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general, and then gradually withdraws from Plant pathologists constitute the largest the fellowship of pure botanists.

single group of botanical workers, and the only But the pure botanist is not without fault, large group directly connected with the ecofor he too often matches the narrowness of the nomic field. The latest printed lists of memapplied botanist with his own intolerance. I bers show 384 names in the roll of the Amerhave seen mycologists bored to extinction while ican Phytopathological Society, and 630 names pathologists excitedly discussed the effects of a in that of the Botanical Society of America. serious outbreak of late blight of potatoes, and One hundred and eighty names are common to only become interested when the discussion both societies, making a total of 834 names on turned to the morphology of Phytophthora in- both rolls. Of these 834 names, 384 or 46 per festans. Surely no science is more closely cent. belong to pathologists, or to botanists, bound up with human life than the study of largely mycologists, who are sufficiently interplants, which furnish us food and drink, shelter ested in pathology to join the American Phytoand clothing, and supply so many of our other pathological Society. These facts are worthy needs, physical, intellectual and esthetical of attention. Pathology is not only one diviYet botany has appeared to dread the economic sion of botany, it is by far the largest division, taint and has seemingly endeavored to keep its it is a young division, it is growing very skirts free from the stain of the soil in which rapidly and must continue to grow rapidly in plants grow. Certainly she has allowed the the future. As a result most pathologists are applied branches to struggle on without the young, with the zeal and enthusiasm of youth full benefit of a mother's firm yet tender guid- and of expanding opportunity. ance, and too often has repaid the wayward- Another important fact to be noted is that ness of the child with aloofness and neglect. pathologists constitute a remarkably homo

Separations which have occurred already in geneous group as compared with the diversity the botanical field probably were inevitable, and amongst botanists. Plant diseases show almost perhaps were for the best interests of the sub- infinite variety and the problems they present jects concerned. But there can be no doubt are equally varied. Yet whatever their prethat further divisions would be disastrous.

yious training and experience, whatever the More than that, at this time when botany requirements of their particular problems, all should face the future with a united front, we

pathologists speak the same language and think can not permit the forces of disunion to go

in the same terms. All recognize that they are unchecked and any divergences which now

working toward the same end on different exist amongst us must be abated. Such divergences do exist and if neglected will increase in phases of the great disease problem. Hence

there has arisen a community of interest extent. The immediate danger point is found, I believe, in plant pathology. That patholo

amongst pathologists unknown among botanists

and impossible for them to develop. Pathologists have been growing apart from other botanists there can be no doubt, and I have not gists are rapidly forming an esprit de corps yet observed any extensive effort on either side

which is an asset of the greatest value and will to stay the process. Certain conditions sur- prove to be a powerful factor in future round plant pathology unlike those pertaining development. to any other branch of botanical science, and

The rapid growth of phytopathology in imsome of these conditions make for disunion. portance during the past few years has brought In briefly presenting some of these features for the pathologist more and more closely in touch your consideration this afternoon I will speak with both producer and consumer of plant of pathologists on the one hand and of bota- products. The world war has greatly increased nists on the other. This distinction is merely his responsibilities in connection with the food for convenience. Pathologists are botanists supply. He has taken his place on the battle still, and it is my earnest hope that they may front of world action and more and more is always remain so.

losing the independence of the botanist as he takes up the life of public service. He is drift- human life and can furnish this valuable ing away from botanical fellowship, for cir- contact to other botanical workers. Botanists cumstances have given him little time for have watched the economic branches of their mental adjustment, and for the throwing out science develop one after another and slip uf adequate anchors. So we have at the pres- away from their fellowship, while they thement time, this large and rapid growing body of selves have stood by, either helpless or inbotanical workers, remarkably homogeneous,

different. This has gone on until many botwith unusual esprit de corps, closely in touch anists now appear to regard applied botany as with human life, which is drifting steadily a thing apart, perhaps of a lower order, in away from the botanical standards and ideals which they may properly take only an acaof the past. Can either botanists or patholo- demic interest. What an error! How can the gists permit the drift to continue?

