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Compare the foregoing facts with the cumstances, more favorable conditions of following authorized statement from Ber
labor for our poor, downtrodden fellow
countrymen. So far as German workmen lin, transmitted by wireless for publica
are found in the skilled hands, means of tion in THE NEW YORK TIMES in Decem
leaving will be provided immediately for ber, 1915:
them. Besides this, a private German em
ployment office has been established The German Government has, naturally,
which provides employment for persons *never knowingly accepted the support of
who have voluntarily given up their places, any person, group of persons, society, or
and it is already working well. We shall organization seeking to promote the cause
also join in, and the widest support is asof Germany in the United States by illegal
sured us. acts, by counsel of violence, by contravention of law, or by any means whatever
Letter to Count Bernstorff that could offend the American people in the pride of their own authority.
The following representations on be
half of the bureau's efficiency were Making Trouble in Factories
made, under date of March 24, 1916, in Closely related to and to some extent a letter to the German Ambassador, von under the guidance of von Igel was the Bernstorff: German and Austro-Hungarian Labor
Engineers and persons in the better class Information and Relief Bureau, with of positions, and who had means of their central headquarters at 136 Liberty own, were persuaded by the propaganda
of the bureau to leave war material Street, New York City, and branches in
factories. Cleveland, Detroit, Bridgeport, Pitts
The report comments with unconcealed burgh, Philadelphia, and Chicago. The
amusement upon the fact that munitions head of the enterprise was Hans Liebau,
concerns innocently wrote the bureau for from whom it took its familiarly accept
workmen (which, of course, were not ed name of the Liebau Employment
furnished) and continues in reviewing Agency.” During the trying days which
later conditions in the munitions indusfollowed the arrest of the Welland Canal conspirators it was unwaveringly assert
try: ed that the Liebau concern was a bona
The commercial employment bureaus of
the country have no supply of unemployed fide employment agency and nothing else,
Many disturbances with no object other than to secure posi- and suspensions which war material factions for German, Austrian, or Hunga- tories have had to suffer, and which it rian workmen seeking employment. That
was not always possible to remove quickly,
but which on the contrary often lead to was for publication only. In von Igel's
long strikes, may be attributed to the papers the truth appears, brought out by energetic propaganda of the employment the refusal of the Austro-Hungarian Em- bureau. bassy to continue its subsidies to the bu- Von Igel's close connection with the enreau.
terprise is indicated by a number of That the Austro-Hungarian Embassy items. For example, there is the notation had taken official cognizance of the bu- that H. Hanson had established a Liebau reau previously, however, is disclosed in branch office in Detroit, and an entry of the letter written by the Ambassador to £12 paid to Dr. Max Niven, Chicago, in the Austro-Hungarian Minister for For- February, 1916, for the “labour fund," eign Affairs, which was found in the pos- and an inquiry, addressed by a bureau session of James F. J. Archibald by the official to von Igel, asking whether the British authorities Aug. 30, 1915. In Bosch Magneto Works manufactured this letter the Ambassador stated:
fuses for shells, the bureau having eviIt is my impression that we can dis- dently been applied to for workmen for organize and hold up for months, if not the Bosch plant. A reply in the negative entirely prevent, the manufacture of mu
stated that the company is “universally nitions in Bethlehem and the Middle West, which, in the opinion of the German Mili
known for its friendly attitude toward tary Attaché, is of importance and amply Germans.” outweighs the comparatively small expen
Several lines of communication bediture of money involved; but even if the strikes do not come off, it is probable that
tween the German Diplomatic Service and we should extort, under pressure of cir- the Irish revolutionary movement are in
dicated in the captured documents. John Devoy of New York City, now editor of The Gaelic American, was one of the active agents of this connection. Significant entries appear here and there; references to messages from the German Embassy at Washington and the German Consulate at New York; mention of a secret code to be employed in communicating with him and of a cipher Devoy”; also a notation, the details of which remain undiscovered, concerning communication re manufacture hand grenades." Devoy it was who acted, for a time at least, as go-between for the German Secret Service dealings with Sir Roger Casement, executed by the British for treason. There are several references to money and messages for Sir Roger Casement, or, more briefly, “R. C.," and one record of a check for $1,000 for Casement, evidently handled by Devoy.
