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the southern hemisphere, the description of new forms, and an interesting discussion of the relations of the existing forms to their fossil precursors and their distribution in connection with theories of previous land connections between the different continents in earlier geological time. His conclusion is that the present distribution lends probability to the hypotheses of von Ihering and others which assume such linking up of the various bodies of land in the later Mesozoic epoch. The paper has an excellent bibliography, but it is to be regretted that the phototyped figures in many cases are insufficiently clear to show the details mentioned in the text.
W. H. DALL
collected seems to show differences from its Rhynchonellid relatives which have induced the author to propose for it a new genus Compsothyris, though no new species were obtained. The paper is illustrated by an excellent plate and has a bibliography of the more important literature.
Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-14, Scientific Reports, Series C.-Zoology and Botany, Vol. BI., pt. 1, 4to. “ Calcareous Sponges," by Professor Arthur Dendy, pp. 1-17, 1 pl.; Vol. III., pt. 2. “Pterobranchia,” " by W. G. Ridewood; 26 pp., 1. pl.; Vol. V., pt. 5, “Euphausiacea and Mysidacea," by W. M. Tattersall; 16 pp. and 1 pl.; Vol. IV., pt. 3. “Brachiopoda," by J. Allen Thomson, pp. 76, and 4 pl.; Vol. V., pt. 6, “ Cumacea and Phyllocarida," by W. T. Calman, pp. 12 and 1 pl. Sydney, N. S. W. Government Printing Office, 1918.
The continued publication of these purely scientific papers before the cessation of active military operations and in despite of financial stresses, reflects credit upon the government of Australia. The citizens of that commonwealth have naturally taken great pride in the success of their expedition and its valuable results for science, and these handsomely published memoirs are an expression in part of that pride.
The number of calcareous sponges from the Antarctic is small, but to them are added a number collected off Tasmania and at Macquarie Island. The collection includes two new species of Leucetta and one of Leucandra.
Dr. Ridewood's memoir contains no species but forms a useful review of the austral species of Cephalodiscus with a bibliography of the rather scanty literature.
Dr. Tattersall treats of four species of Euphausians and two of Myacids, one of the latter from the Auckland Islands being new is described as Tenagomysis tenuipes. Dr. Calman describes a new species of Diastylis and reviews forms of Nebalia and Cyclaspis, which fill a wide gap in our knowledge of their geographical distribution. Dr. Thomson's memoir on the Brachiopoda is of particular importance, comprising a review of the group in
SPECIAL ARTICLES ROTARY VERTIGO IN THE TAIL-SPIN In the tail-spin, an evolution that is standard among military and exhibition aviators and into which any flier is apt to fall accidentally, a marked rotary and post-rotary vertigo may be induced. As the maintenance of the correct flying attitude of the airplane is largely dependent upon the pilot, this disturbance in his idea of attitude may lead to serious consequences and its significance and characteristics merit definition. A true appreciation of the phenomenon should increase the confidence of the young pilot just becoming acquainted with the evolution and decrease the risk attached to this feature of aviation training.
Purkinje in 1820 (quoted from McKendrick) directed attention to the well-known vertigo of rotation. In brief, when the movement of the body is arrested after undergoing rotation
(1) an after-sensation of rotation in the same direction is experienced. In coming out of the spin and levelling off, the pilot experiences a sensation of rotation after that has actually ceased. He therefore, tends to overcontrol, with the consequent danger of falling into another spin in the opposite direction.
(2) The axis of this imaginary after-sensation of rotation is that axis of the head about
1 Schäfer 's "Text-Book of Physiology,” 1900, II., p. 1196.
which the actual rotation took place. This THE GALTON SOCIETY FOR THE suggests a precaution during the spin, hold STUDY OF THE ORIGIN AND the head down so that it is rotated about its
EVOLUTION OF MAN long axis; on coming out of the spin, raise the The objects of the society are the promotion of head. Any disturbance experienced then will
study of racial anthropology, and of the origin, mibe in directional (i. e., horizontal) stability, gration, physical and mental characters, crossing and the more dangerous falling reaction will
and evolution of human races, living and extinct.
The charter members of the society are as folbe avoided.
lows: Madison Grant, Henry Fairfield Osborn, The superior reliability of visual criteria of
John C. Merriam, Edward L. Thorndike, William attitude should be recognized. “Follow the
K. Gregory, Charles B. Davenport, George S. Hunhorizon, if it ties itself up in a knot,” is a tington, J. Howard McGregor, Edwin G. Conklin. good rule to remember.
The organization of the society was suggested A very illuminating incident that occurred and initiated by Messrs. Davenport and Grant on at Mineola when the writer was stationed March 6, 1918. On April 2, after several previous there, first suggested this analysis of the rôle conferences, Messrs. Davenport, Grant, Osborn and the rotary vertigo may play in the tail-spin.
