« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
Gross When Vessel Tonnage. Built. Owners. Thuringia 6,152 1904 Hamburg-Amerika Wiegand 4,819 1911 Roland Line
would not be officially received by the Ecuadorean Government in case he attempted to come to Quito.
Uruguay officially broke relations with Germany on Oct. 7 by decree of the President, and all functionaries of the republic were ordered to withdraw from German territory. The Chamber of Deputies voted in favor of the rupture by 74 to 23. The President of Uruguay previously-on June 20—had issued an order announcing that "no American country which, in defense of its own rights, should find itself in a state of war with nations of other continents, will be treated as a belligerent.” President Viera, in his message to the Parliament, declared that the Uruguayan Government had not received any direct offense from Germany, but that it was necessary to espouse the cause of the defenders of justice, democracy, and small nationalities.
Uruguay, with other neutrals, has been a sufferer from Germany's U-boat warfare and other actions in disregard of international rights. In a note to the United States Government on April 14 the Montevideo Government said it did not recognize Germany's unrestricted warfare, and did recognize that the action of the United States in declaring war was a proper answer to Germany's actions.
Uruguay, on May 1, sent a note to London and Paris, asking for information as to the sinking of the Gorizia, a Uruguayan ship, and later made a protest to Germany. In May it joined in the suggestion for concentrated action by South American countries toward Germany. On Sept. 14 the Uruguayan Government, in a note to Argentina, approved the action of the Buenos Aires Government in handing his passports to Count von Luxburg.
The following German ships interned at Montevideo were seized by the Uruguayan Government:
4,817 1898 H. Süd-Amerika Harzburg 4,677 1907 Hansa Line Mera
4,797 1901 Kosmos Line Polynesia 6,022 1904 Hamburg-Amerika Salatis
4,764 1906 Kosmos Line Silvia
6,580 1900 Hamburg-Amerika
President Irigoyen of Argentina up to Oct. 18 had succeeded in maintaining his country's neutrality, notwithstanding the vote of both houses of Congress in favor of a rupture in relations. The Argentine Foreign Minister announced on Oct. 9 that relations with Germany would not be broken so long as Germany fulfills its latest pledge, made early in October, " to recognize the Argentine flag and respect the nation and people.” Feeling ran high throughout Argentina, and the country was almost in a state of civil war owing to bitter conflicts between the prowar and neutrality factions. A nationwide strike on the railways was a serious cause of disturbance and produced a crisis which was not allayed until the demands of the strikers were practically granted.
The action of Uruguay and the hesitation of Argentina created some friction between the two republics, which was aggravated by the following statement, said to have been made by the Foreign Minister of Uruguay, in urging the Uruguayan Congress to break off relations with Germany:
Uruguay, as a small nation between two great ones, must seek a balance of force to resist the possible hegemony of Argentina, with which nation we still have questions which not settled definitely. This balance consists in bringing closer together Brazil and the States of our connection with the great States of the present conflict so that it will make impossible an attack on Uruguayan sovereignty without an immediate reverberation throughout the American Continent.
The unsettled questions between Uruguay and Argentina concern the River Plate. Argentina asserts that the river belongs to her, while Uruguay insists that she owns half of it. The dispute involves the ownership of the important island of Martin Garcia, now held by Argentina.
South American nations that have broken relations with Germany Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The Central American Gov
ernments breaking with Germany are Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Honduras Panama and Cuba declared war on Germany on April 7, the day following the American declaration. Haiti broke relations with Germany in June.
The Pan-American nations that have not yet severed diplomatic relations are Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Chile, Argentina, Salvador, and Mexico. As stated above, however, Ecuador has.practically ruptured relations.
Submarine Sinkings of the Month
Total for four weeks 50
58 34 The record for the week ended Sept. 30 was the lowest since the U-boat war was proclaimed. During the week ended Oct. 7 British shipyards launched more tonnage than the Germans sank. French Admiralty figures showed that for the two weeks ended Sept. 30 the losses were: Over 1,600 tons, 12; under 1,600 tons, 10; fishing vessels, 6. During the week ended Oct. 14 Italy lost four steamers of over 1,600 tons each. During the month of September Norway lost nineteen merchant ships representing 30,800 tons. Twenty Norwegian sailors were killed and seventeen reported missing.
The most disastrous sinking was that of the French munitions steamer Medie, 4,470 tons, which was torpedoed in the Mediterranean on Sept. 23. The number of lives lost was 250 out of the 500 members of the crew and passengers, including sailors and prisoners of war. The explosion of the torpedo detonated the munitions in the ship's cargo. Five officers and fifty-one men were lost when the British armed mercantile cruiser Champagne was torpedoed and sunk.
Charles H. Grasty, in а cable
dispatch dated London, Oct. 6, to THE NEW YORK TIMES, said that it looked as if the September total of losses had dropped as low as 350,000 tons, or a weekly average of less than 90,000. The actual figures for the first two weeks included the allied and neutral as well as British losses. The average compares with a weekly average of nearly 130,000 tons for the eight months from January to August, inclusive, these also being the losses for the Allies and neutrals. Adding the September figures to those given in CURRENT HISTORY MAGAZINE in October, Page 137, the total amount of shipping lost during the first nine months of 1917 amounts approximately to 4,911,000 tons.
