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courses thus introduced. This is the general courses in science best adapted to serve as the opinion of those to whom a hasty request for first step in the preparation of scientific ininformation went.
vestigators and as the means for exerting the Along with this condemnation of the Stu- strongest and best influence upon the general dents' Army Training Corps fiasco, there were, college student. however, many expressions of opinion relating Unless it be assumed that any kind of to the elementary courses in botany and zool- elementary course is satisfactory there must be ogy, among which were a number showing a some forms of it best adapted to meet the lively interest in new or modified elements of common needs of college students. That such the course.
So pronounced was the interest is the feeling of many teachers is evidenced in the character of the primary biological by the numerous attempts to formulate standcourses thus displayed that the division of ardized beginning courses. Most of these biology decided to extend the inquiry further have failed in their prime object because of and so other letters were sent out as op- emphasis upon nonessentials, although they portunity offered. Owing to the difficulty of have served a good purpose in stimulating disreaching all those interested by letter, it has cussion. The lesson seems to be written clear finally seemed best to make public through that if any large good is to be served by SCIENCE a request for expression of opinion reopening this discussion there must be conregarding the nature of the elementary course sideration of broad principles and an avoidance in zoology or biology.
of unessential details. It seems a matter of The connection of such an investigation no great moment whether the amoeba is studinto the nature of the elementary courses to ied at the beginning or at the end of the research, the main concern of the National course, or at all. The amount of time devoted Research Council, may not be entirely ob- to any one type is not of great general convious to all. That a relation of a somewhat cern but is a point which must be decided acintimate nature does exist seemed indicated cording to circumstances. To what extent, to the division of biology when its executive however, are the determining conditions of committee undertook a general survey of the the course common to all institutions and how field in laying plans for a reorganization of much allowance must be made for local conits work for times of peace. Unless there be ditions? Are there fundamental elements of students trained in zoology there is little a broad introduction to biology which neceschance of developing new investigators in the sitates the use of both plant and animal subject, and in this training the elementary material or may the subject be presented course occupies a peculiarly significant and adequately using either alone? important place. It offers the first contact After satisfactory conclusions have been between student and subject and has much to reached with regard to the general principles do with the formation of future tastes and which should guide the construction of the habits. It forms, moreover, the chief con- introductory course, there are of course nunection between the zoology department and merous practical questions which have a large the college as a whole, and offers the greatest bearing upon the success of its operation. opportunity for exerting the proper influence How much time should be given it? Should upon the school. There sems also to be gen- the application of the student be consecutire eral agreement that this course is the most or interrupted ? How much of lecture, labdifficult to plan and to execute.
oratory, conference and quiz work should there Because of these facts, and for the reason be? What use should be made of drawing and that the research council has the broadest modelling? Should the work be given in the interest in the relation of science to human form of problems? How many forms of welfare, it seems very properly one of its animals should be studied, etc. ? concerns to discover the kinds of elementary In order to arrive at any valid conclusions regarding the problem raised by this investi
for the improvement of the work. The ingation it would seem most appropriate to con- fluence of a thoroughly scientific practise in sider it in the light of any other scientific one department of a college can not fail to problem and to apply to its solution the sci- manifest itself to some degree in others and entific method. There should be no place for might lead to a much needed survey of the prejudice or for inertia. A rigid determina- whole problem of college instruction. From tion of the facts is called for, as a basis for the statements so far received it is apparent conclusions. Such generalities as
the course that there is lacking among biologists any should give a broad introduction to the sub- general agreement upon the nature of the eleject” or “the course should give a look in on mentary biological courses and upon the reathe subject” or “the course should cover the sons for their inclusion in the preparation of ground” do not contribute much to a reason- the liberally educated man. Such a situation able practise. Only a clear analysis of the would seem to be hardly commendable for any conditions inherent in the subject, of its inter- subject, and especially not for biology which dependence upon other subjects in the curricu- deals with materials and processes in which lum, of the character of students to be taught, purpose is so evident. It is possibly due to and of the instructor's part can lead to con- this lack of definite purpose and practise that clusions of value.
