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all zoological generic names should be regarded as masculine. I enclose herewith a copy of his article on the subject: perhaps you could quote some portions of it in SCIENCE in order to remind the zoological world of an eminently reasonable proposal.
Wm. Evans HOYLE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF WALES
HAY FEVER AND THE NATIONAL FLOWER
TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: The attention of the American Hayfever Prevention Association has been called to the article on Hay Fever and the National Flower” in a recent issue of your journal.
The research department of this association, which was established in 1915, has made a thorough investigation of the causes of hay fever, being assisted in this work by specialists and botanists in practically every state of the union. The pollens of all the most common plants and trees have been tested and their relation to hay fever established.
Generally speaking, the principal causes of fall hay fever in the northern, eastern and southern states? are the pollens of the ragweeds (Ambrosiacex), these being replaced in the Pacific and Rocky Mountain States by the wormwoods (artemisias) The chief causes of spring hay fever are the pollens of the grasses in all sections. About five per cent. of hay fever cases are due to other pollens. The golden rod, however, is not included in these, having proven a clear " alibi."
For those not already familiar with the subject, the following statement is made:
My suggestion is that a technical specific name in Zoology should be released from the obligation of agreeing with the supposed gender of the generic name to which it is attached.
Simplicity would be attained by acceptance of the convention that in zoology a generic name, whatever its termination, is to be regarded as of the masculine gender.
That some scholarly ear might occasionally be offended, is a minor disadvantage compared with the general utility of the convention. A famous historical character was hailed as our king Maria Theresa,” without any influence on the actual sex of that distinguished person. Similarly many men have been named Maria without in consequence becoming women or in any degree effeminate. The termination of a generic name is a very indifferent reason for determining a zoological species as either masculine, feminine, or neuter, seeing that the species itself usually includes two of the genders, and sometimes all three. Very commonly all the normal individuals of a species are either of the male or female sex. Yet, under the existing rule, the species must sometimes have a neuter name, as though it referred to something inorganic or of undiscriminated sex. Such considerations, however, are of subordinate importance compared with the troublesome character of the present arrangement. As every one is aware, it repeatedly happens that by accessions to knowledge, genera become unwieldy and have to be subdivided. The new names, it may be, do not agree in gender with the old, and then the transferred species must all have their terminations altered. But, apart from this consequential trouble, naturalists for ages past have found the determination of generic genders a stumbling-block. How much more is this likely to be the case in the future, with the continuous decline of classical studies! Without actual examples, few would credit the difficulties encountered and the errors committed by naturalists in their endeavors to comply with the existing rule or practise.—T. R. R. Stebbing in Knowledge (1910).
1. It does not conform to the description of hay fever plants, which is as follows:3 (1) They are wind-pollinated, (2) very numerous, (3) the flowers are inconspicuous, without bright color or scent, and the pollen is formed in great quantities. The flowers of the golden rod are insect-pollinated, have bright colors and scent, and the pollen is not formed in large quantities.
1“Hayfever: Its Cause and Prevention," W. Scheppegrell, M.D., Journal of the American Med. ical Association, March 4, 1916.
2“Hayfever: Its Cause and Prevention in the Rocky Mountain and Pacific States,” W. Scheppegrell, M.D., United States Public Health Reports, July 20, 1917.
3 “Hayfever and Its Prevention,” W. Scheppe grell, M.D., United States Public Health Reports, July 21, 1916.
2. The golden rod continues to bloom for The British Meteorological Office during the several weeks after the hay fever season is past four years has been called upon to anover.* In western North Carolina, for in- swer a good many questions put to them stance, the hay fever season concludes about by the Army, Navy and Air Services. The October 1, but the Canadian golden rod requests for detailed information regarding (Solidago canadensis) brightens the autumn wind, weather and the structure of the atmoslandscape until November. In our hay fever phere were numerous and urgent. For in both. clinic at the Charity Hospital of New Or- offensive and defensive operations the military leans, the fall hay fever season concludes about authorities suddenly realized how all imporOctober 26, but the golden rod continues to tant a knowledge of aerography was. In atbloom until December.