The most hopeful sign of the slackening of the German submarine campaign was seen in the announcement on Oct. 6 of reduced premiums by the United States War Risk Insurance Bureau. The official statement said that the reduction of insurance rates from 642 to 5 per cent. for American vessels and cargoes traversing the war zone was made “because of the decrease in the risks."
The British cruiser Drake, 14,100 tons, was, according to an Admiralty announcement, torpedoed and sunk off the north coast of Ireland on Oct. 2. One officer and eighteen men were killed by the explosion. The remainder of the ship's company was saved. The Drake was well known to vessels entering and leaving New York Harbor during the first eighteen months of the war, for she overhauled many and examined their papers. In January, 1916, she was refitted at the Bermuda naval dockyard and went in search of the German raider Möwe.
Some Significant Figures
Births in the
Births in the
STUDY of the cial vital sta- near to the empire rate to warrant re
tistics of England and Germany garding it as substantially accurate as reveals the fact that the war an index to the whole of the country.
has had a much more disastrous Applying the same method to the figures effect on the birth rate of Germany than for the English towns, the potential loss on that of England. The comparison is be- in England and Wales for the same petween the German cities of Berlin, Ham- riod is about 300,000. burg, Leipsic, Munich, Dresden, Cologne,
It is stated further that the deaths in and Breslau, with a combined population
Germany independent of the losses in the of 6,000,000, and the English cities of
field since the beginning of 1915 have exLondon, Birmingham, Liverpool, Man
ceeded the births by 600,000; hence the chester, and Sheffield, with a population
total population of the country, includof over 7,000,000. The effects of the war
ing the soldiers everywhere, is less toon the numbers of births may be seen in
day by 600,000 plus the deaths in the the following table, which relates to the
field, which are estimated at 2,000,000, first six months of each year specified:
making 2,600,000 total
total decrease. In
England, on the contrary, the births yet
exceed the deaths, estimated at an excess 1913 (first half)...... 63,090 96,939 of 600,000 in the three years, which 1915
counterbalances the deaths in the field, 1916
so that England's total population as yet 1917
78,426 The direct effects of the war on births
shows no actual loss. could not be felt until about April, 1915,
The Chief of the German General and these figures do not reveal the actual
Staff, General Ludendorff, issued an loss of three years of war. But up to
order early in September, 1917, in which the end of last June these German towns
he betrayed the necessity of economizing had lost on the 1913 standard by the
“human material.” The order was as deficit in births a number practically
follows: equal to the whole of the births for that Chief of the German General Staff to the
Armies Afield: year, while the loss in the English towns
The consumption of munitions has rewas rather less than one-third of that
mained constantly very high recently on amount.
the fighting fronts, in spite of the fact If the loss in 6,000,000 population
that the combative activity has generally
diminished. In particular, consumption of averages 60,000 a year, in the German
shells for mortar and heavy field howitEmpire the loss in three years was near
is much greater than production. ly 2,000,000 potential lives. A German This is serious. However, the superior diauthority, Karl Doorman, gives the round rection of the army cannot issue a new
general order for a further restriction in figures of births in the German Empire
the consumption of munitions, because for the years 1915 and 1916, and these
our losses on all the hting fronts conshow a loss on the 1913 scale of 1,165,000 tinue to be very high, and would become up to the end of 1916. The percentage
even higher if further general instructions
were made. of decrease for the whole empire as shown by Doorman is on the 1913 scale
Economy in men is even more important
than economy in munitions. It is neces22.4 per cent. in 1915 and 40 per cent. in
sary to try and obtain an improvement on 1916. For the seven towns which have these two points. To this end it is necesbeen chosen the decrease for the first sary to use as carefully as is possible the half of 1916 is 39.2 per cent., a lower
munitions according to the order previous
ly given on repeated occasions, and, on rate than that for the whole empire for
the other hand, to regulate the tactics of that year and ne that is sufficiently our methods of fighting according to the
To this total of 10,500,000 must be added the remaining men of the 1919 contingent and the 1920 contingent, together estimated at 700,000 men, making in all 11,200,000. The remaining 2,800,000 men required to make up the total of 14,000,000, given as the grand total of German man power, are to be accounted for as follows: Men of military age . employed in indispensable occupations in Germany, originally 750,000, now, as result of combing out. 500,000 Men of military age abroad.... 200,000 Permanently unfit
2,800,000 The German casualty lists up to July 31, 1917, give the following losses: Killed
regulations given and the circumstances, so as to diminish our losses.
According to orders which we have seen and according to the complaints of the troops, it is no longer in doubt that we persist in our old ways of seeing things, and that we continue along these lines on certain occasions. These are in first-line positions-too severe fighting for the possession of ground, even a trench element which is of little tactical value, without importance and even disadvantageous to be defended; hasty counterattacks without information from the artillery; the too dense occupation of the first lines; the keeping too close of large reserves in the open when no attack is planned; too much artillery fire against positions where there is no enemy, such as destructive cannonading of empty trenches; useless barrage fire and cannonading, especially during the night, when there is not sufficient information for regulating the fire.