virility of any subject be maintained except Pathologists are already losing much through by human contact? Is not service the highest lack of close association with other botanists. standard and the greatest activator? The The demands upon pathologists have been value of any discovered truth is in the end many this past year on account of increased determined by its usefulness, by its connection responsibilities, while their ranks have been with other facts already known or yet to be depleted by the call of many of their number discovered, and by its ultimate power for the to military service. Teaching, laboratory re- uplifting of the world, physically, intellectually search, field work, the ever-increasing demands and morally. Scientific research for its own of the extension service, all combine to give the sake gives but a selfish joy, and may lead in the harassed pathologist no respite. The future end to dry rot and to the scrap pile of human promises little hope for greater leisure because progress. the world requires food. Although pathology The progressive divergence of botanists and is receiving increased financial support and ad- pathologists may well cause concern, but it has ditional helpers are rallying to her assistance, not yet become irremediable. The forces that these additions barely keep pace with the ever

make for dissociation can be overcome and mounting responsibilities. The pathologist closer union secured, but not by resolutions must look forward to a life harassed by the nor by legislation. There must be a general multiplicity of problems insistently pressing realization of the situation by both botanists for attention. Oftentimes he will be forced and pathologists, followed by persistent effort into print prematurely due to public and ad- at many points. I wish to suggest two imporministrative requirements. Therefore, he must tant lines along which we should work. guard constantly against becoming hasty, In the first place, we should broaden our superficial and narrow. He will need the college courses in both botany and pathology. broadening contact with the classical and fun- There has been extensive discussion in the damental work of other botanical fields. He English journals during the last few months will need the steadying influence of the greater on the botany to be taught after the war, and leisure and consequent independence of the articles on the same subject are beginning to pure botanists. He will need their active as- appear on this side of the water. It is urged sistance in the solution of his problems.

that the teaching of botany should be broadBotanists too have much to gain from close ened, that the elementary courses especially association with their pathological colleagues. should not aim to instruct the student in boPathologists constitute the largest single group tanical science, but rather to interest him in of botanists. They are virile and alert. They plants and in their manifold relations to his have the energy and spirit belonging to a daily life. I shall not enter into this discusyoung science. They possess the lofty ideals sion except in so far as it concerns the subject and contagious zeal of public service. They before us. are in close touch with the throbbing pulse of

I have listed the alma maters of 224 persons actively engaged in pathological work, whose Botanical classes are usually small, graduate records were available. These persons are of students few, and general interest in botany various ages, are located in all parts of the as a living subject undeveloped. The old botUnited States, and the number is sufficiently any of the schools and colleges is too narrow large to be representative of the entire body for the present day. Morphology and evoluof pathologists Of these 224 persons, 64, or tion are the backbone of most of these courses, 29 per cent., graduated at state agricultural and of nearly all text-books. But evolution colleges, 116, or 52 per cent., at universities needs no champion to-day, and botany taught which include colleges of agriculture, and 44, from that standpoint alone does not appeal to or 19 per cent., at colleges and universities American students. We need courses with a without direct agricultural connections. I did new method of attack, and text-books written not include in the above count those botanists from a new point of view. Botanical courses who have been drafted into pathological service must be made more human. They must be during the past few months on account of war squared with the progress and problems and conditions. These workers are of varied origin, life of to-day, even if this means radical reare of all degrees of pathological training, and vision of both methods and subject matter, doubtless will largely resume their former posi

and the surrender of some of the accepted tions with the return of normal educational standards which have served us indifferently conditions. Of the 44 pathologists listed as well in the past. Fortunately there are all graduating at non-agricultural colleges and kinds of botanical subjects to interest all kinds universities, over a third hail from a single of people, and with judicious selection eleinstitution, and a number of the remainder mentary courses may be made to appeal to the belong to the older group of pathologists who many, rather than to the few. We must abanwere trained as botanists, and entered the don the notion that the study of botany is a pathological field during the early period of summum bonum, a choice privilege to be acits development. It appears then, that during corded only to the elect. The average student the years preceding the war non-agricultural and the ordinary citizen must know botany, colleges and universities, excluding the single and must be aroused to an interest in plants as institution mentioned above, furnished less one of the most important elements of their than 10 per cent. of the pathological workers environment. Only if this is done will the of the United States. Is this a fair proportion? botany of the future achieve the importance it Why are so few graduates of our old-time col- deserves. The responsibility for this vitalizaleges and universities entering the rapidly tion rests largely on the undergraduate colexpanding field of plant pathology?