tempting to give definite data, Sir Napier 3. Our research department exposes its at- Shaw, as Scientific Advisor to H. M. Governmospheric-pollen-plates in various parts of the ment and chairman of the Meteorological ComUnited States, and in this way, the atmos- mittee, says that he found as a guiding prinpheric-pollens are caught and examined. The ciple of great practical utility, the relation of pollens of the golden rod are never found on the wind to the distribution of pressure. The these plates, proving that this pollen is not underlying assumption is that the flow of air atmospheric. Unless the pollen is in the air, in the free atmosphere follows very closely the as in the cases of the ragweeds, grasses and laws of motion under balanced forces, dependother wind-pollinated plants, it can not cause ing upon the spin of the earth and the spin in hay fever unless the nostrils are applied a small circle on the earth. directly to the flower, or are used in large There are eleven chapters in the book. The quantities for room decorations, in which case opening chapters give details of the determinathe pollen may fall within the limited space. tion of the pressure gradient and the wind. The pollen of the golden rod may cause a
Land and sea relations of surface wind to the reaction when applied directly to the nostrils, gradient, turbulence in relation to gustiness or when used in large quantities for room
and cloud sheets, eddy clouds, the dominance decorations. As far as being a cause of hay
of the stratosphere, coastal refraction of isobars fever, however, it is absolutely negligible. It
and the dynamical properties of revolving fluid is one of our most beautiful flowers, and well
in the atmosphere, are treated in some detail
in successive chapters. merits its selection as the national flower of the United States.
Space permits of but one quotation from
the book and that is almost the last paraW. SCHEPPEGRELI
graph; but here the author drives another AMERICAN HAYFEVER PREVENTION ASSOCIA
nail in the coffin of the convectional theory of TION; CHIEF OF HAYFEVER CLINIC, CHARITY HOSPITAL; EX-PRESIDENT AMERICAN
the cause of cyclones. ACADEMY OF OPHTHALMOLOGY AND OTOL
It has long been supposed that the variations of temperature at the surface are themselves the cause of the original circulation of the cyclone, but it is
much more easy to explain convection along the SCIENTIFIC BOOKS
core as the effect of an existing circulation above, Manual of Meteorology, Part IV. The Rela
than vice versa, and there are so many examples of tion of the Wind to the Barometric Pres- convection attended even by copious rainfall which sure. By SIR NAPIER Shaw, Cambridge, produce no visible circulation that it is difficult to University Press. 1919.
regard convection from the surface as a sufficient
cause of our numerous depressions. 4"Susceptibility to Hayfever, and Its Relation to Heredity, Age, and Seasons,” W. Scheppegrell,
Sir Napier deals at some length with the M.D., United States Public Health Reports, July
relation between the surface wind and the geostrophic wind at sea-level. This is pecul
iarly his own field, and is in fact a develop- the driving forces of a depression, and the ment of the past six years. It is a distinctive directive resultant. There can be no accurate contribution of the British school of aerog- forecasting without this knowledge. raphers. We may explain that the balance We are promised three more volumes from between pressure and velocity of air flow, or the University Press; one, a general survey what is known as the strophic balance, leads of the globe and its atmosphere. A second on to an equation for the gradient wind of the the physical properties of the atmosphere, and following form:
a third, a formal exposition of the dynamics
and thermics of the atmosphere. 8=2wvp sin o + vip cot r/E
Sir Napier Shaw is to be congratulated not The first term in the right-hand member of
only on the output from his own industrious the equation represents velocity due entirely
pen, but upon what he has accomplished in to the earth's rotation and hence is known as
stimulating the young men around him, the geostrophic wind. The other is known as
Lempfert, Dines, Gold, Cave, Taylor and cyclostrophic. Only a few months ago J. S. others. Dines called attention to a rather remarkable
A. M. outcome of this equation, where in the case of a path concave to the “low,” velocities of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF the order of 6m/s for normal counter-clock
SCIENCES wise rotation, and 46m/s for rotation in the
The eleventh number of Volume 4 of the opposite direction, appear to be possible. Proceedings of the National Academy of Thus a depression revolving with high speed
Sciences contains the following articles : in a clockwise direction in the northern hem
The "Homing Habits” of the Pulmonate isphere is dynamically possible. There are
Mollusk Onchidium: Leslie B. Arey and W. reasons why such an eddy on a large scale
J. Crozier, Bermuda Biological Station for might not be established or last long, but small
Research, Dyer Island, Bermuda. Onchidium area eddies such as those around high build- floridanum lives during high tide in “ nests," ings, etc., evidently can be set up with rotation i. e., rock cavities, containing a number of ineither clockwise or anti-clockwise. This raises
dividuals. The individuals leave the nest in the question, How often are dust-whirls, tor
low water to feed, and return simultaneously nadoes, and waterspouts observed with a clock
to it before the tide rises again, giving eviwise rotation ?
