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by the frequency with which he refers to the gems in Nature and their possession in some subject. With the object of procuring further form in almost every home, make it probable information he sent his “notice” to Russia, that they could be used more extensively than and from Baron von Asch, surgeon in the is now the case as a basis for school study. Russian army, he learned that in January, The reviewer finds little to criticize adversely February, and March, 1782, a disease described in the book beyond the occasional use of the as“ febris catarrhalis epidemica benigna" term gemology." While this term might be prevailed in the Russian capital. It origi- generally understood to refer to the science of nated in eastern Siberia, on the Chinese fron- of gems, it is incorrectly formed for this purtier, and spread through the whole of Russia. pose and in reality has quite a different mean-The British Medical Journal.
ing. The Greeks seem to have had no single
term for distinguishing objects used for the SCIENTIFIC BOOKS
purposes for which we use gems, but indicated
things of value by the adjective Tívios. PreA Text-book of Precious Stones. By FRANK B. WADE, B.S. Published by G. P. Put- fixing this adjective to lídos, stone, the term
tiniolithology can be obtained, which is at nam's Sons, 1918. 8vo, pp. xiii + 318. Illustrated.
least a word properly formed to indicate the
science of gems. Those who are familiar with the work on
OLIVER C. FARRINGTON “ Diamonds by the same author will find the
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY present book characterized by similarly attractive features. The style is clear and precise and readability and practicality are afforded
SPECIAL ARTICLES by examples drawn from the writer's own ex
PINK ROOT OF ONIONS perience.
IN 1915 Professor F. W. Mally called the The book will appeal to the amateur rather writer's attention to a very serious disease of than the professional student, but this is prob
onions in Webb County, Texas, and locally ably the intention of the author. His experi- known as pink root. Investigations were beence as a teacher has doubtless aided him in
gun on this disease with Professor Mally, who presenting the subject in a systematic and
cooperated in the field experiments and offered easily assimilable manner. The physical prop- valuable assistance in many ways. A search in erties of gems are treated under the various
literature showed that there were no records subdivisions of refraction, absorption and di
that could be found, where mention was made chroism, specific gravity, luster, hardness, and
of this new plant trouble. From conversation color, each to the extent of one or more chap- with Professor Mally I was told that Professor ters, and numerous practical details are given
W. M. Gilbert, of the United States Departin the chapters on testing, cutting, occurrence
ment of Agriculture, had at one time worked and imitation of gems. The chapter on
on this disease and also published an account “ tariff laws” affords useful information not
of the same. However, a letter received from readily found elsewhere and the bibliography of the subject of gems is the most complete follows: “So far as I know there are no pub
Professor Gilbert dated May 15, 1918, says as and satisfactory for the purposes of the general reader that the reviewer remembers to
lications on this disease, as I did not do have seen.
The book is not extensively illus- enough work on it to secure results for pubtrated, a few text figures from line drawings
lication and have not had the opportunity to comprising all the pictures that are provided. study it very recently.” The writer was the Besides its usefulness for general reading,
first to report on this disease in 1917.1 the title of the book and its systematic plan 1 Taubenhaus, J. J., “Pink Root, a New Disease suggest that it could be employed for more of Onions in Texas,” Phytopath. 7: 59, 1917 (abformal instruction. The wide distribution of stract).
The symptoms of this trouble are very strik- foot will also rid the soil of the causal oring. Affected roots turn yellowish, then pink ganism. and dry up.
The disease is confined to the 3. Applications of lime will not rid the soil roots only and not to the bulb. As fast as the from pink root. old roots are affected new ones are produced,
6. In infected soils liberally fertilized, espethese in turn becoming diseased. In the end, cially where quickly available plant food is the bulb spends all its energies in producing applied, together with proper cultural managenew roots which in turn become affected, thus
ment, the crop can be nursed to produce fairly failing to attain the commercial standard.
normal yields. In this case the proper ferDiseased bulbs remain dwarfed and small to
tilizer merely stimulates the bulbs in producthe end of the season, although apparently
ing new roots faster than the disease can
destroy them. sound in every other way. The average an
7. Fertilizers rich in nitrogen and organic nual loss from this disease in Webb County
matter are especially valuable for use in soils may be estimated at forty per cent.
