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tempt to emphasize the military importance proved by the data of Fig. 9, which pictures of this condition. The tasks of the officers the differences found in four infantry regiof these two companies are wholly incom- ments and three regiments of field artillery. parable, but more serious even than the in- Following the demonstration of the value equalities in response to training are the of psychological ratings in connection with risks of weak points in the army chain as a assignment, the experiment was tried in varesult of such random or unintelligent as- rious camps of classifying men in accordsignment.

ance with intelligence for facilitation of Naturally enough the officers of the army training. To this end A and B grade men were quick to appreciate the disadvantages were placed in one training group, C+, C of a method of assigning recruits which and C- men in another, and D and Dpermits such extreme inequalities in mental men in a third. The three groups were strength to appear and persist. They then instructed and drilled in accordance promptly demanded the reorganization of with their ability to learn. Thus delay in improperly constituted units and assign- the progress of high grade men was avoided ment in accordance with intelligence speci- and the low grade soldiers were given spefications so that the danger of weak links in cial instruction in accordance with their the chain and of extreme difference in needs and capacity. rapidity of training should be minimized. The marked differences in the mental

That serious inequalities existed in regi- strength of groups in different officers' trainments as well as in smaller units prior to ing schools are shown by Fig. 10. For the assignment on the basis of intelligence is eighteen schools of this figure, the proportion of A grades varies from 16.6 per cent. to 62.4; the proportion of A and B grades combined, from 48.9 per cent. to 93.6 per cent.; and the proportion of grades below

student officers training groups noted above are the differences in the intelligence status of officers in different arms of the service as revealed by psychological examining. Fig.

OFFICERS' GRADES

Lewis Sheridan Devens Funs ton Taylor Sherman Dodge Kearny Meade Grant Custer

Engineer
Field Art.
Tr. Mortar
Pers. Adjts. 1864
Ambulance Card
Field Signal
Ordnance
Machine Gun mani
Field Hosp.
Ammunition
Military Pol.
Infantry
Base Hosp.
Q. M. C.
Sanitary Det.Ex
Supply Co., Inf
Medical
Supply Train WHI
Dental
Veterinary

Below C+ C+ 12
FIG. 11. Proportion of high and low grades in
various officer groups.

Cody Travis Bowie Pike Jackson Shelby Wheeler

A AndB

Below C+ C+ wa A Ang B

Fig. 10. Inequality of mental strength in eighteen Officers' Training Schools, 4th Series (total enrollment 9,240).

C+, from 0 to 17.9 per cent. Since it is

ure 11 exhibits the data obtained for several unusual for a man with an intelligence rat

groups. The variations are extreme and ing below C+ to make a satisfactory record seemingly unrelated to the requirements of in an officers' training school, it is clear that

the service. Medical officers, for example, the pedagogic treatment of these several

1 Medical officers appear in the above graph

under five headings: ambulance company (90 student groups should differ more or less

cases), fieldhospital (107 cases), base hospital (428 radically and that elimination must vary cases), sanitary detachment (50 cases) and “Medthrough a wide range if the several schools ical” (378 cases). “Medical” in this case, is are to graduate equally satisfactory groups

chiefly regimental detachments. When all five

groups are combined medical officers in general of officers.

take the place in the graph occupied by base Far more important than the contrast in hospital.

show a relatively large percentage of men the army afforded opportunity for a study. rating C+ or below, whereas engineering of the relation of intelligence to occupation. officers head the list with relatively few men Various features of this relation are exwhose intelligence is rated below B. There hibited for a few military occupations by is no obvious reason for assuming that the Fig. 12, in which are represented the promilitary duties of the engineer demand portions of the several grades of intelligence higher intelligence or more mental alertness for the several occupations.

OCCUPATIONS

NO. CASES % BETA

675

407

ENG OFFS

MED OFFS
37 ACCOUNTANTSI
38b BOOKKEEPERS

ARMY NURSESI

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388 CLERKS
10g ELECTRICIANS
31t TELEGRAPHERSE
18s STOCKKEEPERS
248 AUTO REPAIRMEN

og MACHINISTS
14p. PLUMBERS
23t TRUCK DRIVERS
78 BLACKSMITHS
8g CARPENTERS
40c COOKS
45 BAR BERS
27h HORSE HOSLRS
128 MINERS
3. LABORERS

270 17.0 1019 13.0 351 21.6 792 17.0

435 28.5

377 27.1 1021 29.2 852 30.2 1453 32.4

[blocks in formation]

Fig. 12. Relation of occupation to intelligence. than do those of the medical officer. Since In order of diminishing intelligence exit is improbable that any arm of the service hibited these groups may be classified as possesses more intelligence than can be follows: professions, clerical occupations, used to advantage, the necessary inference trades, partially skilled labor and unskilled is that certain arms would benefit by the labor. The greatest differences in intellielimination of low grade men and the sub- gence required or exhibited appear at the stitution of officers with better intellectual

upper end of the scale, whereas the differability.

ences within the trades group are relatively Relation of Intelligence to Occupation.- small. The differences in range of intelliThe occupational classification of soldiers in gence occurring in the several occupations are considerable and in all probability sig- fulness of this new branch of engineering; nificant. In general the range diminishes to-day scores of business men, educators and from unskilled labor to intellectually diffi- men of other scientific professions are concult professions.

vinced that it has arrived and demand its The data of this occupational study, which rapid and effective development. are merely sampled by Fig. 12, suggest both The complete scientific report on the psythe possibility and desirability of preparing chological data which the army has supplied intelligence specifications for use in con- and of which mere glimpses have been given nection with civilian occupations. Such in this article should constitute the basis for specifications, if satisfactorily prepared, further important advances in methods of should be useful alike as partial basis for mental measurement and should greatly educational advice and procedure and sub- add to the knowledge of the distribution of sequently for vocational guidance. It must intelligence and its varied and significant be emphasized in this connection that the relations. These reports are in preparation data of Fig. 12 are not strictly comparable and it is hoped that they may be published with such information as may be gathered without undue delay. concerning civilian groups because various selectional factors operate in the army.

