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German interests. Most of the spy suspects are interned at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia.
A Copenhagen dispatch, dated July 26, stated that more effective measures than were then in force for supervision of Scandinavian liners plying to the United States must be put into effect if the passage of numerous German agents and couriers and the transmission of intelligence by German spies in America were to be checked. It was said authoritatively that German passport-forging bureaus were equipping German agents in Scandinavia with fraudulent Scandinavian passports. These were copied from genuine originals in the same fashion as American passports had been counterfeited photographically by the Pass Bureau of the Admiralty. New names and descriptions are substituted occasionally, but sometimes the only change is to attach a new photograph of the ostensible holder. Every liner sailing to the United States carries 200 or 300 passengers, principally of Scandinavian nationality. There is little to prevent the Intelligence Department of the German Admiralty, now under the leadership of Captain Karl Boy-Ed, ex-Naval Attaché at Washington, from planting any desired number of agents, equipped apparently with genuine Scandinavian passports, among the passengers. Various attempts to recruit neutrals for courier and information missions to the United States had been reported more or less definitely. The Scandinavian police, the dispatch continued, also could tell a tale of unmasked Americans who were employed in the German Secret Service.
Those Who Organize. Sedition Among the measures instituted by the United States Government is the prohibition of German residents from going within a certain distance of forts, armories, shipyards, piers, and other places where the presence of enemies or spies would be dangerous. Germans who can prove their good faith are allowed to go within the barred zones provided they have permits.
Another aspect of the enemy alien problem is the participation of Germans in movements of native origin, such as
the stirring up of labor troubles, aiding anti-war agitation, and encouraging the activities of anarchist groups. As many of these movements were in existence before the United States entered the war and are local manifestations of a worldwide discontent with the existing social order, it is not always easy to draw the line between genuine reformers and pro-Germans; but to be on the safe side the Government has taken vigorous action in combating all movements opposed to the conduct of the
or tending to prevent enlistment and to destroy the fighting spirit in the nation. Under the Espionage act it is unlawful to discourage or oppose recruiting, and the Postmaster General has power to stop the mailing privilege cf any publications which give voice to anti-war anti-conscription views. About twenty
Socialist and radical newspapers and magazines have been so dealt with.
A further development has been in connection with the German-language papers of the United States. Some of these newspapers have been, either by direct comment or by insinuation and satire, conducting an active campaign against the Government, and already several of them have been suppressed.
Considerable resentment has been expresssed by Socialists, radicals, and others against these measures on the ground that the Government is acting autocratically in abridging the freedom of the press and other rights guaranteed under the Constitution. Street meetings have also been prohibited or broken up; the headquarters of the Socialist Party in Chicago has been subjected to a domiciliary visit by Department of Justice agents, and papers seized; the home of Professor Scott Nearing, a radical writer on economics, has been similarly searched; and in every direction the Government has been vigorously endeavoring to suppress revolutionary and radical movements that are suspected of being seditious and treasonable.
The organization which has caused the greatest concern is the I. W. W., (the Industrial Workers of the World,) whose
main tenet is the Syndicalist idea of dispossessing employers of their property and conducting the industries of the nation under the direct ownership and management of the workers themselves, organized in industrial unions, or guilds. The I. W. W. program, however, besides aiming at this form of industrial democracy, also approves methods of violence, which are due to anarchist influences, such as the destruction of property. This is the so-called plan of
sabotage,” and it is this which has caused the Government to regard the I. W. W. as the most dangerous element in the community at the present time, and to suspect that the organization is being encouraged by German interests.
Drafting Friendly Aliens A resolution passed Congress on Sept. 13 authorizing the draft of all friendly aliens who have been in the country one year; those who claim exemption through
treaty will be allowed ninety days to leave the country. It is estimated that this action will call approximately 1,275,000 men to the American colors; besides these there are 81,000 enemy aliens who under the resolution could be put to work related to the war, but not as soldiers. It is understood that Great Britain and France will take
their drafted nationals; the others would become part of the American forces.