infected with the pink root. Careful investigations in the laboratory of
8. Healthy sets when planted on diseased the Texas Experiment Station revealed the fact
soils will contract the disease. Likewise, disthat the disease was caused by an apparently
eased sets planted on healthy soils will also new pathogenic organism, the name of which
yield diseased bulbs. is proposed to be Fusarium malli, n. sp. Over
Numerous experiments both in the field and one thousand plate cultures were made from
in the laboratory are still in progress and as diseased material and in nearly every case a
soon as these are completed a bulletin will be pure culture of the above organism was ob
published by the Texas Experiment Station tained. Moreover in planting healthy onion
giving a full description of the causal orsets in both sterilized sand or soil in which ganism and results of the experiments. a pure culture of the Fusarium fungus was
J. J. TAUBENHAUS worked in, the disease in each case could
COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS readily be reproduced. The symptoms on the artificially infected plants were in cvery re- A CHROMOSOME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE spect identical with those of infected plants
SEXES OF SPHÆROCARPOS TEXANUS naturally found in the field. The checks re
THE chromosome group in the cells of the mained free, proving that Fusarium malli
female gametophyte of Sphærocarpos texanus Taub. is the cause of pink root.
is characterized by one large element greater Numerous laboratory experiments, which
in length and in thickness than any of the were duplicated in the field have yielded re
other chromosomes in the group. This large sults which are briefly summarized as follows:
element does not appear in the chromosome 1. The disease is carried with infected sets.
group of the male gametophyte, but instead
there is a small chromosome commonly nearly 2. The disease is carried over from year to
spherical in form, and unlike anything found year in the soil. Short term rotations with
in the female. The other chromosomes in the other crops than onions on pink root lands
cells of both sexes vary in length. They have do not starve out the pink root fungus.
the form of rods, usually curved. The chro3. Pink root attacks not only the onions but
mosome number for each sex seems to be also the garlic and the shallot. It does not
eight. In the cells of the female, seven of the seem to attack any other of the liliaceous
eight are similar respectively to seven of the plants.
male. The eighth chromosome of the female 4 Steam sterilizing will kill the fungus in
(the largest one) seems to correspond to the the soil. Formaldehyde at the rate of one small chromosome of the male. The condition pint to twenty gallons of water, per square as to the chromosomes of the gametophytes in this species is thus similar to that described mittees, who were authorized when persuasion by Allen? for S. Donnellii.
failed to take drastic action, even to disMARTHA A. SCHACKE possessing tenants and breaking up and operUNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN
ating idle land at the expense of the owners.
Restrictions on the crops to be grown, their THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR
sale and use were extensive and far exceeded THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE
anything hinted at in this country. A re-SECTION M-AGRICULTURE
form of much importance was the putting The program of the Baltimore meeting of
into operation of a seed control measure simthe Section of Agriculture was considerably
ilar to that maintained in several of the states interfered with by sickness and absence in
in this country, which yielded such beneficial Europe on war service. A single session wa results that it is expected to be permanent. held on the afternoon of December 27, 1918.
The government also controlled the price of The retiring vice-president, Dr. H. J. Waters,
certain seeds, as seed potatoes, and to avoid was prevented by sickness from attending the
local shortages purchased nearly a million meeting and delivering his address, the sub
dollars' worth of seed potatoes for sale to comject of which as announced was The Farm
mercial growers and allotment holders. ers' Gain from the War."
