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the war to recognize the gravity of the prob- make known by translation the best Italian lem. A large body of exact knowledge will works; (8) cooperation in the field of science be available to assist those whose business it and its practical applications, and especially in will be to set the care and treatment of mental the law in regard to questions of private law; disorder on a new footing. Psychiatry will (9) intellectual relations of every kind beemerge from the war in a state very different tween people who wish to render more close, from that it occupied in 1914. Above all it will durable and fruitful the union of the nabe surrounded by an atmosphere of hope and tions which fought the battles of civilization promise for the future treatment of the great- together. est of human ills.

Some of these purposes coincide with those W. H. R. RIVERS stated in the outline of the plan for an interUNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

allied research council proposed by Dr. G. E.

Hale. In the National Research Council, INTELLECTUAL INTERCOURSE BE

founded by him at the beginning of the present TWEEN ALLIED AND FRIENDLY

war, Dr. Hale planned a constant interchange

of methods and results which would secure COUNTRIES

the complete cooperation of the Allies and the In the beginning of 1917, there was founded

United States, and provide means of reaching in Italy, with its seat at the University of

common agreement between them in regard Rome, a society having the title: Associazione

to the immediate necessities of the war, and italiana per l'intesa intellettuale fra i paesi

now for the more fruitful works of peace. alleati ed amici (Italian society for intellectual

Probably in no country other than Italy are intercourse between allied and friendly coun

to be found so many foreign institutions for tries). Its president is Senator V. Volterra,

research in science, literature, history and the and the names best known in the literature

arts. These are of course means of cooperaand science of Italy are represented on the

tion and exchange, but the exchange is now committee which directs its work.

only on one side owing to the lack of similar The name of the society is self explanatory organizations for Italian people in foreign -in the publication of a quarterly review,

countries. The principal difficulty in cooperentitled L'intesa intellettuale, its work has al

ating with us is certainly that of language; ready begun in a definite way. The pur

and there is no doubt that the English and pose of the review, which is the same as that

Italian speaking peoples should become more of the society, may be explained as follows:

familiar with each other's language in order (1) More active and frequent intercourse between universities, academies of science, and,

to acquaint themselves better with Italian and

English works. in general, educational institutions of the allied and friendly countries; (2) increased

As exchange of teachers and students is one

of the best methods of overcoming this parteaching of the Italian language in foreign countries, with greater extension in Italy of

ticular difficulty, in July, 1917, our Ministry

of Public Instruction elected a committee the teaching of the languages of allied and friendly countries; (3) exchange of teachers

with Senator V. Volterra as its president to of every order and rank; (4) reciprocal ac

study and draft a law regulating the exchange knowledgment of the requirements for ad- of teachers and the interscholastic relations of mission to the universities and courses of Italy with foreign countries. Early in 1918 lectures; (6) exchange of students either for

the committee presented its plan, in a report special study or to acquire general knowledge which gives its fundamental conceptions and of the different countries; (6) to facilitate the principal arrangements. These are given in exchange of publications and books and to in- the first article of the first issue of L'intesa crease knowledge of Italian works; (7) to intellettuale and are here summarized.

According to its program the committee year, for more than one year and less than proposes that an independent office be insti- five, or for more than five years. On the fortuted in the Ministry of Public Instruction eign professor who teaches in Italy is conto promote and direct the exchange of teach- ferred the dignity of the Italian professor of ers with foreign countries, to send abroad equal rank, and legal validity is given to his Italian men of letters for historical or scien- course of lectures, under certain conditions. tific research or to teach, to summon foreign The last part of these regulations deterteachers or students to Italy, to regulate fel- mines the legal value of studies pursued outlowships, to provide eventually for the founda- side the kingdom, of study of foreigners in tion of Italian institutions of higher educa- Italy, and of the fellowships. In general, tion outside the boundaries of Italy, and to studies and examinations taken in state insticultivate in every way our intellectual rela- tutions or those of equal rank in foreign countions with other nations.