On Sept. 19 a joint committee on the Trading With the Enemy act approved a clause stipulating that all papers printed in foreign languages, when criticising war measures, must file translation accompanied by an affidavit, with the Post Office of the city in which the publications are located. Congress also enacted into law
Work of the American Red Cross
Sketch of a Great Relief System
HE War Council of the Red Cross,
carrying drastic regulations against any commercial intercourse in this country in which subjects of Germany may be financially concerned.
with Henry P. Davison of J. P.
created May 10, 1917, by President Wilson to carry on the extraordinary relief work made necessary by the entrance of the United States into the European war. From May 10 to Aug. 31 this council appropriated for its work in the countries of the Allies the sum of $12,339,681. An elaborate report of the work of the American Red Cross, issued in September, contains many interesting details. The general objects of the work in France are described as follows:
1. To establish and maintain hospitals for soldiers in the American Army in France:
2. To establish and maintain canteens, rest houses, recreation huts and other means of supplying the American soldiers with such comforts and recreation as the army authorities may approve.
3. To establish and maintain in France canteens, rest houses, recreation huts, and other means of supplying comforts and
recreation for the soldiers in the armies of our allies.
4. To distribute hospital equipment and supplies of all kinds to military hospitals for soldiers of the American or allied armies.
5. To engage in civilian relief, including:
(a) The care and education of destitute children.
(b) Care of mutilated soldiers.
(d) Relief work in the devastated areas of France and Belgium, such as furnishing to the inhabitants of these districts agricultural implements, household goods, foods, clothing, and such temporary shelter as will enable them to return to their homes.
(e) To provide relief for and guard against the increase of tuberculosis.
6. To furnish relief for soldiers and civilians held as prisoners by the enemy and to give assistance to such civilians as are returned to France from time to time from the parts of Belgium and France held by the enemy.
7. To supply financial assistance to committees, societies, or individuals allied with the American Red Cross and carrying on relief work in Europe.
Scope of Red Cross Work
“ The War Council has appropriated Separate commissions of representa
$100,000 for medical research work in
France. tive Americans, skilled in medical and administrative work, have been sent to
“ To be able to do its work without Europe. The first commission, which
delay, the Red Cross is establishing warewent to France, is headed by Major
houses at different points of importance
in the French theatre of war. An apGrayson. M. P. Murphy, Vice President of the Guaranty Trust Company of New
propriation of $500,000 has been voted York, has general supervision over the
to establish this service and provide its work of the American Red Cross in Eu
first stock of supplies. rope, and its membership is composed of Millions Spent for Supplies fourteen leading experts in special lines
“In response to a cable from the comof work. Each of the other commissions
mission in France, the War Council aphas been selected along similar lines, and propriated $1,500,000 to purchase foodthe work of all these commissions is
stuff to be sent to France. either volunteer or is paid by private con- “ It has also appropriated $1,000,000 tributions.
for the purchase of supplies in France; “The effort," the report adds, “has
all for use in the hospital supply service. been, in accordance with the expressed
“Near the firing line the Red Cross is views of the President of the United
establishing field canteens. Extending States and of the civil and military au
the work already begun by the French thorities of France, to co-ordinate along
Red Cross, it will provide one of these helpful lines all relief work being done in
canteens for every corps of the French France and America."
army, and as well later for the AmeriConcerning the scope of the Red Cross
can Army. work in behalf of the United States
To carry out these plans the War Army the report says:
Council has made appropriations of about “ The first and supreme object of
$700,000, which will establish the canAmerican Red Cross care is our
teens and maintain them for about three army and navy. The American Army in
months. Much of the equipment will be France is received in large reception supplied by the French Army. camps on the coast, and after several
“A Red Cross transportation service, weeks of preliminary training the men
through the co-operation of the French, are sent across the country to permanent
British, and Italian Governments, the training camps back of the firing lines.
United States Shipping Board, and the Along the route followed by the troops the Red Cross has established infirmaries
leading steanship and railroad com
panies, has been established to handle and rest stations, each in charge of an
the vast quantities of medical and relief American trained nurse with an Ameri
supplies now being shipped almost daily can man to assist her.
to France, Belgium, Serbia, Russia, and “ Additional infirmaries and rest sta
other belligerent countries. tions will be established in the near fut
“ The Red Cross will have cargo space ure, and adequate buildings are also
on every steamer chartered by the United being erected wherever needed.