dence of homing behavior. Sir Napier Shaw uses as a frontispiece a Growth and Duration of Life of Chiton chart showing paths of the centers of some Tuberculatus: W. J. Crozier, Bermuda Bionotable cyclonic depressions of long duration. logical Station for Research, Dyer Island, BerOne is the path of a baguio traced by McAdie muda. The growth curve is obtained on the from lat. 15° N. in the western Pacific, start- assumption that the age of a chiton may be ing on November 20, 1895, and reaching the estimated from the growth-lines upon its shell. Oregon-California coast January 12, 1896, a The mean duration of life is probably a little rather definite duration of 54 days at sea and less than eight years. a probable history of 4 days more in the Growth of Chiton Tuberculatus in Different United States and 5 days over the North At- Environments: W. J. Crozier, Bermuda Biolantic. Two other long duration storm paths logical Station for Research, Dyer Island, Berare given.
muda. Growth curves obtained under different These paths of long duration are significant conditions are compared. in connection with origin, directive force and The Interferometry of Vibrating Systems: persistence of structure of cyclones and anti- C. Barus, Department of Physics, Brown Unicyclones. The most pressing question to-day versity. The high luminosity of the achrombefore aerographers is accurate knowledge of atic interferences and the occurrence of but two sharp fringes make it possible to utilize these stars are directly proportional to wavethem even in cases when the auxiliary mirrors lengths, and divide themselves into two pairs vibrate. The vibration interferometer is quite of equal amount. Of these the first pair of sensitive, provided the average currents are of stars has exactly twice the displacement of the the order of several microamperes.
second. In the case of Nova Aquilæ, there is On the Essence of Physical Relativity: Sir a progressive increase in the values of the disJoseph Larmor, Cambridge, England. A gen- placements of the absorption lines at successive eral discussion of the physics underlying rel- dates. Various hypothetical explanations are ativity, with particular reference to an article discussed. by Leigh Page.
On Jacobi's Extension of the Continental Gravitational Attraction in Connection with Fraction Algorithm: D. N. Lehmer, Departthe Rectangular Interferometer: Carl Barus, ment of Mathematics, University of California. Department of Physics, Brown University. A closer study of Jacobi's expansion reveals a The rectangular interferometer is so sensitive number of remarkable points. Six theorems in the measurement of small angles that it
are stated. may be used for the measurement of the New- A Characterization of Jordan Regions by tonian constant of gravitational attraction. Properties having no reference to their
The General Character of Specific Heats at Boundaries : Robert L. Moore, Department of High Temperatures: Walter P. White, Geo- Mathematics, University of Pennsylvania. physical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of The theorem is proved: In order that a simply Washington. The general law covering the connected, limited, two-dimensional domain R behavior of atomic heats from the lowest tem- should have a simple closed curve as its boundperatures up demands that at sufficiently high ary it is necessary and sufficient that R should temperatures all atomic heats at constant be uniformly connected im kleinen. volumes should have the value 5.96.
A Biometric Study of Human Basal Metabtrary hypothesis has been made, namely, that olism: J. Arthur Harris and Francis G. Beneatomic heats continue to increase with the dict, Nutrition Laboratory and Station for temperature. The substances here examined Experimental Evolution, Carnegie Institution give evidence that the atomic heats do increase of Washington. An analysis of measurements above the value 5.96.
on 136 men, 103 women, and 94 new-born On Certain Projective Generalizations of infants. Metric Theorems, and the Curves of Darboux Sex and Sex Intergrades in Cladocera: and Segre: Gabriel M. Green, Department of Arthur M. Banta, Station for Experimental Mathematics, Harvard University. The con- Evolution, Carnegie Institution of Washingtinuation of earlier work by the same author ton. The presentation of facts in regard to in the Proceedings.
