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bubbles. The formation of the caps that substitutes for glass lantern slides, giving spefinished off the completed, or dead, columns cial attention to slides which could be prepared is, perhaps, to be explained in this way: When quickly for temporary use. the column rose to a point where the wind I found that a satisfactory slide could be reached it above the lee of the dam, the spray made by drawing figures or diagrams on thin from the bursting bubbles would lodge chiefly white paper with india or colored ink. After on the leeward, or downstream, side of the the ink had become thoroughly dry both sides orifice and in freezing would build up that of the paper were brushed over with a lightside faster than the upstream side. The top colored penetrating oil. The thin glazed white would thus curve over upstream, the freezing paper used for duplicating typewritten letters spray building not only upwards but back serves admirably for the paper and a light against the wind, just as the hoar-frost or neatsfoot makes a satisfactory oil. These paper frozen mist of mountain-tops builds against a slides may be inserted in cardboard holders and high wind. This would, of course, close the with suitable projecting apparatus the results orifice in time and put a stop to the growth of are all that could be desired. the column.
The effect of the oil is to increase greatly the It is not entirely clear how the bubbles rise transparency of the paper and when new the to so considerable a height in the tubes
texture of the paper is quite imperceptible. whether they are forced up by the rush of
Figures of lesser sharpness can be made with a water over the dam and under the hood of fountain pen or even with a pencil. Diagrams ice, or whether it is because the air they con
and pictures of appropriate size may be cut tain is heated by the water to a higher tem
from magazines or bulletins and treated with
oil as outlined above. These are more satisperature than the surrounding air. On this point, as on the whole subject, we should be
factory, of course, if no printing appears on very glad to get the opinions and observations
the back, but for temporary use the printing of any one else who has seen this formation. in many cases will not destroy the usefulness Inquiry among friends has failed as yet to
of a diagram. bring to light any similar observations on the
I have also made good slides in the same part of others, and we find no mention of this
manner by treating 3] x 41 photographic phenomenon in the fourteen volumes of prints with oil. The projected pictures, while Thoreau's “ Journal,” observant as he was of
less bright than those procured with glass the forms taken by ice, snow and frost along
plates, present a softer effect and are especially the Concord River and its tributaries. This
interesting in the case of portraits. Since the has made our observation seem worth record
usual photographic paper is quite heavy the ing, though we can not doubt that under sim
lantern must be placed nearer the screen but ilar circumstances it might be repeated any
if thinner paper could be obtained the results cold winter.
would be quite satisfactory if the usual disFREDERICK A. LOVEJOY,
tance were maintained. FRANCIS H. ALLEN
Ralph G. HUDSON WEST ROXBURY, MASS.
DEPARTMENT OF PHYsics,
HOLDING LARGE SPECIMENS FOR DISSECTION To The EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In a recent letter
In the zoological laboratory there are many to SCIENCE regarding celluloid lantern slides, Mr. A. W. Gray states that “tracing cloth and things which are valuable aids in time and waxed paper are usable; although their limited
convenience. In dissecting large specimens it transparency produces a rather dark field, and is often necessary to have some method of the texture of the material shows plainly." holding parts of the anatomy away so as to The writer experimented some time ago with allow freer rein to one's actions, or of holding the specimens open firmly. This may be done most interesting to the reviewer. There are by using trays of galvanized iron with four
eleven papers, of which the largest is by T. W. or more loops of metal soldered on the sides Vaughan on Some Shoal- water Corals from to which ordinary heavy rubber bands are Murray Island (Australia), Cocos-Keeling Isattached. To these rubber bands are tied lands, and Fanning Island” (185 pp. and 73 small fishhooks which have had their barbs pls.). The other authors are Alfred G. Mayer, filed off. These hooks are to be fastened to M. I. Goldman, Albert Mann, Joseph A. Cushany part of the anatomy so as to hold the man, M. A. Howe, R. B. Dole and A. A. Chamspecimen firmly, or to pull certain parts to bers, R. C. Wells and L. R. Cary. the desired position. If & plain tray without The shoal-water corals of the Great Barrier the side loops is used, the rubber bands may
Reef of Australia described by Vaughan in the be fastened to the ends of strong strips of systematic part of his paper, amount to 149 cloth. The cloth is placed under the tray,
forms and 38 genera, 1 genus and 15 species one piece at the top and the other at the being new. Certain species range from the bottom, and if the strips are of the proper east coast of Africa on the west to the Halength, the rubber bands and hooks will be waiian and Fanning islands on the east. Great in relatively the same position as when they pains have been taken not only to determine are fastened to rings along the edge of the the proper names, but to give ecologic condipans. Removing the barb allows the hook to tions as well. The illustrations are the finest be withdrawn at any time without injuring we have ever seen of the skeleton of corals, the specimen. Care should be used not to and as the photographs are not retouched, the stick the hooks in the hand, for owing to the heliotypes look as natural as the corals themstrength of the rubber bands, the hook would selves. Many of Dana's types are figured. make an ugly wound should it slip.