leges. They must see to it that botany lives An examination of the curricula of these down its reputation of being an unimportant institutions is illuminating. Many of them study for students who hope to become redoffer no botany at all, or only elementary blooded men of affairs. They must not permit courses which are often labelled biology. Most botany to be separated from the great field of of the institutions which possess departments agriculture which rightfully is hers. As well of botany offer only standard courses in certain might chemistry withdraw from the industries, fundamental botanical topics and pay little if or mathematics deny mechanics and engineerany attention to practical phases of the sub- ing. Botany has failed to qualify as an imject. Pathology as such is nearly, if not quite portant subject during the emergency period absent, and you can count on one hand with of the war. Let us ask ourselves, is botany fingers to spare the institutions which give really unimportant to the nation at this time more than a passing consideration to mycol- of emergency, or have botanists permitted it ogy. Physiology, a subject of rapidly increas- to appear so? ing importance to all branches of applied bot- If now we turn to the curricula of the colany, fares only a little better than mycology. leges of agriculture we find extensive courses in pathology, in horticulture and in other Moreover, most pathologists, with manifold branches of applied botany, but mycology, demands upon their time, are able to give atphysiology and other fundamental botanical tention only to the more immediately pressing subjects too often receive inadequate atten- features of the many problems before them. tion. Specialization easily goes too far, and Hence their research work is perforce fragthe product is a pathologist who is not also a mentary and few diseases receive full considbotanist; he is a specialist with too narrow a eration in all their phases. This procedure is training, with a foundation too restricted to faulty both from the scientific point of view, permit the breadth of vision and the resource- and in the end from the economic point of fulness necessary for the adequate handling of view as well, but it is made necessary by the many pathological problems.

pressure on the time of the pathologists and Although these criticisms are not of uni- by restrictions on the use of public funds. The versal application, I believe it is in general field of plant pathology is full of problems, true that while the colleges on the one hand morphological, cytological, physiological, ecohave been holding aloof and have not broad- logical, genetical, which should receive attenened their courses to include the modern ap- tion, but whose solution is not in sight unless plications of botany, the agricultural institu- our botanical colleagues come to the rescue. tions on the other hand have specialized too Many botanists in the colleges and universtrictly and have laid too little stress on the sities could profitably take up this work. In fundamentals of botany. Both tend to dwarf choosing their research problems botanists have their students and practically restrict their left the pathological field entirely to patholgraduates to their own fields, thus increasing ogists. In their desire not to encroach on the the divergence between botanists and path- pathologists' domain they have avoided ecoologists. In the future we shall need both nomic host plants to a large extent, and have botanists and pathologists. In addition, for turned away from cultivated fields and sought the solution of many disease problems we shall their material in woods and swamps. It is need pathologists with a broad botanical foun- quite possible that by so doing they are somedation. These workers naturally should be times passing by the material best suited to trained by the colleges of agriculture. And their purposes. Why should not geneticists we shall also need morphologists, physiologists, breed economic plants more extensively and geneticists and ecologists with extensive knowl- while determining the laws of inheritance, also edge of pathology, who naturally should be produce improved strains of food plants? Why trained by the non-agricultural colleges and should not anatomists, cytologists, physiolouniversities. When such a corps of workers gists and ecologists study the potato or the cotis at hand, we shall not only have tremendously ton plant in health and in disease, and while advanced both pathology and botany, but we conducting researches of fundamental scienshall have obliterated all distinction between tific importance, be making needed contributhe two subjects and made segregation into two tions in the pathological field? Many of these groups of workers impossible.

