metric Mean,” ibid., p. 367. ventional law. In physics the variations are • Whipple, Geo. C., “The Elements of Chanco very small compared to the arithmetic mean in Sanitation,” Jour. Franklin Institute, Philavalue of the observed quantity and the effect

delphia, CLXXXII., 37, 205, 1916. may be commonly negligible because the pro

5 Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin No. 104. Table

13, pp. 87–94, and Charts E-H bet. pp. 128–129. portional and absolute variations approach

6 Wells, Wm. Firth, “Some Notes on the Uso each other. The average is in such cases a

of Alum in Slow Sand Filteration,Proc. Am. 1 Jour. Infect. Dis., 1915, 17, p. 183.

Water Works Assn., 1913.

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