The ecology of the Murray Island corals near The advantages of this method are the the northern end of the Great Barrier Reef is saring of time and the lack of trouble, for
described at length in the first paper by Mayer, we have a self-adjusting holder, as the rubber which is a very important one. band allows for any change to be made in
More than forty species were studied, with the position of the specimen or any of its
a view to determine the factors of their disparts. As compared to the old methods, it tribution. These factors, in the order of their neither incurs the expense and the time of
importance, are: temperature, silt, the effects adjusting, as is the case with chains and of moving water, and the struggle for existence hooks, nor the unreliability and unsteadiness
between the species. All corals appear to be as in the case where string and bent pins are
wholly, carnivorous. Whenever the water is used for this purpose.
John M. Long
agitated, cool and free from silt, the reef-flat is
wide and covered with an abundance of living WASHBURN COLLEGE
corals, but where the water is calm, hot and de
positing silt faster than the corals can remove SCIENTIFIC BOOKS
it from themselves, the reef-flat is narrow and Papers from the Department of Marine Biol- the corals deficient. Much silt kills corals in ogy of the Carnegie Institution of Washing about two days. In a square 50 feet on a side, ton. Vol. 9, pp. iii + 362, 105 pls., 14 figs., there occurred two living corals from 375 to 1918.
425 feet from shore, while in the same area, at In this handsome and very important vol- from 1,400 to 1,500 feet out from land, there ume there is a great deal of information that were 1,833 heads. Four genera constitute 91 is of the highest value to the biologist, geolo- per cent. of the corals present. gist, paleontologist and oceanographer. In In regard to annual rate of growth among fact, there is so much of value that this notice the stony corals there are some interesting can mention but a few of the results that are facts. Some of the identical coral heads of Thursday Island measured and photographed common, they are more important as limestone by Saville-Kent were remeasured by Mayer makers than are even the stony corals. twenty-three years later. These results show
CHARLES SCHUCHERT that large coral heads may increase as much as two inches in diameter per year, while some
SPECIAL ARTICLES kinds do not grow beyond a certain specific size. A METHOD OF DEMONSTRATING THE The average annual growth appears to be about
DIFFERENCE-TONES one inch, though in the Floridian reefs the rate If a Rayleigh inductometer bridge be conof increase is less.
nected up, and a telephone receiver A be in Mayer states that stream waters pouring out- series with the alternating e.m.f., the demonward from forested volcanic shores are alka- stration of the difference-tone is an exceedline and thus can not dissolve limestone by ingly simple matter. Let the bridge be balreason of their “ acidity.” Thus the Murray- anced for a high frequency F', say about Agassiz solution 'theory of the formation of 2,500; this tone will therefore not reach the atolls is not supported. Holothurians are a ears if the balancing receivers be of the double, potent factor in dissolving the materials that head-strap variety. Now whistle a scale into go to make reef limestones, which they swal- the receiver A. Since the bridge is not ballow, and the effects of currents in scouring are anced for the new frequency, the whistle“ gets important factors tending to convert fringing through " into the balancing receivers. But reefs into barrier reefs.