Huntington adopted the charter and the name of On June 29, 1918, a pilot, while flying in a
the society. The first meeting of the charter fel
lows was held in New York on April 7 at the resiformation, lost his balance and fell off into a
dence of Professor Osborn, who outlined the object tail-spin. He got out of the spin, but fell off
of the society and emphasized the importance of a into another spin in the opposite direction.
union of effort on the part of specialists, working And he got out of the second spin also, but in close cooperation and harmony with one another only to fall into a third, again reversing. He but from widely diverse lines of approach. Procrashed and was seriously injured.
fessor C. B. Davenport was elected chairman and The pilot in question was acquainted with Dr. W. K. Gregory secretary. The following men the tail-spin, but had never done one "solo
were elected as fellows: Drs. Ernest A. Hooton, before. It immediately occurred to the writer
Peabody Museum; Gerrit Smith Miller, United that the accident was a case of overcontrol due
States National Museum; Raymond Pearl, United
States Food Administration; L. R. Sullivan, Amerto a falling reaction and the precaution under
ican Museum of National History; Frederick Til(2) suggested itself. At the same time it was
Professor Harris H. Wilder, Smith recalled that Lieutenant Simon,” instructor in
College; Dr. Clark Wissler, American Museum of acrobatics at the school at Pau, France, cau
Natural History. Two patrons were elected: Mrs. tioned his pupils to hold the head down under
E. H. Harriman and Mr. M. Taylor Pyne, New the cowl during a spin. Evidently the French York. aviator had arrived empirically at the same A meeting of the society was held in the Osborn rule that the writer had deduced from his Library at the American Museum of Natural Hisacquaintance with a physiological phenomenon. tory on May 14. At this meeting Professor McNo knowledge of the precaution has been met Gregor demonstrated his reconstruction of the with among American trainers.
skull of a typical adult Cro-Magnon man, based on The observations were at the time (July,
all known remains of the race. 1918) informally brought to the attention of
Dr. Wissler sketched the rise of anthropology in several members of the staff of the Medical
Europe and America, and contrasted the two conResearch Laboratory at the field. Subsequent
cepts of this study: the first as including all lines
of investigation on the origin and evolution of huobservations and experiences as a pilot in acro
man races and of their cultures, and the second as batic flying have confirmed the conclusions.
limiting anthropology to the study of physical
M. A. RAINES characteristics. He said that the museum had DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY,
tried to develop all branches of anthropology in COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
the broader sense, and referred to the methods of 2 Quoted from Nordhoff in the Atlantic Monthly
exhibiting these lines which were to be illustrated for April, 1918.
by Mr. Sullivan's paper.
Mr. Sullivan, in giving an account of a museum hand. The result is that we have a very systeexhibit of the races of the Philippine Islands, based matic body of knowledge concerning the North
critical examination of the literature, American Indians, but have no contributing work. showed that at least three physical types are pres- ers in larger anthropological problems. The efent there, characterized by differences in skin-color, fect of the world war and its broadening influences hair, stature, head-form and form of nose; first, the makes it highly desirable that anthropology should negritos, long recognized as a distinct race, who be put upon a broader and more fundamental are short in stature, with a very dark brown skin, plane, particularly should it deal with problems wide open dark brown eyes, black kinky hair, short concerning our racial and national antecedents. head and short wide nose; second, the Malayan The broadening of anthropology would also require tribes, tallest of the island groups, with skins of the drawing in and coordination of much that has varying shades of brown, dark brown Mongoloid been done in psychology, biology, neurology and eyes, straight black hair, and relatively narrow history. It was the hope of the speaker that the nose; and third, a group which is often confused Galton Society would be able to bring about such with the second but belongs to the Indonesian ra- coordination by bringing together some of the repcial type. This type stands between the negritos resentative workers in respective lines. One of and Malays in point of size, is less Mongoloid in the first movements in this direction should be the appearance, has the longest head on the islands, encouragement of strong departments in our uniand straight or wavy dark brown hair. Mr. Sulli- versities. Unless the universities can be induced van's paper was discussed by Professor Kroeber to finance strong departments of anthropology we who outlined the successive cultural strata in the can not expect very great development in the fuPhilippines.
ture. On the other hand, it was the belief of the Professor Davenport, the chairman of the society, speaker that the universities would finance such commented on the wide field for the labors of such departments of anthropology if they could see that an organization which was afforded by the pres- the problems of anthropology were of universal ence in New York of representatives of many of the living races of Europe, Asia and Africa, and by There was a brief discussion by Professor Hunthe existence of various organizations which tington, Mr. Grant and Professor Osborn. would gladly cooperate in the study of the races of Professor Huntington spoke of the four fields in Europe. He spoke of the vast material at hand which the differential characteristics separating for the study of human inheritance and hybridi- man from lower mammals were particularly conzation.
spicuous, marking the progress of human evoluThe second regular meeting of the society was tion. These four fields were: the organs of locoheld at the American Museum of Natural History motion, the hands, the vocal and respiratory oron December 6, 1918. The meeting was preceded gans and the central nervous system. It is in these by a luncheon at which the members present were fields especially that characters diagnostic of the the guests of Professor Osborn and Mr. Grant.
various races are to be sought. Mr. Grant presented to the society a portrait of
W. K. GREGORY, Sir Francis Galton. Professor Merriam spoke of
Secretary the place anthropology should hold in the universities. In order to make the discussion concrete, he gave a brief outline of the history of anthropology in the University of California. When the department was started everyone thought best to A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of begin with the local anthropological problem, in Science, publishing the official notices and proother words, with the study of the California In- ceedings of the American Association for dians. Under Professor Kroeber this work has
the Advancement of Science been carried to a very satisfactory conclusion and
Published every Friday by while a great deal more work should be done it seems that a point had been reached where new problems should be undertaken. The speaker
GARRISON, N, Y. thought this was typical of anthropology in America. Everywhere the feeling had been and rightly,
NEW YORK, N. Y. that attention should be given to the problems at Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., us second claw maller
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