biological subjects do not occupy the place There are, accordingly, certain fundamen- in the curriculum which the best interests of tals which seem to demand attention. The the college students would require. first of those is the purpose for which the If there can be a full expression of opinion course is given. Is it primarily concerned in on these questions, after careful consideration, presenting the content, aims, methods or appli- it may be possible to arrive at some general cations of the subject? Or is it possible in one conclusion that should guide the operation of course to include all these equally? Again, elementary biological courses. In this event what form of presentation is the course to it would then be possible to decide upon prachave—is absorption, verification or discovery tical details with much less trouble, and with on the part of the student to be emphasized ? more profit. It is hoped that there will be In considering the character of the course it such a general interest in this subject that a would seem necessary also to have in mind the consensus of opinion upon at least the major reason for its inclusion in the college curricu- elements of theory and practise may be lum as one of a series of more or less required reached. In order partly to guide such a consubjects. Does it find a place here because of sideration there will be published a number a certain informational value which recom- of typical outlines of courses already received mends it to every liberally educated man, or upon which criticisms are invited. These sugis there something peculiar or distinctive gestions and any other discussions upon the about its methods or viewpoint which is ab- subject of zoological courses may be addressed sent, or less well represented, in other types of to
C. E. McCLUNG, subjects?
Chairman of the Zoology Committee, It is true that no subject stands alone and
National Research Council that it is therefore impossible to make a WASHINGTON, D. C. complete and satisfactory determination of a course without taking into consideration, not WALLACE CLEMENT WARE SABINE1 only its interrelations within the curriculum, OUR colleague, Wallace Clement Ware but also the varied material circumstances of Sabine, was born in Richwood, Ohio, June 13, the institution in which it is given. These
1 Minute on the life and services of Professor considerations should not however prevent the
Sabine placed upon the records of the Facuiiy of fullest analysis of the problem or delay unduly Arts and Sciences at the meeting of March 18, the execution of such steps as are practicable 1919.
1868. Four racial strains were joined in him, As a child he was allowed to develop withfor each of his four names represents some out forcing, but such was the natural vigor of family of his ancestors, one Scotch, one Dutch, his mind that he gained the degree of A.B. at one English, one French. The Sabines, of Ohio State University at the age of eighteen. Huguenot stock, came to Ohio from New Eng. He is said not to have specialized in his colland in the early part of the nineteenth cen- lege studies, but he had in Professor T. C. tury. The Wares, his mother's family, of Mendenhall an inspiring teacher of physics, English Quaker antecedents, came there about and his early interest in scientific matters is the same time, probably from New Jersey. shown by the fact that he attended a meeting Of his father's father, John Fletcher Sabine, of the American Association for the Advancethe son of a circuit preacher, we are told: ment of Science held in Philadelphia in 1884, He was of such gentle disposition that in man
when he was sixteen years old. On leaving hood he renounced the stern faith of his father
Ohio State University in 1886 he came to and came to believe that "all men would be Harvard as a graduate student in mathematics saved." . . . He died at the age of eighty-nine, and physics, and he received the Harvard A.M. with mind as vigorous and clear as in youth, with a in 1888. From 1887 to 1889 he held a Morgan remarkably retentive memory.
His wife was Fellowship, but in the latter year he became Euphemia Clement, a gentle, industrious, reliable
an assistant in physics. Rather early in his woman. Hylas Sabine was their oldest son.