one also hears another tone which slides down The problem of the precipitation of CaCO, as the whistle slides up the scale. If between in the ocean and the possibility of its solution the balancing receiver and the bridge a good there is discussed in the light of the latest evi- amplifier be connected, then the balancing redence, and the conclusion is reached that in ceiver may be a “loud-speaking receiver ” the shoal waters of the tropics, ocean-water (such as are now used for announcing trains does not dissolve calcium carbonate, but that in large stations, etc.) and the apparatus is the contrary process—precipitation by both in- suitable for class demonstration. The great organic and organic (bacterial) agencies—is advantage of this arrangement is that we are taking place. Conditions in the deep sea, and not confined to any two fundamentals, as in perhaps in the cold waters of high latitudes, the case of forks. are different.
The phenomenon is unquestionably slightly In the Murray Island reef sediments, complicated by the action of one alternator on Vaughan states that the dominant rock makers
the other, but I had not the time to see to are (1) corals (34 to 42 per cent.); (2) coral- what extent the extra tone differs from F-F'. line algæ (32 to 42 per cent.); (3) molluscs (10 The writer offers the above as a lecture exto 15 per cent.); foraminifers (4 to 12 per cent.)
periment in physics and psychology, being and alcyonarians. Other marine animals are
under the impression that it has not been unimportant in their skeletal additions.
PAUL F. GAEHR Cary shows that, in the Tortugas area, the WELLS COLLEGE, gorgonians are also very important reef build- AURORA, N. Y. ers and therefore great rock contributors, since nearly 20 to 36 per cent. of their bodies consists THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR of calcareous spicules. As almost all of these THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE colonies die a violent death, and on the average REPORT OF THE TREASURER FOR 1918 all those living within 30 feet of water are re
In conformity with Article 15 of the constituplaced in five years by other colonies, he cal
tion and by direction of the council, the treasurer culates that at least one ton of spicules or lime- has the honor to submit the following report for stone is added per year to each acre of reef the period December 15, 1917, to December 16, ground. In fact, when the gorgonians are 1918, both inclusive.
Cash in Banks :
2,105.26 $ 3,827.95
$11,613.95 (Exhibit “A'')
The total of cash receipts during the year is $7,747.27. Disbursements made in accordance with directions of the council amounted to $7,786.00. These include $4,000 for purchase of a like amount of United States Third and Fourth Liberty Loan Bonds of 1918 for the association and held as an investment.
The total amount of funds of the association consisting of cash, cost value of securities purchased, and appraised value of securities received from the Colburn estate is $116,605.45. A detailed statement is appended.
ROBERT S. WOODWARD,
Treasurer December 23, 1918
SCHEDULES OF SECURITIES
$112,777.50 Cash in banks
$116,605.45 Liabilities Funds:
Life memberships, 343 at $50 $ 17,150.00 Jane M. Smith Fund
5,000.00 Colburn Fund
99,905.74 Unexpended balance
$116,605.45 CASH STATEMENT
Receipts 1917 Dec. 15. Balance from last report
$ 3,866.68 Interest from securities... $5,254.80 Interest from bank balance 92.47 48 life commutations..... 2,400.00 $ 7,747.27
$11,613.95 Disbursements Investments : $2,000 U. S. Third Lib
erty Loan of 1918..... $2,000.00 $2,000 U. S. Fourth Lib
erty Loan of 1918.. 2,000.00 $ 4,000.00 Grants :
William Tyler Olcott..... $ 300.00
250.00 Carl Eigenmann
500.00 Edwin B, Frost
500.00 R. A. Porter
200.00 E. W. Sinnott
200.00 O. F. Stafford
500.00 Herman L. Fairchild..
200.00 S. D. Townley
250.00 $ 2,900.00 Interest on Life Memberships: 4 members (Jane M. Smith Fund)
$ 200.00 343 members ($17,150 at 4 per cent.)