While tenant farmers profited by good prices In the absence of the vice-president, Dr. and reduced competition, land owners were H. P. Armsby, who is with the Interallied
prevented by law from raising their rents Food Commission in Europe, Dr. A. F. Woods
during the war despite increased taxes and presided over the session. This was devoted
other expenses. In consequence the sales of to the agricultural situation in Europe as land exceed those for a generation, and inviewed by members of the American Agricul
clude not only large holdings but relatively tural Commission which spent several months small farms, mostly land not operated by the in Great Britain, France and Italy in the
Purchasers are mainly of the tenant early fall.
farmer class, and no marked movement of Describing “Some Impressions of the Effect
population from the city to the land was noted. of War on Agriculture in England and
There was much evidence of greatly aroused France," Dr. W. A. Taylor reviewed the
interest in agricultural research, instruction highly successful efforts in England to stimu
and extension teaching which is expected to late production resulting in 1918 in an in
bear fruit in increased facilities. creased area in cereals of 32 per cent. and in
In sharp contrast to Great Britain, France potatoes of 45 per cent. over the ten-year pre
showed abundant evidence of decreased crop war average. This increase was not due to
production, as was to be expected. In 1917 the existence of an actual shortage, for ap- the production of cereals fell to 53 per cent. parently at no time was there less than three
of the pre-war average. A return to nearly months supply of wheat in sight, or to the
75 per cent. in 1918 was “accomplished expectation of large profits on the part of farmers, but rather to apprehension that con
through most strenuous and exhausting effort
and to a considerable extent at the expense of ditions might grow worse and to the necessity of saving tonnage. The organization through
future crops through the breaking up of the which the increase was accomplished and the
best crop rotation practise." measures put in force under the Defense of
The reconstruction problems in France were the Realm Act were effective and often revolu
described as complicated, one of the most tionary. Local production campaigns were in
difficult being the remanning of the land. Of the hands of agricultural executive com
the 250,000 farmers of the devastated region
it is estimated that perhaps 100,000 may re1 Allen, C. E., "A Chromosome Difference Correlated with Sex Differences in Sphærocarpos, Sci
turn to their holdings. Much of the land ENCE, N. 8., 46: 466-467, 1917.
consists of small parcels, the holdings of an
owner being more or less scattered, which army has excited a good deal of interest points to the importance of consolidating among farmers and breeders in England and these tracts into compact units capable of led to efforts to establish this breed of horses more economic management. The question of in that country. whether the destroyed rural villages should be Prices of breeding stock were reported as rebuilt on their old sites rather than to re- extremely high in both France and England. locate them more advantageously is another Breeders are anticipating a good trade after matter of considerable importance. A rapidly the war and have kept their stocks intact at growing sentiment was noted for the restora- great expense. Not much demand for live tion of the devastated region by the invaders, stock from the United States was looked for rather than the mere payment of financial in the immediate future, although dairy cows indemnity. The French government has al- may be needed and after the war American ready provided a credit of approximately sixty horses will doubtless be required in Europe, million dollars, from which allowances are mainly of the commercial grades. being made to farmers who are ready to re- Mr. E. C. Chilcott, who went to the French turn to their land. For the most part the colonies at the instance of the French High restoration of the fields did not impress the Commission, was to have described the agricommission as being as appalling as might be
cultural conditions found there, especially in expected, and was compared with the reclama- Algeria, but was detained by illness. tion of stump land in this country.
At the business meeting Dr. A. F. Woods, Speaking of the Live Stock Conditions in president of the Maryland Agricultural ColEurope, Mr. George M. Rommel reported that lege, was nominated vice-president, and Dr. European farmers had been quite successful
J. G. Lipman, director of the New Jersey in maintaining their supplies of breeding
Experiment Stations, secretary of the section,
and these nominations were subsequently conanimals. Although they have suffered from
firmed by the general committee of the assoa shortage of feed and some inroads have been
ciation. Other officers for the year made on certain kinds of stock by the military
elected as follows: Member of the general comdemands, the number of cows and heifers in
mittee of the association, Mr. George M. Great Britain is fully as large now as before
Rommel, U. S. Department of Agriculture; the war, and this is true of cattle generally.
member of the council of the association, Dr. The milk supply has been reduced on
A. C. True, U. S. Department of Agriculture; count of the shortage of concentrated feed,
member of the sectional committee (for five and this has also cut down the number of
years), Professor C. P. Gillette, director of pigs quite extensively. There was also a small
the Colorado Experiment Station. falling off in sheep.
