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the southern hemisphere, the description of new forms, and an interesting discussion of the relations of the existing forms to their fossil precursors and their distribution in connection with theories of previous land connections between the different continents in earlier geological time. His conclusion is that the present distribution lends probability to the hypotheses of von Ihering and others which assume such linking up of the various bodies of land in the later Mesozoic epoch. The paper has an excellent bibliography, but it is to be regretted that the phototyped figures in many cases are insufficiently clear to show the details mentioned in the text.

W. H. DALL

collected seems to show differences from its Rhynchonellid relatives which have induced the author to propose for it a new genus Compsothyris, though no new species were obtained. The paper is illustrated by an excellent plate and has a bibliography of the more important literature.

Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-14, Scientific Reports, Series C.-Zoology and Botany, Vol. BI., pt. 1, 4to. “ Calcareous Sponges," by Professor Arthur Dendy, pp. 1-17, 1 pl.; Vol. III., pt. 2. “Pterobranchia,” " by W. G. Ridewood; 26 pp., 1. pl.; Vol. V., pt. 5, “Euphausiacea and Mysidacea," by W. M. Tattersall; 16 pp. and 1 pl.; Vol. IV., pt. 3. “Brachiopoda," by J. Allen Thomson, pp. 76, and 4 pl.; Vol. V., pt. 6, “ Cumacea and Phyllocarida," by W. T. Calman, pp. 12 and 1 pl. Sydney, N. S. W. Government Printing Office, 1918.

The continued publication of these purely scientific papers before the cessation of active military operations and in despite of financial stresses, reflects credit upon the government of Australia. The citizens of that commonwealth have naturally taken great pride in the success of their expedition and its valuable results for science, and these handsomely published memoirs are an expression in part of that pride.

The number of calcareous sponges from the Antarctic is small, but to them are added a number collected off Tasmania and at Macquarie Island. The collection includes two new species of Leucetta and one of Leucandra.

Dr. Ridewood's memoir contains no species but forms a useful review of the austral species of Cephalodiscus with a bibliography of the rather scanty literature.

Dr. Tattersall treats of four species of Euphausians and two of Myacids, one of the latter from the Auckland Islands being new is described as Tenagomysis tenuipes. Dr. Calman describes a new species of Diastylis and reviews forms of Nebalia and Cyclaspis, which fill a wide gap in our knowledge of their geographical distribution. Dr. Thomson's memoir on the Brachiopoda is of particular importance, comprising a review of the group in

SPECIAL ARTICLES ROTARY VERTIGO IN THE TAIL-SPIN In the tail-spin, an evolution that is standard among military and exhibition aviators and into which any flier is apt to fall accidentally, a marked rotary and post-rotary vertigo may be induced. As the maintenance of the correct flying attitude of the airplane is largely dependent upon the pilot, this disturbance in his idea of attitude may lead to serious consequences and its significance and characteristics merit definition. A true appreciation of the phenomenon should increase the confidence of the young pilot just becoming acquainted with the evolution and decrease the risk attached to this feature of aviation training.

Purkinje in 1820 (quoted from McKendrick) directed attention to the well-known vertigo of rotation. In brief, when the movement of the body is arrested after undergoing rotation

(1) an after-sensation of rotation in the same direction is experienced. In coming out of the spin and levelling off, the pilot experiences a sensation of rotation after that has actually ceased. He therefore, tends to overcontrol, with the consequent danger of falling into another spin in the opposite direction.

(2) The axis of this imaginary after-sensation of rotation is that axis of the head about

1 Schäfer 's "Text-Book of Physiology,” 1900, II., p. 1196.

new

which the actual rotation took place. This THE GALTON SOCIETY FOR THE suggests a precaution during the spin, hold STUDY OF THE ORIGIN AND the head down so that it is rotated about its

EVOLUTION OF MAN long axis; on coming out of the spin, raise the The objects of the society are the promotion of head. Any disturbance experienced then will

study of racial anthropology, and of the origin, mibe in directional (i. e., horizontal) stability, gration, physical and mental characters, crossing and the more dangerous falling reaction will

and evolution of human races, living and extinct.

The charter members of the society are as folbe avoided.

lows: Madison Grant, Henry Fairfield Osborn, The superior reliability of visual criteria of

John C. Merriam, Edward L. Thorndike, William attitude should be recognized. “Follow the

K. Gregory, Charles B. Davenport, George S. Hunhorizon, if it ties itself up in a knot,” is a tington, J. Howard McGregor, Edwin G. Conklin. good rule to remember.