Devoy's intimate connection with the German cause is disclosed in two letters to Ambassador von Bernstorff, the text of which follows:
New York, April 8, 1916. The following communication from confidential man John Devoy was duly transmitted :
“ Letter dated March 22, delayed by censor, seems conclusive that first messenger arrived safe with proposal to send supplies and that cable was suppressed. Second also safe. Third, with change of plans, due about April 15."
John Devoy further requests that the following telegram be dispatched to Sir Roger Casement:
“No letter now possible. All funds sent home. Sister and M.'s family well.”
Should Sir Roger be absent or ill, then J. D. requests that the telegram be delivered to John Montieth.
(Signed) K. N. St. To His Excellency the Imperial Ambas
sador, Count von Bernstorff, Wash-
New York, April 15, 1916.
report received by us today from John Devoy. Kindly order further steps to be taken.
The important parts of the report were sent there today per telegram. (S. copy.)
(Signed) K. N. St. To the Imperial Ambassador, Count von
Bernstorff, Washington, D. C. Though this incriminating evidence was in its possession, the Department of Justice has refuted the charge that it told the British Government of the Irish
revolutionary plot and Casement's part in it. Department of Justice officials admit that the papers relating to Casement were sent to Washington the night before Casement's arrest was reported, but they were not received by the Attorney General until the afternoon of the day upon which the British authorities picked up the Irish leader, and were not presented to the State Department until 7 o'clock that evening. Meanwhile, Casement had spent several hours in an Irish prison.
Justice Cohalan Involved It is not improbable that the signature at the bottom of the extraordinary message which follows is in the “ cipher Devoy
" referred to in the von Igel papers. New York Supreme Court Justice Daniel F. Cohalan has long been prominent in Irish-American circles. The communication as translated into von Igel's record is typewritten, line for line, below a cipher, except for the signature, which remains untranslated from the original cipher figures. It is dated New York, April 17, 1916, numbered 335-16, and inscribed at the top “ Very Secret.”
New York, April 17, 1916. Judge Cohalan requests the transmission of the following remarks:
" The revolution in Ireland can only be successful if supported from Germany, otherwise England will be able to suppress it, even though it be only after hard struggles. Therefore help is necessary. This should consist, primarily, of aerial attacks in England and a diversion of the fleet simultaneously with Irish revolution. Then, if possible, a landing of troops, arms, and ammunition in Ireland, and possibly some officers from Zeppelins. This would enable the Irish ports be closed against England and the establishment of stations for submarines on the Irish coast and the cutting off of the supply of food for England. The services of the revolution may therefore decide the war."
He asks that a telegram to this effect be sent to Berlin.
5132 8167 0230. To His Excellency Count von Bernstorff,
Imperial Ambassador, Washington,
D. C. Along this same line is a code message by wireless to Banker Max Moebius, Oberwallstrasse, Berlin, which is inter
esting chiefly as showing the code Böhm, dealing with the Mexican crisis, method of important communications appears to have been largely the work practiced by the German official plotters of some fervid and projective imaginain the United States. The code transla- tion. The memorandum purports to outtion was found with a copy of the mes- line President Wilson's expected message sage among the von Igel papers. The to Congress. It predicts that the Presioriginal is a dispatch in German, which, dent will attribute Mexico's anti-Amertranslated into English, sounds like an ican activities directly to German money innocent business transaction, viz.:
and incitement; that he will call upon National Germania insurance contract Congress to support him in radical certainly promised. Executor is evidently measures, (the prophet even attempts to satisfied with proposition. Necessary steps
paraphrase the language to be employed have been taken. HENRY NEUMAN.
in the message,) and that Congress will But it is not so innocent and harmless
indorse the President's stand, following as it looks, for what the message really
which upward of 150 German spies and means is this: “ The Irish agree to the
agents provocateurs were to be arrested proposition.”
and the Ambassadors of the Central Plots in Canada
Powers to receive their passports. For
all this Captain Böhm's authority is thus Canada was also the object of solici.