686.00 $ 886.00
Purchase Value $10,000 Chicago and North
western Railway Co.
and Santa Fe Railway
9,287.50 10,000 Great Northern
Railway Co. first and
10,050.00 10,000 Pennsylvania Rail
road Co. consolidated
10,487.50 10,000 Chicago, Burling
ton and Quincy Railroad
cent. bond, due
9,350.00 10,000 Union Pacific Rail
road Co. first mortgage
9,012.50 10,000 Northern Pacific
Railway Co. prior lien
9,187.50 10,000 New York Central
and Hudson River Rail-
8,237.50 8,000 U. S. Second Lib
erty Loan Bonds 8,000.00 2,000 U. S. Third Lib
erty Loan Bonds ..... 2,000.00 2,000 U. S. Fourth Lib
erty Loan Bonds 2,000.00 $ 87.037.50
42,000 Pittsburgh, Shaw
mut and Northern Rail-
February 1, 1952..... 4,200.00 $ 25,740.00 $169,000
Express, telephone and telegrams
91.79 Office equipment
375.30 Stationery and forms.... 556.15 $ 7,706.08 By miscellaneous expenses : To treasurer, life membership fees
$ 2,400.00 To overpaid dues returned. 26.00 $ 2,426.00
$36,209.04 By balance to new account..
I certify that I have audited the accounts of the treasurer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the period December 15, 1917, to December 16, 1918; that the securities representing the investments of the association have been exhibited and verified; and that the income therefrom has been duly accounted for.
The financial statements accompanying the treasurer's report are in accord with the books of the association and correctly summarize the accounts thereof.
HERBERT A. GILL,
Auditor Dated December 23, 1918
The foregoing account has been examined and found correct, the expenditures being supported by proper vouchers. The balance of $7,575.45 is with the following Washington, D. C. banks: American Security & Trust Co..... $2,327.27 American National Bank of Washington. 3,243.28 American National Bank of Washington (Savings Department)
HERBERT A. GILL,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
December 18, 1918
L. 0. HOWARD, PERMANENT SECRETARY, IN ACCOUNT
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE
.$ 6,739.26 To receipts from menbers:
Annual dues, 1918.. $32,809.00
208.00 Annual dues, previous yrs.
312.00 Admission fees
715.00 Associate fees
6.00 Life membership fees.. 1,247.00 $35,297.00 To other receipts : Sale of publications
47.50 Miscellaneous receipts in
cluding treasurer's pay-
1,700.73 $ 1,748.23
Publishers SCIENCE -$23,007.48
ment, circulars, forms,
1,222.50 $24,229.98 By expenses Pittsburgh meet
ing: Sectional secretaries' commutations, accounts, etc.
896.98 By expenses Pacific Division.
950.00 Ву expenses Washington
SECTION E-GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY SECTION E of the American Association for the Advancement of Science met this year in conjunction with the Geological Society of America and the Association of American Geographers in the Civil Engineering building of Johns Hopkins Uni. versity, Baltimore, on December 27 and 28. Fol. lowing the present agreement whereby the affiliated societies take charge of the program whenever they meet jointly with Section E, the section had no program of its own. The address of the retiring vice-president, Professor George H. Perkins, of the University of Vermont, upon the subject, “Vermont physiography," was delivered on the evening of December 28 at the annual dinner of the Geological Society of America held in the Southern Hotel. It will be published in SCIENCE. The papers of the general sessions will appear in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 30, and in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 9.
Dr. C. K. Leith, of the University of Wisconsin, was elected vice-president of the association and chairman of Section E for the coming year; Dr. H. A. Buehler, state geologist of Missouri, member of the council; Dr. W. W. Atwood, of Harvard University, member of the Sectional Committee for five years, and Frank W. DeWolf, state geologist of Illinois, member of the general committee.
ROLLIN T. CHAMBERLIN,