The organization of the society was suggested A very illuminating incident that occurred and initiated by Messrs. Davenport and Grant on at Mineola when the writer was stationed March 6, 1918. On April 2, after several previous there, first suggested this analysis of the rôle conferences, Messrs. Davenport, Grant, Osborn and the rotary vertigo may play in the tail-spin.

Huntington adopted the charter and the name of On June 29, 1918, a pilot, while flying in a

the society. The first meeting of the charter fel

lows was held in New York on April 7 at the resiformation, lost his balance and fell off into a

dence of Professor Osborn, who outlined the object tail-spin. He got out of the spin, but fell off

of the society and emphasized the importance of a into another spin in the opposite direction.

union of effort on the part of specialists, working And he got out of the second spin also, but in close cooperation and harmony with one another only to fall into a third, again reversing. He but from widely diverse lines of approach. Procrashed and was seriously injured.

fessor C. B. Davenport was elected chairman and The pilot in question was acquainted with Dr. W. K. Gregory secretary. The following men the tail-spin, but had never done one "solo

were elected as fellows: Drs. Ernest A. Hooton, before. It immediately occurred to the writer

Peabody Museum; Gerrit Smith Miller, United that the accident was a case of overcontrol due

States National Museum; Raymond Pearl, United

States Food Administration; L. R. Sullivan, Amerto a falling reaction and the precaution under

ican Museum of National History; Frederick Til(2) suggested itself. At the same time it was

Professor Harris H. Wilder, Smith recalled that Lieutenant Simon,” instructor in

College; Dr. Clark Wissler, American Museum of acrobatics at the school at Pau, France, cau

Natural History. Two patrons were elected: Mrs. tioned his pupils to hold the head down under

E. H. Harriman and Mr. M. Taylor Pyne, New the cowl during a spin. Evidently the French York. aviator had arrived empirically at the same A meeting of the society was held in the Osborn rule that the writer had deduced from his Library at the American Museum of Natural Hisacquaintance with a physiological phenomenon. tory on May 14. At this meeting Professor McNo knowledge of the precaution has been met Gregor demonstrated his reconstruction of the with among American trainers.

skull of a typical adult Cro-Magnon man, based on The observations were at the time (July,

all known remains of the race. 1918) informally brought to the attention of

Dr. Wissler sketched the rise of anthropology in several members of the staff of the Medical

Europe and America, and contrasted the two conResearch Laboratory at the field. Subsequent

cepts of this study: the first as including all lines

of investigation on the origin and evolution of huobservations and experiences as a pilot in acro

man races and of their cultures, and the second as batic flying have confirmed the conclusions.

limiting anthropology to the study of physical

M. A. RAINES characteristics. He said that the museum had DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY,

tried to develop all branches of anthropology in COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

the broader sense, and referred to the methods of 2 Quoted from Nordhoff in the Atlantic Monthly

exhibiting these lines which were to be illustrated for April, 1918.

by Mr. Sullivan's paper.

ney, New

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Mr. Sullivan, in giving an account of a museum hand. The result is that we have a very systeexhibit of the races of the Philippine Islands, based matic body of knowledge concerning the North

critical examination of the literature, American Indians, but have no contributing work. showed that at least three physical types are pres- ers in larger anthropological problems. The efent there, characterized by differences in skin-color, fect of the world war and its broadening influences hair, stature, head-form and form of nose; first, the makes it highly desirable that anthropology should negritos, long recognized as a distinct race, who be put upon a broader and more fundamental are short in stature, with a very dark brown skin, plane, particularly should it deal with problems wide open dark brown eyes, black kinky hair, short concerning our racial and national antecedents. head and short wide nose; second, the Malayan The broadening of anthropology would also require tribes, tallest of the island groups, with skins of the drawing in and coordination of much that has varying shades of brown, dark brown Mongoloid been done in psychology, biology, neurology and eyes, straight black hair, and relatively narrow history. It was the hope of the speaker that the nose; and third, a group which is often confused Galton Society would be able to bring about such with the second but belongs to the Indonesian ra- coordination by bringing together some of the repcial type. This type stands between the negritos resentative workers in respective lines. One of and Malays in point of size, is less Mongoloid in the first movements in this direction should be the appearance, has the longest head on the islands, encouragement of strong departments in our uniand straight or wavy dark brown hair. Mr. Sulli- versities. Unless the universities can be induced van's paper was discussed by Professor Kroeber to finance strong departments of anthropology we who outlined the successive cultural strata in the can not expect very great development in the fuPhilippines.