SCIENTIFIC EVENTS The Applicability of Mental Measure

PROPOSED MAP OF BRAZIL ON THE SCALE OF ments.—The utilization of methods of men

ONE TO A MILLION tal testing by the army has at once in- We learn from the Geographical Journal creased military efficiency by the improved that a further important advance in the maputilization of brain power and demonstrated ping of South America is to be expected from the applicability of the group method of

the decision of the “ Club de Engenharia” of

Rio de Janeiro to celebrate the approaching measuring intelligence to educational and

centenary of Brazilian Independence (1922) industrial needs. The army methods, al

by the compilation of a map of Brazil which though not adapted to the usual educational

shall also serve a contribution to the or industrial requirements, can readily be

scheme for a general map of the world on the modified or used as a basis for the develop- scale of 1/1,000,000. We have received from ment of similar procedures.

Senhor Paulo de Frontin, President of the There are abundant indications that the Engineering Club, copies of a memoir printed future will witness the rapid development in 1916 describing the general features of the of varied methods for improving scientific proposal (the execution of which has, it seems, placement and vocational guidance. It is already been begun) and the methods which it highly probable that grading in the public is proposed to adopt. It is pointed out that schools, in colleges and professional schools

the great extension of the Republic renders it

not feasible to construct a general map, will shortly be based in part upon measure

capable of being combined into a whole even ment of mental ability instead of exclusively

as a wall-map, on a larger scale than 1/2M on measurements of acquisition. The war

(1:2,000,000), and that on the millionth scale has worked a miracle for what may properly the sheets would necessarily be used separately be called mental engineering by precipi- or combined with neighboring sheets only, tating expectations, surmises and desires Even on half this scale the conjoint map would which have long sought expression. Yester- measure 8 feet by 73. The original compiladay a few men believed in the probability tion of the new map (the “Mother-map” as it of the early appearance and practical use

is termed in the United States) will be on the

as

scale of 1/200,000, each sheet embracing one Sir John Goodwin, the director general of the square degree, and including at least one army medical service, and representatives of point whose coordinates shall be fixed with the medical services of the British navy and satisfactory precision; for this the polyhedrical air force and of the medical services of the projection will be employed. In view of the Dominions and of the United States. In enormous extent of the territory a complete opening the proceedings, Sir Clifford Allbutt new survey will be dispensed with, any trust- said that the time had come to relay old tracks worthy material already existing being em- and make plans for reconstruction, but that ployed and supplemented by reconnaissances it had not been considered advisable to hold a and astronomical determinations of position. full dress meeting this year. A short scientific It is reckoned that about 8,000 kilom. have al- meeting could be held this year in London ready been surveyed on the scale of 1/100,000, without any attempt at large organization or and that about 1,700,000 kilom., or one fifth elaborate entertaining. Dr. J. A. MacDonald, of the total area of Brazil, have been mapped chairman of the council, said that the main on other scales. To resurvey the whole on the object would be to bring together workers 1/100,000 scale would, it is calculated, occupy from at home, the Dominions and the United 690 years, and the small state of Rio de States to garner knowledge and ideas from Janeiro alone four years. But a map free those who had studied war medicine and surfrom important errors and giving a good gen- gery.

Lieutenant General Sir John Goodwin eral representation of the country could be thought that such a congress was most demade in twenty-one years, or less if existing sirable. Much scientific work of the highest material is taken into account. Thus it is value had been done during the war, and the hoped that a satisfactory mapping of half the results were now being analyzed. It would be whole area may be completed in time for the an immense advantage that they should be Centenary celebration, the other half being examined. All possible facilities would be left for the second century of independence. given to assemble research workers from the

forces overseas. Colonel A. M. Whaley, SCIENTIFIC MEETING OF THE BRITISH

United States liaison medical officer with the MEDICAL ASSOCIATION

War Office, welcomed the idea on behalf of DURING the four years of the war, the sci- the American medical officers serving in Eu. entific meetings of the British Medical Asso- rope. Approval was also expressed by repreciation were suspended and only the political sentatives of the Canadian, Australian and meetings of the representatives were held. New Zealand medical service. All agreed The last ordinary annual general meeting was that the meeting would be valuable in crystalheld in July, 1914, and it had been arranged lizing the knowledge gained during the war. to hold the following meeting at Cambridge,

In view of the approaching departure of many under the presidency of Sir Clifford Allbutt.

medical officers, it was felt that the meeting This meeting was abandoned, because of the

should be held as soon as possible. It was strain on the profession owing to the war.

provisionally agreed that the meeting should The London correspondent of the Journal of

be held early in April and should last two or the American Medical Association writes that

three days. it has been found impossible for Cambridge to arrange to receive the association this year,

PROPOSED MAGNETIC AND ALLIED OBSERVA. but it hopes to do so in 1920. It was there

TIONS DURING THE TOTAL SOLAR

ECLIPSE OF MAY 29, 1919 fore suggested that a special meeting might be arranged this year for the discussion of SPECIAL magnetic and allied observations clinical and scientific subjects, but on will be made at certain ions inside and smaller scale than usual. At a meeting, the outside the shadow belt of the total solar proposal was laid before Lieutenant General eclipse of May 29, 1919, by the Department of

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