States Shipping Board. Army transports “ Canteens are being established by the
also will carry Red Cross supplies. Red Cross at railway stations where
“In advance of the fighting forces the American soldiers on reserve duty or on United States sent to the European batleave, and those returning to or from tlefields six base hospitals organized durduty, may find rest and refreshment.
ing the last year by the Red Cross—the Baths, food, games, and other comforts first United States Army organization will be made available at these canteens.
sent to Europe. These were sent at the “ When American troops start for request of the British Commission. France the men are given comfort kits. “ More than a dozen base hospitals orChristmas parcels will be sent over later. ganized by the American Red Cross are
now seeing active service in France, and others are rapidly being made ready for foreign service. Each of these base hospitals has a staff of 22 physicians, 2 dentists, 65 Red Cross nurses, and 150 enlisted men of the Army Medical Corps. Before war was declared, 26 of these units had been formed, and 47 are now ready for service. It costs at least $75,000 to equip a base hospital with beds, blankets, sterilizers, operating tables, tents, dental outfits, automobiles, and kitchens.”
500,000 White Plague l'ictims One of the most important undertakings of the Red Cross in France is to combat the tuberculosis peril.
The report says that at the present time 500,000 persons are afflicted with tuberculosis as a direct result of the war, and that “ scientific efforts to control the spread of the malady are not only of supreme concern to France herself but they are of great importance in making France healthy for our own troops.” All work is being done under the general administration of the French Government and by French people.
For the relief of wounded and sick French soldiers and their families the American Red Cross has appropriated $1,000,000, and the organization has made plans to take care temporarily of the hundreds of thousands of destitute refugees in France. The report cites the French Ministry of the Interior as authority for the statement that these refugees number about 400,000, but adds that “ there is reason to think that the number is much larger."
Budget of Expenditures The following summary, covering the financial part of the Red Cross' great undertakings, concludes the report:
The budget for expenditures in France to cover the period until Nov. 1, 1917, prepared by J. H. Perkins, Director of the Department Military Affairs, Red Cross Commission in France, is for a total expenditure of $1,773,250. This work for the United States Army, surgical dressings, equipment and operation of diet kitchens, canteens, American Red Cross Motor Ambulance service, hospital expenses, &c.
The budget of the Department of Civilian Relief in France, prepared by Homer Folks, Director of the Red Cross Department of Civil Affairs in France, up to Nov. 1, 1917, calls for $2,190,353.
The budget of the Department of Administration in Paris, prepared by Carl Taylor, Director of Administration, up to Nov. 1, 1917, calls for $115,700.
The budget of the Planning Department, prepared by George B. Ford, Director, up to Nov. 1, 1917, calls for $3,890.
General appropriations have also been made, amounting in all to $10,692,601. They cover hospital supplies, foodstuffs, transportation supplies and motors, building material, machinery, medical research, child welfare work, clothing, American Ambulance Hospital expenses, nurses, &c.
Before appropriations are recommended by the French Commission they are carefully prepared by the Director of the particular department concerned. They are then considered by a Finance Committee, consisting of Major Murphy, Chairman; J. H. Perkins, H. H. Harjes, H. O. Beatty, Carl Taylor, Homer Folks, William Endicott, and Ralph Preston. Three of this committee constitute a quorum, and every appropriation reported must receive the consent of all present.
Most of those in charge, for the Red Cross, of the work in France are giving their own time and paying their own expenses. A special fund of $100,000 has also been privately contributed to meet expenses of members of the French Commission unable to pay their own way.
The appropriations made for use in Europe outside of France, covering drugs and medical supplies, relief funds, and expenses, are reported as follows: For Russia
$322,780.87 For Rumania
247,000.00 For Italy
210,000.00 For Serbia
222,300.00 For England
8,800.00 For Armenia
600,000.00 Other appropriations
36,000.00 The total appropriations by the War Council for Red Cross work in Europe, are as follows: In France
.$10,692,601.00 Outside of France.