Cladocera, with the discussion of their signifiThe Rectangular Interferometer with cance with regard to sex intergrades in genAchromatic Displacement Fringes in Connec- eral, leading to the tentative conclusion that tion with the Horizontal Pendulum: Carl sex is always relative and that while most Barus, Department of Physics, Brown Uni- individuals of whatever species are prevailversity.
ingly male or prevailingly female, every indiThe twelfth number of Volume 4 contains vidual may have something of the other sex the following articles :
intermingled with its prevailing sexual charThe Absorption Spectrum of the Novae: W. acters. S. Adams, Mount Wilson Observatory, Carne- On the Method of Progression in Polyclads : gie Institution of Washington. A discussion W. J. Crozier, Bermuda Biological Station of Nova Auriga of 1892, Nova Persei of 1901, for Research, Dyer Island, Bermuda. In turNova Geminorum of 1912, and Nova Aquilæ bellarians generally, muscular operations analof 1918. The displacements of the lines in all ogous to those executed by the foot of chitons
and of gastropods are essentially concerned in weight of limestone added per year to the creeping locomotion.
upper surface of the Aua reef-flat is estimated The Phylogeny of the Acorn Barnacles: as 805,000 lbs. Other similar estimates are Rudolf Ruedemann, State Museum, Albany, given. N. Y. The derivation of an Eobalanus from The Distances of Six Planetary Nebulo: a Rhinocaris-like phyllopod is illustrated in a Adriaan van Maanen, Mt. Wilson Solar Obset of diagrams.
servatory, Carnegie Institution of Washington. Possible Derivation of the Lepadid Barnacles The nebulæ N.G.C. 2392, 6720, 6804, 6905, from the Phyllopods : John M. Clarke, State 7008 and 7662 are examined. The parallaxes Museum, Albany, N. Y. So far as present range from 0."002 to 0."021, and the diameters knowledge extends, the metamorphoses of the from 10,000 to 1,350 astronomical units. phyllopods into the two great branches of the National Research Council: Minutes of the barnacles were essentially contemporaneous.
Meeting of the Executive Board, July 9, AuRefractive Index and Solubilities of the Ni- gust 13, Septeruber 9 and October 8. trates of Lead Isotopes: Theodore W. Richards We
e may summarize the articles in Volume and Walter C. Schumb, Wolcott Gibbs Memo- 4 of the Proceedings as follows: Mathematics, rial Laboratory, Harvard University. The dif- 9; Astronomy, 11; Physics and Engineering, ference in atomic weight of the lead (207.20 25; Chemistry, 5; Geology and Paleontology, and 206.41) has no appreciable effect on the including Mineralogy and Petrology, 9; Botrefractive index or on the molal solubility of any, 3 (see also Genetics); Zoology, includthe different samples of lead nitrate.
ing General Biology, 12 (see also Genetics); The Purification by Sublimation and the Genetics, 6; Physiology and Pathology, 10; Analysis of Gallium Chloride: Theodore W. Anthropology and Psychology, 1; a total of 91 Richards, W. M. Craig and J. Sameshima. articles. Wolcott Gibbs Memorial Laboratory, Harvard The division of these articles between memUniversity. The method rests on the fact that bers of the Academy and non-members is 39 gallium trichloride sublimes and distils at a and 52 respectively. low temperature, whereas the other chlorides The list of institutions which have conlikely to be associated with it are much less tributed three or more articles is as follows: volatile.
Carnegie Institution, 15, divided as follows: The Purification of Gallium by Electrolysis, Solar Observatory, 7, Nutrition Laboratory, 4, and the Compressibility and Density of Gal- Geophysical Laboratory, 1, Marine Biology, 1, lium: Theodore W. Richards and Sylvester Station for Experimental Evolution, 1, TortuBoyer, Wolcott Gibbs Memorial Laboratory, gas Laboratory, 1; Harvard University, 15; Harvard University. The method of separat- Brown University, 7; University of Illinois, 5; ing gallium from indium by means of the dif- Bermuda Biological Station for Research, 4; ferent solubilities of the hydroxides in caustic University of California, 4; University of Chialkali was tested without success; much more cago, 4; University of Pennsylvania, 4. promising results were obtained by the electro
EDWIN BIDWELL WILSON lytic method. The compressibility of solid MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, gallium was found to be 2.09 x 10-6, and of CAMBRIDGE, Mass. liquid gallium 3.97 x 10-6, nearly twice as great, although its volume is less. The density
SPECIAL ARTICLES of the liquid was 6.081, and of the solid 5.885. OPPORTUNITIES FOR CONTACT INFECTIONI
The Growth-rate of Samoan Coral Reefs: An outstanding feature of the influenza Alfred G. Mayor, Department of Marine Bi- pandemic is the remarkable infectivity of the ology, Carnegie Institution of Washington. disease. There is scarcely a community in the growth rate of Acropora, Porites, Pocil
1 Published by permission of the Surgeon-Genlopra, Pavona, Psammocora are given; and the eral of the Army.