tries are accepted as of the same value as The office will consist of a council and an studies and examinations taken in schools of executive board, with the Minister of Public the same rank in Italy. The fellowships are Instruction as president of both. In the not restricted, as hitherto, to graduates, but council, composed of twenty-one members, the may also be awarded to university students faculties of the universities, the Minister of who desire, for the sake of some special work, Public Instruction with the two general di- to visit laboratories, libraries, or foreign rectors of higher and secondary instruction, archives. Every year a certain number of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, that of Agri- fellowships is offered to students and gradculture, of Industry and Commerce, and the uates (provided they are of not more than two Congress are all duly represented. As the years standing) of high schools, normal and Ministry of Public Instruction is given power professional schools, and special institutions, to elect two members at large, elements out- in order to make it possible for them to follow side the school and state administration may courses of study in foreign countries. Among also have representation.

the advantages of such a plan, by no means With full autonomy in its deliberations and the least important will be the preparation of in the administration of funds which must be good teachers of foreign languages. assigned by the departments concerned, the The outline given here offers nothing more office has that freedom necessary to accomplish that the general plans of an extended program. its varied and delicate functions.

The law itself will constitute the basis for The council issues every year a general proposed international conventions to faciliprogram of the various activities of the office, tate and promote our intellectual relations but the really active body is the executive with foreign countries, and to extend knowlboard composed of seven members elected by edge of Italy beyond our boundaries on the the council from its own members.

one hand and, on the other, to gain informaThe law which has already been mentioned

tion about the friendly countries. gives rules for those going to foreign coun- To give rapid development to this plan and tries to teach or to study, providing for their

to cooperate with the state institutions in legal status and for that of foreign professors Italy and abroad for its accomplishment is of who come temporarily to Italy for the purpose course one of the most important tasks of the of teaching. The Italian professors who, by Italian Association. Probably similar associathe arrangement of the office and with the tions in the allied and friendly countries will approval of the proper ministry, go to foreign be able to cooperate with it for this purpose. countries, are divided into three classes accord- The other articles of the first two issues ing to the length of time they are to be of L'intesa intellettuale which reached this absent from the kingdom: for less than one country deal with the organization of the


schools and educational institutions in Italy and abroad. These articles are by Piero Giacosa, on the “Institutes of Experimental Sciences ” (physics and chemistry); by Pietro Bonfante, on the “New Scientific Degrees”; by Eugénie Strong, on the “ Britannic School in Rome”; by Alfredo Ascoli, on a “Legislative Alliance”; by Andrea Galante, on the “English Education Bill of 1917”; by L. Duchesne, on the “ Transformation of the University Teaching in France"; by V. Scialoja, on the “Giuridic Entente between France and Italy"; by P. S. Leicht, on the “ College of Spain and Flanders in Bologna," and by G. Castelnuovo, on the "Reform of the Engineering Schools in France.”

We should soon like to see some articles on the educational institutions and research laboratories of the United States and to learn of their vast development and progress along these lines. We would recommend that American scholars write these articles and in them present also their suggestions for the most interesting studies and fields for research in science, literature and law, and indicate the schools, colleges and laboratories that might most profitably be visited by Italian colleagues and students, in order to begin this intercourse and cooperation from which many advantages are to be expected.


graphic studies on the fleshy fungi of North America. In the pursuit of this undertaking he had gone without assistants for an tended collecting trip to the far west. Here with characteristic enthusiasm for his work and lured by the surpassing richness of the fungous flora near Mt. Ranier he overtaxed his strength, exposed himself to inclement weather, and contracted a severe cold. This rapidly developed into influenza followed by pneumonia, and he died on November 15, in the Tacoma Hospital at Tacoma, Washington. His end came suddenly and found him alone far from friends and home. After his removal to the hospital, though critically ill, his chief worry concerned the recently collected specimens which he had been forced to leave uncared for in the room of his boarding house. Shortly before he died, in his last delirium, he attempted to dictate to his nurse some notes concerning his fungi. Thus death found him engrossed to the very end in the science which he had so long served and which he loved so well. · He lies buried at South Haven, Mich., near the home of his boyhood. Ithaca and Cornell will not see him again. To his friends and colleagues it is a thing incredible that his genial personality and brilliant mind are gone from among us.