indicated over his own signature: tous interest on the part of Germany's
The foregoing memorandum has just representatives in the United States, as
been given me by an acquaintance returnis startlingly proved in the plot to blow
ing from Washington. This acquaintance up the Welland Canal. Another lesser is a skillful journalist who has good conbut not unpromising enterprise against
nections. I cannot vouch for his reli
ability, but I know he hates the present Canada was foregone by von Igel because
Administration and fights it. His inthe volunteer plotter was too old,
formant is a former Secretary of the though he has the best good will," and American Embassy in Rome,
in also because of his known connection Washington. with the Gaelic-American and Indian Captain Böhm himself was too loose of revolutionists. Such is the indorsement tongue for the good of his service, as upon the letter signed only “X” by one would appear from a report by the Gerwho thus sets forth his qualifications for man Military Information Bureau, dated fomenting disorders in Quebec:
March 21, 1916. Captain Böhm decided As Honorary President of the first Inde
to leave “after the reports received here pendence Club started in Montreal about were submitted to him, to the effect that the time of the Boer war, and of which members of the press were informed as the Hon. Honoré Mercier, now Minister
to his personality and the purpose of his for Colonization in the Government of the Province of Quebec, was one of the Vice
being here. Too great confidence in the Presidents and later President, I am well silence of his henchmen, especially the known among the members and journalists members of the American Truth Society, of that organization. * * * There is now in place of the Independence Club a secret
was probably the cause of his society based upon its principles, aiming
becoming quickly known here." at the total separation of Canada from Thus the American Truth Society, the British Empire. * * • It includes which has so strenuously denied its proall the former members of the Inde
German associations, figures as indipendence Club and men high in Canadian political life. The adherents are, for the
rectly linked up with Germany's secret most part, French and Irish Canadians. representative. This society is still ex
tant, and Jeremiah A. O'Leary, its Mexican Intrigues
moving spirit, is now editor of Bull, reThe information carefully and ex- cently shut out from the mails for pubtensively set forth in the secret docu- lishing seditious matter. ments of German officialdom was some- Of more direct military interest to the thing wide of the facts. For example, United States is an espionage enterprise a long memorandum on March 1, 1916, hinted at in a secret code message of transmitted by the secret agent Captain April 11, 1916, signed "13232, 46729,
46919," addressing von Igel to this effect:
Herewith respectfully send extract regarding troops stationed California and armament coast fortifications.
Magazine Writers Involved Journalists, lecturers, and publishers were liberally employed by von Igel and his associates for the purposes of German propaganda, Among those are two magazine writers and war correspondents, James F. J. Archibald, now in Washington, and Edwin Emerson, said to be in Africa. The following curious entry appears in von Igel's official records:
PURE WAR EXPENSES Edwin Emerson
$1,000 Fair Play (Mr. Braun)
$2,000 Fair Play ( “
$1,500 Marcus Braun
$1,000 J. Archibald
$5,000 Concerning the identity of the last entry, says the Official Bulletin, there might be room for doubt but for a signed receipt from J. F. J. Archibald acknowledging the sum of $5,000 from the German Embassy. What return Archibald ever made in service is not clear, except that certain war correspondence for which he contracted with New York newspapers was so obviously prejudiced on the side of the Central Powers that they declined to accept it.
Fair Play appears to have received in all $4,500 in the course of a few months in 1915. Marcus Braun figures as its editor. All these, it must be remembered, are
small portion of one German agent's records. They represent but one chamber, as it were, in an enormous and complicated maze of underground plotting. Other entries appear too vague to indicate anything more definite than some connection with or interest in enterprises already notorious—payments to the Welland Canal conspiracy; references to the Maverick and the Annie Larsen, blockade runners; side lights on Japanese propaganda, Mexican plots and Canadian lines of secret information; even hints that officers high in the military service of the United States were being improperly used for German military enterprises.
How far the plot goes will probably never be known. The spider, von Igel, had scuttled away to his own refuge in Germany. His nest is destroyed. But the strands of the web that he wove may still stretch over many parts of the United States.
Bernstorff Himself a Plotter The most sensational of the revelations of German plotting in the United States was made by Secretary Lansing on Sept. 21, when he published without comment
secret telegram written by Ambassador Bernstorff himself and asking his Government for $50,000 to be used in influencing Congress. This was not one of the papers taken from von Igel, but was of much later date, and Mr. Lansing stated that the cablegram had not been sent to Germany through the State Department, leaving it to be implied that it went by way of some neutral legation. The text of the Bernstorff message to the Berlin Foreign Office, which is dated Jan. 22, 1917, is as follows:
I request authority to pay out up to $50,000, (fifty thousand dollars,) in order, as on former occasions, to influence Congress through the organization you know of, which can perhaps prevent war.
