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when anatomy is applied in physiology, or If you agree with me that some of our greatwhen physiology is applied in ecology. While est responsibilities have to do with the supplythe philosophical applications of botany do not ing of knowledge needed by the arts and the “take the eye and have the price” as do its other sciences, and if you also agree that much practical applications, yet their value is uni- of our advance is to come through cooperation, versally acknowledged to be exceedingly great. it naturally follows that botanical scientists They should not be left out of account in our must cooperate not only among themselves proposals for a renewed mobilization of botan
but also with workers in other sciences and ical scientists.
in the arts. A consideration of these two groups of ap- In conclusion of this address, which may alplications, called here the practical and the
ready be too long, I shall not attempt to sumphilosophical, will furnish a wealth of sugges- marize the various points and suggestions to a tions for research projects. It is the business somewhat awkward presentation of which you of botanical scientists to supply all knowledge
have so kindly and patiently listened. I about plants that may be enquired for in behalf have voiced a longing for a conscious cooperaof any line of human activity. If we do not
scientists that has been felt by possess a certain kind of knowledge demanded
all of us, and I have placed before you a few by an art or another science, surely it is our
suggestions as to some paths along which we responsibility to make the needed knowledge
may hope to proceed toward the realization of by research, and to do so as promptly after the
this desire. This address lays no claim to need arises as is possible. Looked at in this
logical completeness but I think I may claim way, the prevalent conception of botany as a
for it that it is facing in the right direction. composite of two different kinds of science,
We surely need to appreciate our responsi"pure” and “applied,” is seen to strike very
bilities as botanists toward humanity and to wide of the mark. In many ways it is to be
take conscious steps toward the organization of regretted that many arts that employ applied
rational compaigns against the demons of science have come to be themselves called sci
ignorance and superstition and waste. Now ences, thus creating great confusion, but it
is the time of times, the “zero hour"; let us were hopeless to try now to correct such illogical usages as those of agricultural science,
assume our responsibilities and do our share medical science, veterinary science and the like.
in the reorganization of human life for the Agriculture, for example, is not a science, but new day that approaches. And let us not get an art, and whatever of science it employs is
in each other's way nor in the way of other applied from botany, zoology, geology, clima- groups of workers. We would give once again tology and so forth. (Of course it is under- to botanical science her “place in the sun," stood that if plant physiology or the physiol- but we would not do this by interposing any ogy of the wheat plant is regarded as a part hindrances in the paths of the other sciences, of botany, so must animal physiology and the with which we have no quarrels. Finally, we physiology of man be considered as a part of would accelerate the growth and unification zoology.)
and organization of our national science, not We are probably all in agreement as to the
that we may excel in a national way (with a proposition that by far the greater portion of
sort of colossal selfishness of an all-too-comfuture botanical investigation will have to do
mon type), but that we may serve world sciwith supplying botanical knowledge to the arts
ence to our utmost, thus gaining the supreme of agriculture, forestry and medicine and the
satisfaction of having appreciated our respongreatest of these is agriculture. Other speak
sibilities and borne them in such manner as ers at these meeting will probably emphasize
to receive, at last, our own approval. the scientific needs of this art—which they may call a science and I need not here go
Burton EDWARD LIVINGSTON farther in this connection.
THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH IN ONTARIO
AND PRUSSIA COMPARED Those who treat lightly the industrial research of this continent and lavish overdue praise on the research of Germany do not use a standard of measurement-a unit of population in the present case--for the comparison, which through the omission becomes a mere arbitrary opinion. A common example of this laxity is the remark of one who was speaking of the United States and Canada: “Progress along advanced industrial lines has not hitherto paralleled that of Germany." Scrutiny of the statements of such writers on industrial research always fails to show any trace of a standard used in their comparisons, and it is with a view to supply what they omit that the following particulars are compiled:
In 1909 the Ontario government commissioned Dr. John Seath to report upon industrial education, and the report he submitted (“ Education for Industrial Purposes "), bearing date 1911, contains some of the latest statistics on technical education before the war, and also contains incidentally some information on the allied subject of industrial research. In particular, he gives a list (p. 161) of the thirty-three technical “schools” of university rank in Prussia which are in a position to undertake research work. This list for Prussia has more details than the similar list in the “Encyclopædia Britannica” (1910–11), which relates to the whole of Germany. The Prussian list consists of the following: nine technical schools, or polytechnica, of which the one at Charlottenburg is the chief example; three mining academies; five forest academies; four agricultural academies; five veterinary “high schools”; five commercial “high schools ”; two schools of art.
Junior industrial schools and technical schools of the middle class, the former with state contributions of 38 per cent., the latter with 54 per cent., were educational, not research institutions, and did little work in research, compared with those of university rank given above. If, therefore, we add to this list of 33, the nine medical schools, which are connected with universities in Prussia,
and which are doing the public laboratory work-omitting the literary faculties of law, divinity and philosophy in the universities, which are negligible in an enquiry relating to science-we get a complete census of the 42 Prussian institutions that do advanced research work. On a basis of population of 42 millions then in Prussia, we find one such institution for every million people.
Next, consider the case of Ontario, where, as in Prussia, such institutions are mainly provincial or state, and not federal. Following the same order, Ontario has: two schools of applied science and engineering (“ polytechnica"); two mining schools doing assay work for the mining industries; one forestry school; one agricultural college at Guelph, doing research for the past forty years (the Ottawa college being federal). The bulletins and reports from Guelph have numbered several thousands. One veterinary college, established in 1862 as a private enterprise when there were very few on this continent, and taken over by the government of Ontario in 1908. Three laboratories, the central at Toronto, with branches at Kingston and London, Ontario, viz., one at each medical college, doing public analysis like those of the Prussian medical colleges. (The federal laboratory at Ottawa deals with adulterations.) One meteorological research observatory for industries, and especially for agriculture and the shipping industries. It is now supported by federal funds but was originally a local institution in Toronto. (The agricultural academies attend to this line of research in Prussia, the meteorological institute in Berlin being mainly a collecting point.)
This aggregate of eleven government insti. tutions of research for the industries of Ontario, on the basis of two and three quarter millions of population at the outbreak of the war, makes a total of four per million people, or four times the number in Prussia for the same unit of population (one million). In making this comparison where the number of institutions of research for the industries is the criterion, there is no separation of research for specific problems from research for
the general benefit of industries, as the two
SCIENTIFIC EVENTS are so closely associated.
THE LONDON IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF Comparisons of data on the numbers of
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY officials and instructors employed, students
We learn from the London Times that past trained (where it is a teaching institution),
and present students of the Imperial College and public money expended, when referred to of Science and Technology at a mass meeting a population basis, would reveal for Ontario,
in the Imperial College Union, on January 29, if space warranted their publication, similar decided, with only one dissentient, to sign a favorable results. And it would be easy to
petition urging the governors of the college to cite other provinces and states on this con- take immediate steps to raise the status of tinent comparing favorably with Prussia. the college to that of a university of techIt is no difficult to understand
nology, distinct from the University of Lonfaith in German and Prussian “greatness" in don, and empowered to confer its own degrees. research has become so general in America,
in science and technology. as it was the privilege of the Germans them- The petition expressed the opinion that the selves, as usual, to bell the cat. In November, recognition of the Imperial College as an in1915, a debate took place in the Reichstag
stitution of university rank should be one of over the spending of 40,000,000 marks in the earliest items in the program of legislative propagandist work in the United States of reconstruction, and that his majesty's governAmerica, and a socialist member asked what ment should give every encouragement to stugood they had received from it. The outlay
dents who desire to devote their lives to sciinvolved liberal sums for illustrated articles ence and technology. on the industrial training institutions of Ger
Mr. Herbert Wright, one of the governors many, inserted in United States illustrated of the college and a past student, who presided, journals which circulate also in Canada. said they were concerned with the future of While the propagandists knew the value of the students and the future status of the Imadvertising, many who read the articles and perial College of Science matters of supreme still derive their arguments from them failed importance not merely to themselves and those to understand that it was advertising matter. who would succeed them, but indirectly to the Whatever progress Germany made was due to
whole of the British Empire. The legitimate the application of science to the industries, demand of the day, especially prominent in and no right-minded person would begrudge the City of London, was that there should be them peaceable success, if their international established a very close relationship between politics had been just.