The words, “ Professor Atkinson is dead” have passed from lip to lip and left us almost unconvinced. The memory of him and his work now so clearly before us will serve as a guiding influence through the coming years. It is particularly gratifying to the writer to be able to give here an expression of his appreciation of one whom he revered as a great teacher and valued as a true friend.

Professor Atkinson was born in Raisinville, Monroe County, Michigan, January 26, 1854. He received his preliminary academic training at Olivet College, coming later to Cornell University, from which he was graduated in 1885. The following year he began his scientific career as professor of zoology at the University of North Carolina, and between the years 1886 and 1890 published about fifteen papers in the field of zoology. In 1888 he accepted the professorship of botany and


In the death of George Francis Atkinson American botany has suffered an incalculable loss. Stricken unexpectedly he died at the beginning of what promised to be his most productive period of activity. Having served for more than a quarter of a century as professor of botany in Cornell University he had only recently been relieved by the trustees of all teaching and administrative duties in order that he might give the remaining years of his life to uninterrupted research. He hoped particularly to be able to complete and put in final form for publication his mono



zoology in the University of South Carolina, realized in mycology. He was undoubtedly and in 1889 became professor of biology and one of the foremost students of the fleshy botany in the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. Basidiomycetes which America has produced. While at the latter institution he published as Through years of enthusiastic collecting and a bulletin of the Alabama Agricultural Ex study he had acquired a herbarium of speciperiment Station perhaps his best known mens and a wealth of photographs and notes zoological paper on the root-gall nematode, which gave him a thoroughly comprehensive Heterodera radicicola. His interests shifted grasp of this field. Had he lived to complete rapidly, however, to the fields of plant pathology the extensive illustrated monograph of this and mycology, and in 1892 he returned to his group which he had in process of preparation alma mater to accept the position of assistant it would have far surpassed in thoroughness professor of botany. He became associate pro- and scope any similar paper on these fungi fesor in •1893, and at the death of Professor which has yet appeared in any language. His Prentiss in 1896 became head of the depart- inability to do so will always remain a source ment.

of great regret to his students, and constitutes During the last twenty-five years of his life, a very distinct loss to the science of mycology. though burdened with the multitudinous In the field of general mycology Professor duties of teaching and administration, he Atkinson was especially interested in quesfound time to devote himself to research in tions of phylogeny. Any newly discovered various fields of botany. He labored untiringly fungus which promised to supply a transition and published one hundred and fifty form from one group to another gained his papers concerning his investigations. These immediate interest. This interest in phylogeny reveal an unusi

usually wide range of interests. found expression in his comprehensive papers He was also the author of extensively used the origin of the Phycomycetes and text books including, “ The Biology of Ferns," Ascomycetes, and is also reflected in the “Elementary Botany," "A College Text Book numerous papers which he and his students of Botany” and “Mushrooms Edible, Poison- published on the ontogeny of the fruit-body in ous, etc.” He rapidly attained an eminent many members of the Agaricaceæ and related position among the botanists of the world, and groups. The unusual keenness of his reasonreceived many honors. He was the first pres- ing powers and the richness of the fund of ident of the Ameican Botanical Society, and knowledge from which he drew his conclusions throughout his life took an active part in are revealed in some of the philosophical disnumerous other scientific organizations. His cussions in these papers. His marvelously rehigh standing as a scientist was given formal tentive memory was at once the admiration recognition when in 1918 he was elected a and the despair of his students. member of the National Academy of Science. He was a man of firm convictions, resolute He served as delegate to the International in setting for himself the highest standards of Botanical Congresses of 1905 and 1910 held in scientific excellence, and impatient of mediocVienna and Brussels respectively, and at these rity in others.