ture. On the other hand, it was the belief of the Professor Davenport, the chairman of the society, speaker that the universities would finance such commented on the wide field for the labors of such departments of anthropology if they could see that an organization which was afforded by the pres- the problems of anthropology were of universal ence in New York of representatives of many of the living races of Europe, Asia and Africa, and by There was a brief discussion by Professor Hunthe existence of various organizations which tington, Mr. Grant and Professor Osborn. would gladly cooperate in the study of the races of Professor Huntington spoke of the four fields in Europe. He spoke of the vast material at hand which the differential characteristics separating for the study of human inheritance and hybridi- man from lower mammals were particularly conzation.

spicuous, marking the progress of human evoluThe second regular meeting of the society was tion. These four fields were: the organs of locoheld at the American Museum of Natural History motion, the hands, the vocal and respiratory oron December 6, 1918. The meeting was preceded gans and the central nervous system. It is in these by a luncheon at which the members present were fields especially that characters diagnostic of the the guests of Professor Osborn and Mr. Grant.

various races are to be sought. Mr. Grant presented to the society a portrait of

W. K. GREGORY, Sir Francis Galton. Professor Merriam spoke of

Secretary the place anthropology should hold in the universities. In order to make the discussion concrete, he gave a brief outline of the history of anthropology in the University of California. When the department was started everyone thought best to A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of begin with the local anthropological problem, in Science, publishing the official notices and proother words, with the study of the California In- ceedings of the American Association for dians. Under Professor Kroeber this work has

the Advancement of Science been carried to a very satisfactory conclusion and

Published every Friday by while a great deal more work should be done it seems that a point had been reached where new problems should be undertaken. The speaker

LANCASTER, PA.

GARRISON, N, Y. thought this was typical of anthropology in America. Everywhere the feeling had been and rightly,

NEW YORK, N. Y. that attention should be given to the problems at Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., us second claw maller

SCIENCE

THE SCIENCE PRESS

Cornell University
Medical College

Washington University

School of Medicine

IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION

Candidates for entrance are required to have completed least two full years of college work which must includo English, Gorman, and instruction with laboratory work in Physia, Chemistry and Biology.

Admits graduates of approved Colleges

presenting the required Physics, Chem

istry and Biology.
Instruction by laboratory met bods

throughout the course. Small sections
facilitate personal contact of student

and instructor.
Graduate Courses leading to A.M. and

Ph.D., also offered under direction of
the Graduate School of Cornell Uni-

versity.
Applications for admission are preferably

made not later than June.

INSTRUCTION Instruction begins on the last Thursday in September and ends on the second Thursday in Juna Clinical instruction is given in the Barnes Hospital and the St. Louis Children's Hot pital, attiliated with the modioal sobool, the St. Louis in Met pital, and in the Washington Universite Diapcomiy COURSES LEADING TO ACADEMIC

DEGREES Students who have taken their promedical work in Waste ington University, are eligible for the degree of B.S. upon the completion of the first two years of medical work.

Students in Washington University may pursue study in the fundamnental medical sciences leading to the degree of AM and Ph.D.

TUITION The truation fee for undergraduate medical studento io $800 por na Women are admitted

The catalogue of the Medical School and other information may be obtained by application to the Dean,

For further information and catalogue addrema
The Dean, Cornell University

Medical College

Department B
First Avenue and 28th St. NEW YORK ATY

Euclid Avenue and Kingsbighway St. Louis

Tulane University of Louisiana

Johns Hopkins University

COLLEGE OF MEDICINE Medical School The Medical School is an Integral part of the University and

(Established in 1834) is in close Affiliation with the Johns Hopkins Hospital ADMISSION

School of Medicine Candidates for admission must be graduates of approved colleges or scientific schools with at least one year's instruction,

After January 1 1918, all students entering the inciuding laboratory work, in physics, chemistry, and biology, Freshman Class will be required to present credits and with evidence of a reading knowledge of French and

for two years of college work, which must include German.

Each class is limited to 90 students, men and women being Biology, Chemistry and Physics, with their laboraadmitted on the samo terms. Ercept in unusual circumstances, tories, and one year in German or French. applications for admission will not be considered after July 1st. I vacancies occur, students from other institutions desiring

Graduate School of Medicineadvanced standing may be admitted to the second or third year, A school for physicians desiring practical clinical provided they fulfill all of our requirements and present ex- opportunities, review, laboratory technic or cada ceptional qualifications.

veric work in surgery or gynecology. Excellent INSTRUCTION

facilities offered in all special branches. The next academio year begins September 30, 1919 and School of Pharmacydows on the second Tuesday in June. The course of instruo Admission: Three years of high school work, or Hon occupies four years, and especial emphasis is laid upon practical work in the laboratories, in the wards of the Hospital

12 units. Two years for Ph.G. degree. Three ind in the Dispensary.

years for Ph.C. degree.