E. W. ALLEN, In France there are about two million less •
Secretary cattle than before the war, principally due to invasion. Since the close of 1914 the decline
SCIENCE in number of cattle has been less than 2 per cent., the young stock having increased. A A Weekly Journal devoted to the Advancement of similar increase also applies to Italy. Sheep Science, publishing the official notices and prohave declined nearly 40 per cent., due largely ceedings of the American Association for to labor shortage, and hogs somewhat more
the Advancement of Science due to a lack of concentrated feed. The
Published every Friday by shortage of milk in France is more serious than in Great Britain. The heavy demand
THE SCIENCE PRESS for horses for military purposes has reduced LANCASTER, PA.
GARRISON, N. Y. the available number by about a million. The
NEW YORK, N. Y. record of the Percheron horses in the British
Entered in the post-office at Lancaster, Pa., us second clan matter
Cornell University Medical College Washington University
School of Medicine
in the City of New York
Session begins in September
REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION
Candidates for entrance are required to have completed at Admits holders of Baccalaureate degrees or
least two full years of college work which must include English,
German, and instruction with laboratory work in Physios, seniors who can present a degree at the
Chemistry and Biology.
Instruction begins on the last Thursday in September and Graduate Courses leading to the degrees of
ends on the second Thursday in June. Clinical instruction is A.M.and Ph.D. are offered in the scientific
given in the Barnes Hospital and the St. Louis Children's Hos
pital, afiliated with the modioal school, tbo St. Louds City Hom departments of the Medical College under pital, and in the Washington University Dispony. the direction of the Graduate School of Cornell University.
COURSES LEADING TO ACADEMIC Fees including all College charges do not ex
DEGREES ceed $200 a year.
Students who have taken their premedical work in Washington University, are eligible for the degree of B.8. upon the completion of the first two years of medical work.
Students in Washington University may pursue study in For further information and catalogue address
the fundamental medical sciences leading to the degree of AM
por Anna. Women are admitted. Cornell University Medical College
The catalogue of the Medical School and other Information (Department B.)
may be obtained by application to the Dean. First Ave. & 28th St. New York City
Euclid Avenue and Kingshighway St. Louis
COLLEGE OF MEDICINE
(Established in 1834) is in close Affiliation with the Johns Hopkins Hospital ADMISSION
School of Medicine Candidates for admission must be graduates of approved After January 1 1918, all students entering the colleges or scientific schools with at least one year's instruction, inciuding laboratory work, in physics, chemistry, and biology,
Freshman Class will be required to present credits and with evidence of a reading knowledge of French and for two years of college work, which must include German.
Biology, Chemistry and Physics, with their laboraEach class is limited to 90 students, men and women being admitted on the same terms. Except in unusual circumstances,
tories, and one year in German or French. applications for admission will not be considered after July 1sí. Graduate School of Medicine
I vacancies occur, students from other institutions desiring advanced standing may be admitted to the second or third year,
A school for physicians desiring practical clinical provided they fulfili all of our requirements and present ex- opportunities, review, laboratory technic
or cadaceptional qualifications.
veric work in surgery or gynecology. Excellent INSTRUCTION
facilities offered in all special branches.
School of PharmacyThe next "academio year begins September 30, 1919 and aloses on the second Tuesday in June. The course of instruc- Admission: Three years of high school work, or tion occupies four years, and especial emphasis is laid upon 12 units. Two years for Ph.G. degree. Three pnotical work in the laboratories, in the wards of the Hospital and in the Dispensary.
years for Ph.C. degree.
School of Dentistry-
Admission: Four years of high school work, with The charge for tuition is $250 per annum, payable in three 15 units. Thorough, practical, as well as compreinstalments. There are no extra fees except for rental of micro- hensive technical training in dentistry. scope, certain expensive supplies, and laboratory breakage.
Women admitted to all Schools on the same terms The annua! announcement, application blanks, and circular as men, describing graduate courses may be obtained by addressing the Doan of the Johns Hopkins Medical School
For catalogs and all other information, address Washington and Monument Sta. BALTIMORE, MD. TULANE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE
P. O. Box 770, New Orleans, La.
Johns Hopkins University