rity in others. His untiring devotion to his meetings used his influence to obtain legisla- work will long remain an inspiration to those tion making for greater stability and uni- whose fortune it was to know him intimately formity in botanical nomenclature. He trav- as teacher or friend. HARRY M. FITZPATRICK eled in various countries of Europe studying in the field the fleshy fungi of the different

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS regions, and making the acquaintance of an

THE GERMS OF INFLUENZA AND YELLOW extensive circle of his European colleagues. He was widely known in other lands as a

MAJOR H. GRAEME GIBSON, R. A. M. O., who prominent American student of the fungi.

died recently at Abbéville, was a martyr to Although his interests covered many fields of botany his highest attainments were 1 From the London Times.


science and almost at the hour when, in com- escaped attention. This is the description by pany with two other workers, Major Bowman, Professor Noguchi of a new germ in conCanadian Army Medical Corps and Captain nection with yellow fever. Conner, Australian Army Medical Corps, he That disease has for long furnished a subhad completed the discovery of what is very ject of discussion, because doubt existed as to probably indeed the causative germ of this its exact causation. Dr. Noguchi states that influenza epidemic.

the organism discovered by him belongs to A preliminary note regarding this germ was the class known as spirochetes, of which the published by these doctors on December 14, spirochete of syphilis and that of relapsing 1918, in the British Medical Journal, and thus fever are other members. Major Graeme Gibson's work takes precedence If the discovery is confirmed it will add anover later publications. At the time, however, other link to the wonderful chain of disthe proof of the discovery was not complete. coveries forged in connection with this disease. It has now been completed, as we understand; The fever was first described in Barbados in and Major Gibson's death furnishes a part of 1647. Its dreadful virulence soon earned it the evidence. His eagerness and enthusiasm its evil reputation, and this virulence became led him to work so hard that he finally fell a a matter of world-wide concern when in the sovictim to the very virulent strains of the called "great period” of the fever it visited germ with which he was experimenting. He Cadiz in five epidemics, Malaga, Lisbon, himself caught the influenza, and pneumonia Seville, Barcelona, Palma, Gibraltar and other followed.

European towns. At Lisbon in 1857 some The germ belongs to the order of filter- 6,000 persons died in a few weeks. passers and is grown by the Noguchi method. The fever remained a mystery up till about It is reported that monkeys have been infected 1881, when Dr. Charles Finlay, of Havana, with it quite easily, and have developed at- propounded the idea that mosquitoes carried tacks producing small hemorrhages in the

the infection. The view found small support lungs a soil quite suitable for the reception at first, but later Ross's work on malaria reof the pneumococcus. The chain of evidence awakened interest in it. Then came the thus seems to be very strong. Further, we Spanish-American war and the appointment of understand that the germ closely resembles a commission by the American government that described by Captain Wilson in the to investigate Finley's theory. The workers British Medical Journal a few weeks ago. nominated were Walter Reed, James Carroll, Thus Captain Wilson's work seems to confirm A. Agramonte, and Lazear. They began by the work of Major Graeme Gibson and his collecting the suspected mosquitoes, allowing colleagues.

them to feed on yellow fever patients, and It is interesting to note that this work, then submitting themselves to the bites. which has had such fatal consequences for one Their labors were crowned with immediate of the party, has been conducted by three Army success, though lives of great value were herodoctors, a member of the British forces, a ically sacrificed. It was proved that the mosmember of the Canadian, and a member of quito Stegomyia fasciata is the agent of inthe Australian. The directors of the Medical fection, that the virus of the disease is present Service in France deserve the greatest credit, in the blood during the first days of infection, we learn, for the splendid support they have and that “the germ is so small that it can given these workers, while the Medical Re- pass through a Chamberland filter.” Infection search Committee, working with the Army could not be produced till after several days authorities, has rendered invaluable help. from the time when the mosquito had bitten

Attention has been so firmly fixed in these the yellow fever patient, so that it was evident last months upon influenza that an interesting that the germ underwent some change in the event in the medical world has more or less body of its insect host.

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