School of Dentistry-
TUITION

Admission: Four years of high school work, with The charge for tuition is $2%

per annum, payable in three 15 units. Thorough, practical, as well as compro ir stalments. There are no extra fees except for rental of microscope, certain expensive supplies, and laboratory breakage.

hensive technical training in dentistry.

Women admitted to all Schools on the same terms The annual adaouncement, application blanks, and circular dasoribing graduate courses may be obtained by addressing the

For catalogs and all other information, address Dean of the Johns Hopkins Medical School Washington and Monument Ste. BALTIMORE, MD. TULANE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE

P. O. Box 770, New Orleans, La.

as men.

Syracuse University College of Medicine
Entrance Two years of a recognized course in arta THE LONG ISLAND

or in science in a registered college or Requirements Sobool of Science, which must include

COLLEGE HOSPITAL Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and French or German. Six and seven years' combination oours s are offered.

BROOKLYN-NEW YORK The First Two aro spont in mastering, by laboratory methods the sciences fundamental

Sixty-first Annual Session begins SepYears clinical medicine.

tember 22, 1919 The Third Year is systematic and clinical and is devoted to the study of the natural history of disease,

The medical college requires two Courso to diagnosis and to therapeutice. In this year the systematic courses in Medicine,

years of study in a college of liberal Surgery and Obstetrics are completed.

arts or sciences for admission. The Fourth is clinical. Students spend the entire fora

See specifications for Class A Medinoon throughout the year as clinical clerks Year Course in hospitals under

careful supervision. The cal Colleges by the Council on Medi. clinical clerk takes the history, makes the physical examination and tho laboratory

cal Education, A.M.A.; also those for examinations, arrives at a diagnosis which

a Medical Student's Qualifying Certi-
he must defend, outlines the treatment
under his instructor and observes and ficate by the University of the State
records the result. In ease of operation or
of autopsy he follows the spocimen and

of New York.
identifies its pathological nature. Two gen-
oral hospitals, one of which is owned and

Conditioned Students not admitted
controlled by the University, one special
hospital and the municipal hospitals and
laboratories are open to our students. The

For particulars address
afternoons are spent in the College Disper
sary and in clinical work in medical and
surgical specialties and in conforunoul

THE DEAN OF THE COLLEGE Summer School-A summer coure in pathology covering

OF MEDICINE a period of six weeks during June and July will be given in came there is a sofficient pumber of applicants

Henry and Amity Streets Address the Secretary of the College,

Brooklyn,

New York 307 Orange Street

SYRACUSE, N. Y.

University of Georgia

University of Alabama

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT

Augusta, Georgia

School of Medicine

Mobile, Alabama Entrance Requirements The satisfactory completion of two years of study, in an institution of collegiate grade, to include Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and á reading knowledge of French or German. In addition to four year High School diploma.

Combined Course The Combined Course which is now offered by the University in connection with its Medical Department gives to the student the opportunity of obtaining the B.S. and M.D. degrees in six years. This course is recommended to all intending students.

The equipment of the schoolis complete. The clinical facilities ample. Eight full time teachers.

For catalog and any desired information,
address
Tuckor H. Frazer, M.D., Doan

School of Medicine
St. Anthony and Lawrence Sts.,

MOBILE, ALA.

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS The successful completion of at least two years of work including English, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology in an approved college. This in addition to four years of high school.

INSTRUCTION The course of instruction occupies four years, begin. ning the second week in September and ending the first wook in Juno. The first two years are dovoted to the fundamental sciences, and the third and fourth to practical clinic instruction in medicine and surgery. All the organised modical and surgical charities of the sity of Augusta and Richmond County, including the hospitals, aro under tho ontiro control of the Board of Trustees of tho University. This agreement affords s large number and variety of patients which aro used in the clinical teaching. Especial emphasis is laid upon practical work both in the laboratory and clinical do Dartmonta

TUITION Tho charge for tuition is $160.00 yous except for rosidonts of the State of Georgia, to whom tuition is froo. For further information and catalogue addrew

The Medical Department, University of Georgia

AUGUSTA, GEORGIA

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