.$12,339,681.87 Some of the European appropriations are to cover a full year, but the greater part, the report adds, will have been spent by November of this year.
Recording Campaigns on All Fronts and Collateral Events
through the Swedish Legation in Buenos
Aires in charge of Baron Lowen, by President Wilson issued a proclamation for
Count Luxburg, German Chargé d'Afbidding exports to neutral countries with
faires at that capital. The Swedish out licenses.
Foreign Office decided not to recall Baron The first contingent of drafted men for the
Lowen, declaring that he did not know National Army arrived at their canton
the contents of the messages. The British ments Sept. 5. The second contingent
Government asked Sweden for an explanawas sent Sept. 18.
tion. Argentina dismissed the German Pacifists held a meeting in Chicago under
Minister, recalled her Naval Attaché at the auspices of the People's Council of
Berlin, and demanded an explanation from America for Democracy and Terms of
Germany. An oral apology from
Under Secretary of the German Foreign Labor voiced its loyalty to the Government
Office to the Argentine Minister at Berlin at the conference of the American
was pronounced unsatisfactory. Germany Alliance for Labor and Democracy in
sent a note to Sweden expressing regret Minneapolis. President Wilson sent a reply to Pope Bene
for the disagreeable issues raised. dict's peace note, Aug. 27, rejecting the CAMPAIGN IN EASTERN EUROPE proposals and refusing to have any dealings with the present German autocracy.
Aug. 22-Germans begin offensive between
the Tirul marshes and the River Aa, SUBMARINE BLOCKADE
penetrating Russian positions. According to British official statements, Eng
Aug. 23–Russians evacuate Riga.
Aug. 24-Germans reach the River Aa at land's losses for the week ended Aug.
some places on the Gulf of Riga. 18, included fifteen vessels of over 1,600
Aug. 27-Germans take important positions tons; for the week ended Aug. 25, eighteen
east of Czernowitz and advance
on the vessels; for the week ended Sept. 1,
Riga front northwest of Jacobstadt. twenty; for the week ended Sept. 8, twelve.
Sept. 2-Germans cross the Diva River near These included the Royal Mail Com.
Uxkul and push northward, and also adpany's steamer Desna and the Leyland
vance toward Riga from the south. liner Devonian.
Sept. 3–Germans occupy Riga. France lost between two and five ships of
Sept. 4-Russians retire northeast of Riga; over 1,600 tons each week.
Germans cut a nine-mile gap in their Norway lost twenty-one ships in August.
line. Four American members of the crew of the .
Sept. 5–Russians in their retreat toward the British schooner Minas Queen were lost
northeast cross the Livonian River; forces when the ship was torpedoed.
east from Riga retire to Segevold, LemThe American steamer Susan was sunk.
berg, and Detesubrayd. Several American vessels, including the . Sept. 10–Russians take the offensive in the Westwego, were attacked by submarines
region of Segevold, and force Germans off the coast of France on Sept. 5. In
back in a southerly direction. the battle which followed, one submarine Sept. 11-Russians begin an offensive in the was lost.
southeast section of Bukowina. The Atlantic Transport liner Minnehaha was
Sept. 14-Russians on the Riga front capture sunk on Sept 7, and fifty members of
Kronberg, Keitzen, Sisseral, and Peine. the crew were lost. Statistics showed that 4,561,000 tons of ship
BALKAN CAMPAIGN ping were sunk between Jan. and
Aug. 24-Teutons repulse Russo-Rumanian atSept. 1.
tacks near Soveja, Rumania. Germany sent a note to Argentina promising Aug. 29-Russian division abandons its posi
to modify her blockade, giving Argentine tion in the region of Fokshani. food ships freedom of the seas. Argen- Aug. 30—Teutons repulsed by Russians near tina accepted an offer of indemnity for Sochka. the sinking of the Toro and announced Sept. 1-Rumanians ousted from hills norththat she considered the incident closed. east of Fokshani; Greek troops take part Soon after this, however, Secretary in raid in the Vardar sector. Lansing made public dispatches containing Sept. 17-Italian troops move eastward unneutral information for the German through Albania and menace the BulGovernment, sent in the Swedish code garian right flank.