(Signed) LUDENDORFF. It was announced on Oct. 16 that Germany had called to the colors all eligible men under 47 years of age and was keeping in the ranks men aged 49.
H. Warner Allen, the Government correspondent at the French front, made a study late in September of the German man power. He estimated the German mobilization as follows:
1914 Trained men...
800,000 1914 contingent...
1915 Landsturm first ban.....
1,100,000 1915 contingent
450,000 Remainder first ban Landsturm 150,000 1916 contingent
450,000 Combed out from
1916 Combed out from
200,000 Second ban Landsturm untr'd 450,000 1917 contingent
450,000 Combed out from
300,000 1918 contingent
1917 Combed out
150,000 Part of 1919 contingent..
4,791,375 It is believed that these figures are considerably within the mark, and that the permanent losses in the German Army in the three years are rather in excess of than below 4,000,000. The Allies' conclusion as to the actual German man power at the middle of September, 1917, was as follows: Men actually employed in the army on the front, behind the
lines, and in the interior.... 5,500,000 Men incorporated and shortly
available, forces left over from divisions in course of formation, and men in dépôts... 600,000 Remainder of 1919 contingent and 1920 contingent
700,000 Permanent losses
4,000,000 Men in treatment in hospital. 500,000 Germans abroad
200,000 Permanently unfit
2,100,000 Men required in interior for life of country
Mutiny in the German Navy
N a debate in the German Reichstag, quelled and three of the leaders had been
Oct. 9, Vice Admiral von Capelle, executed. He gave only meagre details,
the German Minister of Marine, re- but made the direct accusation that the vealed the fact that a mutiny had oc- Independent Socialists were responsible curred in the German Navy some weeks for the uprising by influencing the sailbefore, but that it had been quickly ors through their propaganda; he named
specifically three Deputies, Vogtherr, leaving their families under the impresDittman, and Haase, as having been in sion that they were at the front; he said conference with the leaders of the mutiny there were fully 200,000 such repulsive before the outbreak. The disclosure casualties in the empire. created great excitement and met with The dead, he added, are buried at sea; indignant denials from the accused. The as many as 700 have been dropped overChancellor sustained von Capelle and board in one day from the “ death ferry.” corroborated his accusations.
Late in June the crew of a death ferry” As a result of the disclosure the move shouted defiantly that the victims were ment by the opposition to force the resig unwilling sacrifices and “would have nation of the Chancellor for failure to damned their souls before offering them support the peace plans of the “
to the Kaiser." A serious riot ensued; nexationists” failed. Two days later it the Captain and four of the crew were was announced that von Capelle had re overpowered and thrown into the sea; signed, but this was not confirmed up to the officiating parson aboard was shot. Oct. 18. The Reichstag adjourned until The crew was overpowered at length, December, with the political pot seething tried, and executed. and a general impression that the days This was the beginning. On July 30 of Chancellor Michaelis were numbered. 8,000 sailors were assembled on the paHe was criticised for lack of firmness and rade ground at Wilhelmshaven to listen was charged with failure to develop defi to speeches upholding the policy of the nite leadership over any of the conflict Government in the war to offset the soing groups.
cialistic propaganda. As they marched A former Lieutenant in the German by the platform the Admiral in charge Navy, Rudolph Glatfelder, made public asserted that one of the marching maOct. 16 a circumstantial story of the rines had sarcastically smiled at him, mutiny, which he declared he personally whereupon one of the naval officers witnessed and participated in. Earlier jumped from the stand and struck the in the war he had been exchanged by the marine in the face with his gloved fist. Russians as an incapacitated prisoner, At once the 8,000 sailors and marines having been captured from the German turned on the officers present like wolves cruiser Magdeburg at the bombardment and literally tore their bodies into shreds, of the Russian port, Libau, Aug. 4, 1914, killing fifty or more. A bloody riot folin which engagement he lost an eye. In lowed; one of the forts took sides with Germany he joined the Social Democrat the mutineers and engaged in a bomgroup, known as the Marxian Interna bardment with the ten other coastal forts. tionalists, who have resorted to I. W. W. The rioters meanwhile began their work tactics to strike a blow for German de of destruction, and in a few hours had mocracy.
blown up four large uncompleted warHe stated that the mutiny was origi ships in the harbor and burned two Zepnated by a group of German revolution pelins, besides warehouses, sheds, ists operating in Switzerland. In May, wharves, &c. Before the mutineers 1917, 149 revolutionary spies, of whom could reach their ships many of them 85 were women, had been sent to Ger were mowed down by machine guns. man naval stations to foment the disaf. They were at length overpowered by fection among the sailors. Glatfelder the loyal troops, who were summoned in said he was the head of a group that tens of thousands, and the ringleaders operated at Wilhelmshaven. He asserted were tried and executed. that there was located there a hospital It was announced on Oct. 16 that the with 20,000 patients, known as
three Deputies who were accused of fosive cases," mere human remnants, whom menting trouble would be prosecuted in the authorities kept there in concealment, the criminal courts.