scientific research and industry. Furthermore, It is not surprising to find that research many of them held the view that no honor was had been along different lines in Prussia and too great, no distinction too high, for students in Ontario, their material being received here who, by the application of scientific principles in exchange mostly for well-developed agri- to the problems of daily life, increased the cultural products. The war changed this, and wealth and power of the British Empire, and in a propaganda of the manufacturing classes added to the grand total of this world's hapto throw the burden of research upon the
piness. Industrial concerns in London were public, paid for out of the public treasuries, strongly in favor of giving full encouragement it is well to bear in mind the reasonable plan
and the highest recognition to men and women adopted in England of granting a pound of
who devoted their lives to scientific and ingovernment aid for every pound expended by dustrial research. They could rest assured private enterprise.
that this college had been, and was still, the A. F. HUNTER
principal source of supply of technologists to NORMAL SCHOOL BUILDING,
those in charge of industry in the City of TORONTO
Mr H. Burnie, chairman of the organizing
10,840 Committee, reported that the Royal School of
17,876 Mines Old Students' Association had passed a
39,720 resolution giving support to the proposal. The
211,331 chairman then formally moved that the peti- Wyoming
726,131 tion be signed and forwarded to the governors
1,005,898 of the college. Captain E. G. Lawford, in seconding the resolution, declared that the time
Similar progress was manifested during Janhad come when it was absolutely impossible
uary in rendering lands available for entry in for the Imperial College to carry on exactly tracts of 640 acres each under the stock-raisas it was now. The reconstruction of London ing homestead law. Somewhat more than 940,University had been approved, and would be 000 acres were designated during the month undertaken very shortly; and in that recon- under this act. These lands are distributed struction the Imperial College was bound to as indicated in the table below: become involved. This would be disastrous
Arizona to the college. The Imperial College was now
97,332 standing on the brink of an upheaval, and un
91,097 less a very strong line was taken it was bound
17,100 to lose its own identity. By absorption, the New Mexico
392,320 college would lose control of its own funds- Oklahoma
4,998 and of its syllabus, and of its identity as the Oregon
57,500 Imperial College.
941,417 CLASSIFICATION OF LANDS BY THE GEO. LOGICAL SURVEY
The total area thus far designated by the SECRETARY LANE reports that definite prog- secretary for entry under the stockraising ress was made in the month of January, 1919, homestead act is now a little more than 13,in the classification of lands effected by the
500,000 acres. This work has been accomGeological Survey of the Interior Department. plished in the slightly more than 19 months The principal action affecting mineral lands
since Congress first made provision for the
administration of the stock-raising homestead was the restoration of somewhat more than 773,000 acres in North Dakota. These lands
act. After that provision was made, the force
for the classifications had to be organized, the lie in the lignite area of that state and the
principles of classification determined, the government still owns coal in only a rela
lands examined, decisions reached as to their tively small proportion of those restored. As
character, and the orders of designation issued. to this proportion, the restoration will permit the purchase of these lands or of the coal
CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS within them at prices of $10 and $20 per acre.
