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dicated in the captured documents. John Devoy of New York City, now editor of The Gaelic American, was one of the active agents of this connection. Significant entries appear here and there; references to messages from the German Embassy at Washington and the German Consulate at New York; mention of a secret code to be employed in communicating with him and of a cipher Devoy"; also a notation, the details of which remain undiscovered, concerning nication re manufacture hand grenades.” Devoy it was who acted, for a time at least, as go-between for the German Secret Service dealings with Sir Roger Casement, executed by the British for treason. There are several references to money and messages for Sir Roger Casement, or, more briefly, “R. C.," and one record of a check for $1,000 for Casement, evidently handled by Devoy.

Devoy's intimate connection with the German cause is disclosed in two letters to Ambassador von Bernstorff, the text of which follows:

New York, April 8, 1916. The following communication from confidential man John Devoy was duly transmitted :

“ Letter dated March 22, delayed by censor, seems conclusive that first messenger arrived safe with proposal to send supplies and that cable was suppressed. Second also safe. Third, with change of plans, due about April 15."

John Devoy further requests that the following telegram be dispatched to Sir Roger Casement:

No letter now possible. All funds sent home. Sister and M.'s family well."

Should Sir Roger be absent or ill, then J. D. requests that the telegram be delivered to John Montieth,

(Signed) K. N. St. To His Excellency the Imperial Ambas

sador, Count von Bernstorff, Wash-
ington, D. C.

New York, April 15, 1916.
Herewith inclosed

report received by today from John Devoy. Kindly order further steps to be taken.

The important parts of the report were sent there today per telegram. (S. copy.)

(Signed) K. N. St. To the Imperial Ambassador, Count von

Bernstorff, Washington, D. C. Though this incriminating evidence was in its possession, the Department of Justice has refuted the charge that it told the British Government of the Irish

revolutionary plot and Casement's part in it. Department of Justice officials admit that the papers relating to Casement were sent to Washington the night before Casement's arrest was reported, but they were not received by the Attorney General until the afternoon of the day upon which the British authorities picked up the Irish leader, and were not presented to the State Department until 7 o'clock that evening. Meanwhile, Casement had spent several hours in an Irish prison.

Justicc Cohalan Involved It is not improbable that the signature at the bottom of the extraordinary message which follows is in the “cipher Devoyreferred to in the von Igel papers. New York Supreme Court Justice Daniel F. Cohalan has long been prominent in Irish-American circles. The communication as translated into von Igel's record is typewritten, line for line, below a cipher, except for the signature, which remains untranslated from the original cipher figures. It is dated New York, April 17, 1916, numbered 335-16, and inscribed at the top “ Very Secret.”

No. 335-16.
Very secret.

New York, April 17, 1916. Judge Cohalan requests the transmission of the following remarks:

" The revolution in Ireland can only be successful if supported from Germany, otherwise England will be able to suppress it, even though it be only after hard struggles. Therefore help is necessary. This should consist, primarily, of aerial attacks in England and a diversion of the fleet simultaneously with Irish revolution. Then, if possible, a landing of troops, arms, and ammunition in Ireland, and possibly some officers from Zeppelins. This would enable the Irish ports be closed against England and the establishment of stations for submarines on the Irish coast and the cutting off of the supply of food for England.

The services of the revolution may therefore decide the war."

He asks that a telegram to this effect be sent to Berlin.

5132 8167 0230. To His Excellency Count von Bernstorff,

Imperial Ambassador, Washington,

D. C. Along this same line is a code message by wireless to Banker Max Moebius, Oberwallstrasse, Berlin, which is inter


esting chiefly as showing the code method of important communications practiced by the German official plotters in the United States. The code translation was found with a copy of the message among the von Igel papers. The original is a dispatch in German, which, translated into English, sounds like an innocent business transaction, viz.:

National Germania insurance contract certainly promised. Executor is evidently satisfied with proposition. Necessary steps have been taken. HENRY NEUMAN.

But it is not so innocent and harmless as it looks, for what the message really means is this: “ The Irish agree to the proposition.”