I am beginning in the meantime to act accordingly.
In the above circumstances a public official German declaration in favor of Ireland is highly desirable, in order to gain the support of Irish influence here.
Von Bernstorff's effort to use money “ to influence Congress " caused a sensation among members of the Senate and House. Congressman Heflin of Alabama increased the excitement by declaring in the House that he could name “ thirteen or fourteen members who had acted suspiciously.” Congressman Howard of Georgia asserted that he “believed that he could point to certain persons who got some of it "—the money to which Count von Bernstorff referred in his cable message to the Berlin Foreign Office.
Three days later, on Sept. 24, the subject led to the most turbulent session the House of Representatives had seen since the struggle to overthrow Speaker Cannon in 1911. Representative Norton of North Dakota called to account Representative Heflin of Alabama and Repre
sentative Howard of Georgia for insinuating that members of Congress had profited by German intrigue. Two resolutions of inquiry, one by Representative Norton and the other by Representative Fordney of Michigan, were introduced and sent to the Rules Committee. The first resolution called upon both Representative Howard and Representative Heflin to make good, and the second mentioned only Representative Heflin.
Before a full membership, while the galleries were crowded with spectators, Representative Heflin stood up under the hoots and jeers and heckling of practically the entire House. When called upon time and again to name the men who had received money from Germany he evaded the question. In the succeeding days the storm abated, when it became apparent that Mr. Heflin's suspicions were without solid basis, and that Ambassador Bernstorff evidently had expected not to bribe Congressmen with $50,000, but to keep up a propaganda of letters and telegrams for influencing them.
Motive of Bernstorff's Request Secretary Lansing later made public the fact that when Count Bernstorff, who is now the German Ambassador to Turkey, asked his Government for $50,000 to influence the American Congress last January the Ambassador was already aware that Germany was about to resume ruthless submarine warfare. The request for the money was sent on Jan. 22, 1917. Secretary Lansing said that on or before Jan. 19 the Ambassador had read the order from Dr. Zimmermann, German Minister for Foreign Affairs, directing Admiral von Eckhardt, the Minister in Mexico, to arrange an alliance between the Japanese and Mexican Governments to attack the United States and alienate American territory. In that order von Eckhardt was informed that on Feb. 1 Germany would begin unrestricted submarine warfare. Bernstorff knew this from the Zimmermann message, and he wanted the corruption fund to endeavor to stay the inevitable resentment of the American Government. The evidence indicates that the money was used largely through pretended pacifist
societies and individuals who were working secretly or openly for Germany's cause.
Promoted Sabotage Plots Further disclosures made by the State Department on Oct. 10 revealed the fact that the German Government, through its Ambassador, was engaged in acts of war against the United States fifteen months before this country entered the conflict. Secretary Lansing gave out three messages exchanged either by cable or wireless between the Berlin Foreign Office and General Staff on the one hand and Count Bernstorff, the German Amba sador in Washington, on the other. Count Bernstorff is directly implicated by these messages in German official plans to injure the United States.
The first of the three messages is dated Jan. 3, 1916. The American Government entered the war on April 6, 1917. This message is in the form of directions to Count Bernstorff from Dr. Zimmermann, who retired recently from the office of Minister for Foreign Affairs, to arrange to destroy the Canadian Pacific Railway Germany was at war with Great Britain and her colonies, and the only concern of the United States in this particular phase of the matter would be that the German Ambassador in Washington was being used to further plots involving a nation with which the American Government was on friendly terms. But in the two subsequent messages, one dated Jan. 26, 1916, and the other Sept. 15, 1916, violations of the law of nations directed against the United States were ordered. Secretary Lansing's statement was made in this form:
The Secretary of State publishes the following two telegrams from the German Foreign Office to Count Bernstorff in January, 1916:
Jan. 3. (Secret.) General Staff desires energetic action in regard to proposed destruction of Canadian Pacific Railway at several points with a view to complete and protracted interruption of traffic. Captain Boehm, who is known on your side and is shortly returning, has been given instructions. Inform the Military Attaché and provide the necessary funds.