Harvard residence he was taken by Professor Of his mother's father, Jacob Reed Ware, Trowbridge as partner in a photographic study it is written:
of the oscillating electric discharge, and he He was one of the early, ardent abolitionists
showed a remarkable aptitude for work of this and lived on the most direct line from Southern kind, requiring high experimental skill, yet he slavery to freedom in Canada. ... Untiring of never became a candidate for the Ph.D. Abbody, alert of mind, and exceedingly strong of sorption in the work of teaching prevented him purpose he lived in perfect health, with such simple for several years from engaging deeply in habits that at the age of ninety-eight, without dis- further work of research. He spent his energy ease, he fell asleep. J. R. Ware married Almira
and his talents in building up courses of Wallace, a woman of force and uprightness. Anna
laboratory work, designing and making apWare was their first daughter.
paratus for instruction and in every way To those who knew Sabine well this brief
practising with devotion the profession of a family history is deeply significant. Gentle
teacher. It is not too much to say that, for ness, courtesy, rectitude, untiring energy,
the fifteen years preceding his taking the fixity of purpose that was like the polarity of
duties of a deanship, he was the most effective a magnet, all these traits we found in him.
member of the department of physics in giving It is interesting and impressive to see how the
inspiration and guidance to individual stuindividualism and stern conscience that made, dents of promise. This was due in part to his his ancestors on the one side Protestants in
comparative youth, though none of the departFrance and on the other side Quakers in
ment were repellently old; in part to his England found expression in him, under
sympathetic willingness to give help and to changed intellectual conditions. He was of
spend much time in giving help, though others the very stuff of which martyrs are made; in
were not lacking in this quality. It was perfact, he died a martyr to his sense of duty, haps due mainly to the fact that, while he was but, with an austerity of morals and a capacity
no more deeply versed than others in the for devotion which none of his conspicuously. profundities of physics and mathematics, he religious forefathers could have surpassed, he had a peculiarly clear vision for the right held aloof, silently but absolutely, from all kind of experimental problem and for the best public profession of religious creed, and he way of attacking it, and his students instinctook small part in religious observances. tively, it may be, perceived this.
For a long time he seemed to be content to of qualities, among which were unending remain in comparative obscurity, while direct- patience and untiring energy. He must work ing others into paths of conspicuous achieve in the small hours of the night, when other ment. He was made assistant professor of men had ceased from their noisy labors and physics in 1895, after six years of teaching, in when street-cars were infrequent; he must, for which he had published little or nothing de- certain ends, work only in the summer, when scriptive of research. This was partly because windows could be kept open; in the early he had a most severe standard for what a summer, before the crickets began their research paper should be: it should describe nightly din. He must work with the most some piece of work so well done that no one scrupulous regard for conditions that to anwould ever have to investigate this particular other might seem trivial. He once threw matter again. To this standard he held true, away the observations of months because he with the result that his published papers were
had failed to record the clothes he wore while remarkably few and remarkably significant. at his work. Such was the difficulty of his
One might have expected him, when he undertaking, on the mere physical side, and found time for research, to take up some prob- such the rigor of his devotion to it. We say lem in light, for that seemed to be his chief of such a man, It is a pity he died so young. field of interest; but accident, and a sense of If he had taken care of himself, had been duty, turned him to a different quarter. The regular in his meals and in his hours of sleep, Fogg Art Museum, on its completion in 1897, he would have had a long as well as a useful proved to have an auditorium that was monu- life. Yes; but the things he undertook to do, mental in its acoustic badness, and President and did do, can not be done by a man who Eliot, who had formed a high opinion of must be regular at his meals and regular in Sabine's qualities, called upon him to find a
his hours of sleep. remedy, as a practical service to the university. The establishment of a Graduate School of With this warrant for diverting some of his Applied Science, in place of the undergraduate energy from teaching, Sabine entered upon an Lawrence Scientific School which had existed investigation which proved to be his most at Harvard for a long time, was the result of conspicuous scientific work. Though he was a movement led by Sabine in 1906. It was dealing with a new structure, he was attacking doubtless his hope, from the start of his cona practical problem as old as the institution of nection with this revolutionary action, to public buildings. It had never been solved make the Harvard School of Applied Science before in any thorough-going manner. He did one of the highest and best in the world; but solve it, and he did this not by virtue of any concerning the wisdom of making it distincextraordinary resources given by modern sci- tively and only a graduate school, he was not ence. He did it in such a way as to show that altogether positive, in spite of the fact that the it might have been done by a man like him suggestion to make it such is attributed to centuries before. Not only did he cure the him. In fact, the decision of the faculty to defect of the particular room that first en- approve this policy was arrived at in a cugaged his attention; he went on with his study riously casual way. Argument against it was till he could tell in advance what the acoustic made at a faculty meeting, and nobody seemed qualities of a projected auditorium would be; to be confidently in favor of it. Sabine told a and his visible instruments in all this achieve- colleague the next day that just before the vote ment were organ pipes, common fabrics and was taken he tried to get the president's atmaterials, and the unaided human ear.