Plots in Canada


Canada was also the object of solicitous interest on the part of Germany's representatives in the United States, as is startlingly proved in the plot to blow up the Welland Canal. Another lesser but not unpromising enterprise against Canada was foregone by von Igel because the

volunteer plotter was too old, “ though he has the best good will," and also because of his known connection with the Gaelic-American and Indian revolutionists. Such is the indorsement upon the letter signed only “X” by one who thus sets forth his qualifications for fomenting disorders in Quebec:

As Honorary President of the first Independence Club started in Montreal about the time of the Boer war, and of which the Hon. Honoré Mercier, now Minister for Colonization in the Government of the Province of Quebec, was one of the Vice Presidents and later President, I am well known among the members and journalists of that organization.

There is now in place of the Independence Club a secret society based upon its principles, aiming at the total separation of Canada from the British Empire. • * • It includes all the former members of the Independence Club and men high in Canadian political life. The adherents are, for the most part, French and Irish Canadians.

Böhm, dealing with the Mexican crisis, appears to have been largely the work of some fervid and projective imagination. The memorandum purports to outline President Wilson's expected message to Congress. It predicts that the President will attribute Mexico's anti-American activities directly to German money and incitement; that he will call upon Congress to support him in radical measures, (the prophet even attempts to paraphrase the language to be employed in the message,) and that Congress will indorse the President's stand, following which upward of 150 German spies and agents provocateurs were to be arrested and the Ambassadors of the Central Powers to receive their passports. For all this Captain Böhm's authority is thus indicated over his own signature:

The foregoing memorandum has just been given me by an acquaintance returning from Washington. This acquaintance is a skillful journalist who has good connections. I cannot vouch for his reliability, but I know he hates the present Administration and fights it. His informant is a former Secretary of the American Embassy in Rome,

in Washington.

Captain Böhm himself was too loose of tongue for the good of his service, as would appear from a report by the German Military Information Bureau, dated March 21, 1916. Captain Böhm decided to leave “after the reports received here were submitted to him, to the effect that members of the press were informed as to his personality and the purpose of his being here. Too great confidence in the silence of his henchmen, especially the members of the American Truth Society,

* * was probably the cause of his becoming quickly known here."

Thus the American Truth Society, which has so strenuously denied its proGerman associations, figures as indi. rectly linked up with Germany's secret representative. This society is still extant, and Jeremiah A. O'Leary, its moving spirit, is now editor of Bull, recently shut out from the mails for publishing seditious matter.

Of more direct military interest to the United States is an espionage enterprise hinted at in a secret code message of April 11, 1916, signed “ 13232, 46729,


Mexican Intrigues The information carefully and extensively set forth in the secret documents of German officialdom was something wide of the facts. For example, a long memorandum on March 1, 1916, transmitted by the secret agent Captain


46919," addressing von Igel to this effect:

Herewith respectfully send extract regarding troops stationed California and armament coast fortifications.

Magazine Writers Involved Journalists, lecturers, and publishers were liberally employed by von Igel and his associates for the purposes of German propaganda, Among those are two magazine writers and war correspondents, James F. J. Archibald, now in Washington, and Edwin Emerson, said to be in Africa. The following curious entry appears in von Igel's official records:


$1,000 Fair Play (Mr. Braun)

$2,000 Fair Play (


$1,500 Marcus Braun

$1,000 J. Archibald

$5,000 Concerning the identity of the last entry, says the Official Bulletin, there might be room for doubt but for a signed receipt from J. F. J. Archibald acknowledging the sum of $5,000 from the German Embassy. What return Archibald ever made in service is not clear, except that certain war correspondence for which he contracted with New York newspapers was so obviously prejudiced on the side of the Central Powers that they declined to accept it.

Fair Play appears to have received in all $4,500 in the course of a few months in 1915. Marcus Braun figures as its editor.

All these, it must be remembered, are but a small portion of one German agent's records. They represent but one chamber, as it were, in an enormous and complicated maze of underground plotting. Other entries appear too vague to indicate anything more definite than some connection with or interest in enterprises already notorious—payments to the Welland Canal conspiracy; references to the Maverick and the Annie Larsen, blockade runners; side lights on Japanese propaganda, Mexican plots and Canadian lines of secret information; even hints that officers high in the military service of the United States were being improperly used for German military enterprises.