The United States Civil Service CommisA portion of the results of last summer's
sion announces open competitive examinations field work in the examination of the question for scientific positions as follows: of irrigability of western lands appears in Department of the Interior: Geological orders approved during January which desig- Survey: Geologic aid, March 12–13, $90 a nated somewhat more than 1,000,000 acres for month to $1,440 a year; assistant geologist, entry under the so-called enlarged-homestead March 12–13, $1,500 to $1,800 a year. Indian act, the principal requirement under this act Service: Oil and gas inspector, March 25, being that the lands shall be nonirrigable. $1,500 to $1,800 a year. Public Health ServThe areas designated by states appear in the ice; Statistical clerk, March 26, $1,000 to following table:
$1,800 a year.
Patent Office: Assistant examiner, March 26–28, May 21-23, July 23-25, of the nature of the problem, the main item $1,500 a year.
of expense, and the probable time for comDepartment of Agriculture : Assistant hor- pletion of the research. Recipients of grants ticulturist, March 18, $1,800 to $2,200 a year; are expected to agree to the following consuperintendent of road construction, March ditions: 25, $150 to $250 a month; assistant dairy hus- 1. The work as outlined will be begun in the bandman, March 26, $1,500 to $1,740 a year; near future and efforts will be made to comscientific assistant, April 22–23, $900 to $1,800 plete it at as early a date as possible. a year; United States Game Warden, May 7,
2. A report will be made to the secretary $1,500 a year; physical laboratory helper, of the committee on the completion and pubMarch 12, April 9, May 7, and June 4, $600 to
lication of the work, and in December of each $900 a year.
year until the work is completed. The reports Department of Commerce: Physical labora
will include a financial statement with vouchtory helper, March 12, April 9, May 7, and
ers for the larger items. June 4, $600 to $900 a year; Bureau of Fish
3. In the publication of the results the grant eries: Apprentice fish culturist, March 12,
from the Research Fund of the American April 9, May 7, and June 4, $600 to $960 a
Association for the Advancement of Science year. Coast and Geodetic Survey: Marine will be acknowledged. engineer, April 1, $100 to $140 a month.
The membership of the committee for the Interdepartmental Social Hygiene Board:
year 1919 is: Henry Crew, chairman; N. L. Supervisor, social hygiene (open to women
Britton, W. B. Cannon, J. McK. Cattell, R. T. only), March 25, $2,000 to $2,500 a year; as
Chamberlin, L. I. Dublin, G. N. Lewis, G. H. sistant special agent, social hygiene (open Parker, Joel Stebbins, secretary. to women only), March 25, $600 to $1,000 a
All applications for grants should be received year.
not later than March 15 by the secretary of National Advisory Committee for Aero
the committee, who will see that they are nautics: Chief physicist, qualified in aero
properly considered. nautics, March 25, $3,000 a year; physicist,
JOEL STEBBINS, March 25, $2,100 a year.
Secretary Full information and application blanks
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS OBSERVATORY, may be obtained by addressing the United
URBANA, ILL. States Civil Service Commission at Washington, D. C., or the civil-service district secre
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS tary at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, At
PROFESSOR EDWARD L. NICHOLS, who will lanta, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Paul, St. Louis,
reach the age of sixty-five, on September 14, New Orleans, Seattle, or San Francisco.
has tendered his resignation of the professorTHE COMMITTEE ON GRANTS OF THE AMER
ship of physics, at Cornell University, which ICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCE- he has held since 1887.
MENT OF SCIENCE
The Paris Academy of Sciences has elected by the council of the association to distribute Major General Sir David Bruce, F.R.S., to be the annual appropriation for research. It is
a foreign correspondent in the section of medintended that encouragement and support be
icine and surgery. given to investigations in any of the fields COLONEL Victor C. Vaughan, dean of the covered by the activities of the association, medical school, of the University of Michigan, For the current year the sum of $4,000 has will return to the university and resume his already been assigned, and will be available duties for the second semester. Colonel on April 1. Preference will be given to appli- Vaughan has been in Washington since the cations in which definite statement is made entrance of the United States into the war,