pathological problems are suitable for master's A second vital force to draw together pa- and doctor's theses, and the fact that the probthologists and botanists is cooperation in re- lem has an economic flavor will, in the case of search work. The study of any plant disease many students, give added zest to their work. is many sided, involving not only the study of During the past year the pathologists, under the parasite and its effects upon and relation the leadership of the War Emergency Board to the host, but the study of the host itself and of the American Phytopathological Society, of its varied relations to its environment, both have inaugurated cooperation in research work in health and in disease. Not all pathologists to a degree which had been deemed impossible, are equipped to undertake certain of these so that the movement has attracted the attenproblems which call for special training. tion of other scientific men. The pathologists now propose to carry the get-together enthu- diums and monographs to replace the German siasm of the war over into peace times, to con- works which we are now using, and which we tinue to foster the spirit of cooperation and to must continue to use indefinitely unless we increase pathological efficiency by coordination ourselves write better ones. We must dissemiof effort where such action is possible and de- nate knowledge of botany amongst the peosirable. It is clear that such a movement can ple that we may receive the support which not be forced, but must be allowed to grow will enable compendiums to be written and under tactful management. The Society has research to be developed properly in both pure therefore appointed an Advisory Board of six and applied fields. We must broaden our teachmembers to continue and foster the work ini- ing of botanical subjects that we may produce tiated by the War Emergency Board. Can not merely specialists, but the broad gauge not the cooperative movement be extended to men of wide perspective who shall be our include other botanical workers? There are leaders. We must stand together as botanists doubtless many botanists in the colleges and all, whatever our special field of endeavor may universities, especially those more or less iso- chance to be. If we do these things, and we lated from botanical centers, who would gladly can do them if we will, America will assume participate in cooperative projects. The prob- the commanding position in world botany. lems are many, and there is no question but

G. R. LYMAN that pathologists will welcome most heartily

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE the assistance of their botanical colleagues. It is probable that in many cases cooperation can THE ELEMENTARY COURSE IN ZOOLbe inaugurated most readily by conferences be- OGY-IS IT SATISFACTORY? tween individuals, especially on the part of AMONG the problems presented to the Naworkers in the same or adjacent regions, as the tional Research Council by the government contiguity will ensure common interest in local was one conveyed in the request of the War problems, and will facilitate exchange of mate- Department for the preparation of outlines of rial and of ideas, and comparison of results. courses adapted to the conditions of the proThe Advisory Board will be glad to assist when- posed Students' Army Training Corps. Like ever possible by providing opportunities for other divisions, that of biology undertook the cooperation and by facilitating the arrange- work assigned it and formulated a suggested ments.

This was not printed and distributed Botanists and pathologists are excellent com- in time to come into use, so that this effort plements of one another. In their closer union

of the council was entirely abortive. Since, lies strength for the upbuilding of our common however, biology was one of the subjects listed science in the momentous days which lie imme- by the War Department's Committee on Edudiately before us. Of all the great nations of cation and Special Training, elementary biothe earth we have suffered least from the rav

logical courses of an intensive character were ages of the world war. We have felt its stimu- given in many institutions. It was the desire lus, but escaped its devastation. Hence the

of several divisions of the council to determine world is looking to America for leadership in the value of the educational experiment premany lines, and botany is one of these. We

sented by the unusual requirements of the have the opportunity. We have the men. Have government's program. But unfortunately the we the spirit? And can we supply the leader

conditions of the experiment were so disturbed ship? German domination is for the moment

by delays in starting work, by the occurrence gone, but it will surely reassert itself if we

of the influenza epidemic, and finally by deare inactive. We must examine the bases on

mobilization of the corps before the comwhich German dominance in the field of bot

pletion of the first term, that no estimate any has rested, and supply those factors which

could be placed upon the value of the results we now lack. We must write texts, compen- obtained from the operation of the novel


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