How far the plot goes will probably never be known. The spider, von Igel, had scuttled away to his own refuge in Germany. His nest is destroyed. But the strands of the web that he wove may still stretch over many parts of the United States.

Bernstorff Himself a Plotter The most sensational of the revelations of German plotting in the United States was made by Secretary Lansing on Sept. 21, when he published without comment

secret telegram written by Ambassador Bernstorff himself and asking his Government for $50,000 to be used in influencing Congress. This was not one of the papers taken from von Igel, but was of much later date, and Mr. Lansing stated that the cablegram had not been sent to Germany through the State Department, leaving it to be implied that it went by way of some neutral legation. The text of the Bernstorff message to the Berlin Foreign Office, which is dated Jan. 22, 1917, is as follows:

I request authority to pay out up to $50,000, (fifty thousand dollars,) in order, as on former occasions, to influence Congress through the organization you know of, which can perhaps prevent war.

I am beginning in the meantime to act accordingly.

In the above circumstances a public official German declaration in favor of Ireland is highly desirable, in order to gain the support of Irish influence here.

Von Bernstorff's effort to use money “ to influence Congress” caused a sensation among members of the Senate and House. Congressman Heflin of Alabama increased the excitement by declaring in the House that he could name “ thirteen or fourteen members who had acted suspiciously.” Congressman Howard of Georgia asserted that he "believed that he could point to certain persons who got some of it”—the money to which Count von Bernstorff referred in his cable message to the Berlin Foreign Office.

Three days later, on Sept. 24, the subject led to the most turbulent session the House of Representatives had seen since the struggle to overthrow Speaker Cannon in 1911. Representative Norton of North Dakota called to account Representative Heflin of Alabama and Representative Howard of Georgia for insinuating that members of Congress had profited by German intrigue. Two resolutions of inquiry, one by Representative Norton and the other by Representative Fordney of Michigan, were introduced and sent to the Rules Committee. The first resolution called upon both Representative Howard and Representative Heflin to make good, and the second mentioned only Representative Heflin.

Before a full membership, while the galleries were crowded with spectators, Representative Heflin stood up under the hoots and jeers and heckling of practically the entire House. When called upon time and again to name the men who had received money from Germany he evaded the question. In the succeeding days the storm abated, when it became apparent that Mr. Heflin's suspicions were without solid basis, and that Ambassador Bernstorff evidently had expected not to bribe Congressmen with $50,000, but to keep up a propaganda of letters and telegrams for influencing them.

Motive of Bernstorff's Request Secretary Lansing later made public the fact that when Count Bernstorff, who is now the German Ambassador to Turkey, asked his Government for $50,000 to influence the American Congress last January the Ambassador was already aware that Germany was about to resume ruthless submarine warfare. The request for the money sent Jan. 22, 1917. Secretary Lansing said that on or before Jan. 19 the Ambassador had read the order from Dr. Zimmermann, German Minister for Foreign Affairs, directing Admiral von Eckhardt, the Minister in Mexico, to arrange an alliance between the Japanese and Mexican Governments to attack the United States and alienate American territory. In that order von Eckhardt was informed that on Feb. 1 Germany would begin unrestricted submarine warfare. Bernstorff knew this from the Zimmermann message, and he wanted the corruption fund to endeavor to stay the inevitable resentment of the American Government. The evidence indicates that the money was used largely through pretended pacifist

societies and individuals who were working secretly or openly for Germany's cause.

Promoted Sabotage Plots Further disclosures made by the State Department on Oct. 10 revealed the fact that the German Government, through its Ambassador, was engaged in acts of war against the United States fifteen months before this country entered the conflict. Secretary Lansing gave out three messages exchanged either by cable or wireless between the Berlin Foreign Office and General Staff on the one hand and Count Bernstorff, the German Ambassador in Washington, on the other. Count Bernstorff is directly implicated by these messages in German official plans to injure the United States.