tention, to move a postponement of the quesWas it, then so easy and simple a thing to tion. He did not succeed, the vote was taken, do? Did he merely happen to find the solu- and the policy was launched. tion of a difficulty thousands of years old ? Sabine took the deanship of the Scientific No. He succeeded by reason of a combination School reluctantly, at the urgent request of President Eliot, but he threw himself into the bridge for his lectures every week, eating and duties of the office with characteristic energy, sleeping when and where he could, always too devotion, and elevation of ideals. It was his busy for the surgical operation which his physambition to make the school as good as any ical condition demanded. He refused milischool of applied science anywhere, and he tary rank, declaring, with that severity of strove for that end.
judgment which sometimes verged upon inWhether the history and fate of the school tolerance, that the uniform should be worn would have been notably different if it had only by those who were subject to the dangers included undergraduate programs of study, is, and labors of the front. But he risked his fortunately, a question we need not discuss. life constantly, and at last fatally, in the For it is now possible to undertake the experi- service of the country and the university. ment of building up at Harvard a school of We have known in him a rare spirit, and we applied science second to none in its higher
reverence his memory. reaches but standing on a base of directed
EDWIN H. HALL, undergraduate work done within Harvard
C. N. GREENOUGH, walls. In this undertaking we can have no
P. W. BRIDGEMAN, better ideals than those which Sabine's dean
Committee ship kept always before us. When this deanship ended, he returned
SCIENTIFIC EVENTS gladly to the work of teaching and research,
THE GASPÉ BIRD RESERVES and but for the war he would probably have The Parliament of the Province of Quebec, had before him a long career of growing use- in its present session, has passed a law crefulness and fame, and would have lived to a ating, on very broad lines, the remaining vigorous old age according to the habit of his lodges of water-fowl on the shores and the ancestors. But from that fiery furnace into islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence into one which other men were drawn by millions he great Bird Reserve to be under the adminiscould not hold himself back. He would have trative control of the Minister of Fisheries. felt recreant if he had escaped unscathed. Three definite areas are embraced within this Going to France in 1916 with the intention protective provision, all of which are within of giving a course of lectures as exchange the county of Gaspé. professor at the Sorbonne in the fall, he 1. Percé Rock, the picturesque and brilliant engaged during the summer in the work of Devonian Island which lies a few rods off the conducting tuberculous patients from the coast of Percé village. Its bird colony is conFrench hospitals to Switzerland, an enterprise stituted of the Herring Gull and the Crested undertaken by the Rockefeller Foundation. Cormorant. Overworking in this, he was attacked during 2. The east and north cliffs of Bonaventure the fall by a disease which nearly ended his Island which lies three miles out from Percé. life and compelled the postponement of his Here is probably the largest surviving colony Sorbonne lectures. When he was able to be of the Gannet with its customary associatesmoved, he went back to Switzerland, this time the Kittiwake, Razor-billed Auk, Puffin, Guilas a patient; but he gained strength studying lemot and Murre. The law takes over the French constantly meanwhile, and in the entire face of the high cliffs where the two spring of 1917 gave his lectures, on achi- colonies on this Island are located and also a tectural acoustics, in Paris. These ended, he belt of land ten feet back from the edge of the went through some months of extreme activity cliffs. in the technical science service of the allied 3. The celebrated but now somewhat degovernments. Returning to America in the pleted colony of the Bird Rock, northernmost late fall, he went on with similar work in of the Magdalen Islands, 124 miles out to sea Washington, and elsewhere, coming to Cam- from Percé, in the heart of the Gulf.