Mangrove Ecology, Silviculture and Conservation

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2002 - Всего страниц: 360

Mangroves are a fascinating group of plants that occur on tropical and subtropical shorelines of all continents, where they are exposed to saltwater inundation, low oxygen levels around their roots, high light and temperature conditions, and periodic tropical storms. Despite these harsh conditions, mangroves may form luxuriant forests which are of significant economic and environmental value throughout the world - they provide coastal protection and underpin fisheries and forestry operations, as well as a range of other human activities.

This book provides an up-to-date account of mangrove plants from around the world, together with silvicultural and restoration techniques, and the management requirements of these communities to ensure their sustainability and conservation.
All aspects of mangroves and their conservation are critically re-examined. Those activities which threaten their ongoing survival are identified and suggestions are offered to minimise their effects on these significant plant communities.

 

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Introduction The Mangrove Environment
1
The Mangrove Flora
11
23 Contemporary Biogeographical Processes
21
232 Floristic Attenuation with Aridity
22
233 Floristic Changes Induced by Natural Upheavals and Human Activities
23
24 Contemporary Biogeographic Patterns
25
241 Vicariants
26
243 Discontinuities and Endemism
27
614 Classification Using Physiographic and Structural Attributes
190
62 Zonation of Mangroves
194
622 Longitudinal Upriver Zonation
201
623 Similarities and Differences in Shoreline and Upriver Zonation
204
The Value of Mangroves
207
72 Components
209
722 Fisheries Resources
213
723 Wildlife Resources
215

244 Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Biogeography
28
245 Indian Ocean and East African Biogeography
32
246 Australasian Biogeography
37
247 Western Pacific Biogeography
39
248 NorthEast Asian Biogeography
41
25 Towards a Global Biogeographic History
43
Adapting to the Mangrove Environment
49
321 Salt Exclusion
50
322 Salt Extrusion
53
323 Storage of Salt
57
324 Succulence
58
325 Compartmentalization
60
326 Osmocompensation
62
33 Conserving Desalinated Water
63
332 Transpiration
68
333 Optimizing Leaf Temperatures
73
34 Root Aeration in Waterlogged Soils
75
342 Physiological Adaptations
81
343 Metabolic Adaptations
83
35 Surviving Seawater Dispersal
84
352 Propagule Production
87
353 Propagule Dispersal and Establishment
91
Physicochemical Factors and Mangrove Performance
101
421 Mangroves and Low Temperatures
102
422 Responses to High Temperatures
103
423 Inter and Intraspecific Differences
104
43 Light and Photosynthesis
105
Gapenhancement of Reproduction and Growth
110
433 The Mangrove Understorey and the Role of Sulfides
113
44 Wind and other Atmospheric Phenomena
114
442 Extreme Winds and Mangrove Vegetation
116
443 Hail
121
45 Sedimentary Conditions and Processes
122
452 Aeration and Drainage Properties of Mangrove Soils
128
453 Nutrients in Mangrove Soils
131
46 Salinity of the Soil Water
137
Biotic Interactions and Mangrove Performance
147
512 Antagonism Ammensalism
150
513 Mutualism
152
514 Competition
154
52 PlantAnimal Interactions
160
522 Bioturbation of Sediments
166
523 Grazing and Trampling Leaf Herbivory
168
524 Other Mutualistic Interactions
176
525 Trophic Pathways
179
Mangrove Structure and Classification
183
612 Classification Using Structural Attributes
184
613 Classification Using Geomorphological Settings
187
727 Water Transport Resources
216
728 Recreational Resources
217
7210 Pharmaceutical Resources
218
73 Functions
219
734 Nutrient Retention
220
736 External Support
221
737 Groundwater Discharge and Recharge
222
738 Local Microclimatic Stabilization
223
742 Uniqueness and Heritage
224
75 An Economic Perspective
225
Mangrove Silviculture and Restoration
229
821 Setting the Objectives
230
822 Timber Production
231
823 Shoreline Protection Channel Stabilization and Storm Protection
237
824 Fisheries and Wildlife Enhancement
238
825 Legislative Compliance
239
826 Social Enrichment
240
827 Ecological Restoration
241
83 Macropropagation of mangroves
243
832 Outplanting of up to OneYearold Nurseryraised Propagules
244
835 Raising of Airlayered Material
245
837 Use of Propagule Segments
246
84 Tissue Culture or Micropropagation of Mangroves
247
85 SiteSpecies Matching
249
852 Nursery and Planting Techniques
250
853 Field Trials
252
862 Site Management
253
864 Cost of Assisted Regeneration
255
87 Plantation Performance
256
872 Optimal Initial Spacing
257
875 Mean Annual Increment
265
876 Rotation and Thinning Schedules
268
88 Indices of Health in Mangrove Communities
269
Conservation and Management
271
92 Management Frameworks
275
93 Some Specific Management Issues
277
932 Discharges of Wastes
278
933 Hydrocarbon Contamination
282
934 Reclamation and Foreshore Development
286
935 Mangroves and Global Climate Change
291
94 Management Tools
294
942 Zoning of Mangrove Areas
297
943 Ecosystem Modelling
298
95 Future Prospects of Mangroves
299
References
303
Index
351
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