The first of the three messages is dated Jan. 3, 1916. The American Government entered the war on April 6, 1917. This message is in the form of directions to Count Bernstorff from Dr. Zimmermann, who retired recently from the office of Minister for Foreign Affairs, to arrange to destroy the Canadian Pacific Railway Germany was at war with Great Britain and her colonies, and the only concern of the United States in this particular phase of the matter would be that the German Ambassador in Washington was being used to further plots involving a nation with which the American Government was on friendly terms. But in the two subsequent messages, one dated Jan. 26, 1916, and the other Sept. 15, 1916, violations of the law of nations directed against the United States were ordered. Secretary Lansing's statement was made in this form:



The Secretary of State publishes the following two telegrams from the German Foreign Office to Count Bernstorff in January, 1916:

Jan. 3. (Secret.) General Staff desires energetic action in regard to proposed destruction of Canadian Pacific Railway at several points with a view to

complete and protracted interruption of traffic. Captain Boehm, who is known on your side and is shortly returning. has been given instructions. Inform the Military Attaché and provide the necessary funds.



Jan. 26. For Military Attaché. You can obtain particulars as

to persons suitable for carrying on sabotage in the United States and Canada from the following persons : 1. Joseph MacGarrity, Philadelphia, Penn.; 2. John P. Keating, Michigan Avenue, Chicago; 3. Jeremiah O'Leary, 16 Park Row, New York.

One and two are absolutely reliable and discreet. No. 3 is reliable but not always discreet. These persons were indicated by Sir Roger Casement. In the United States sabotage can be carried out on every kind of factory for supplying munitions of war. Railway embankments and bridges must not be touched. Embassy must in no circumstance be compromised. Similar precautions must be taken in regard to Irish pro-German propaganda.


OF GENERAL STAFF. The following telegram from Count Bernstorff to the Foreign Office in Berlin was sent in September, 1916:

Sept. 15. With reference to report A. N. two hundred and sixty-six of May tenth, nineteen sixteen. The embargo conferee in regard to whose earlier fruitful co-operation Dr. Hale can give information, is just about to enter upon a vigorous campaign to secure a majority in both houses of Congress favorable to Germany, and request further support. There is no possibility of our being compromiscd. Request telegraphic reply.

The State Department preserved silence as to where it had obtained the German official secret correspondence in this and similar cases. State Secretary Lansing merely said that the last three messages had not been sent to Berlin under cover of the United States diplomatic code, thus leaving it to be implied that communications had been carried on between Bernstorff and his Government through the medium of some neutral embassy at Washington.

One Former Occasion” It is now possible to reconstruct the history of one of the “ former occasions” on which Bernstorff had tried to influ. ence Congress by the use of German money. In 1915 he had worked through the organization that called itself Labor's National Peace Council. When his agent, Rintelen, was exposed, ending that organization's usefulness, he substituted the American Embargo Conference. This tool he began to employ effectively in November, 1915, and only

President Wilson's determined action prevented it from actually controlling certain legislation. Its task to formulate and direct a trumped-up sentiment in favor of an embargo on munitions, and against the right of American citizens to travel on British ships. How near it came to succeeding was recorded in these pages at the time.

The conference met in November, the date evidently being planned by Bernstorff with a view to the meeting of Congress in December. The outcry it created was so effective that on Dec. 13, 1915, Senator Kenyon of Iowa introduced a resolution forbidding Americans to take passage on ships carrying munitions.

On Jan. 10, 1916, Senator Gore introduced his first resolution forbidding the sale of contraband to England as long as she persisted in her blockade. On Jan. 20 Senator Hoke Smith deyoanded an embargo, and favored a truculent attitude toward England.

On Feb. 3 The Providence Journal exposed the origin of the American Embargo Conference, declaring that it was “planned and brought into existence by “ Count Johann von Bernstorff at Wash

ington and financed directly from the “ office of Dr. Heinrich Albert, the fiscal

agent of the German Government in “New York City," and that it had “ taken ' up the work of the so-called Labor's “ National Peace Council." Yet on Feb. 22 the Congressmen who were unconsciously playing Bernstorff's game went so far as to use their various embargo resolutions to frighten the President, and the next day the House Committee on Foreign Affairs served notice that unless the President warned Americans off armed ships within twenty-four hours the House would pass the Gore resolution. On Feb. 24 the President wrote Senator Stone, Chairman of that committee, declaring, “I cannot consent to any abridgment of the rights of American citizens in any respect.” On Feb. 25 The Providence Journal disclosed the fact that the whole plot had been formulated by Bernstorff, and that two weeks before messages had been sent to pro-German news-, papers directing them to publish articles

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