« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
now seeing active service in France, and others are rapidly being made ready for foreign service. Each of these base hospitals has a staff of 22 physicians, 2 dentists, 65 Red Cross nurses, and 150 enlisted men of the Army Medical Corps. Before war was declared, 26 of these units had been formed, and 47 are now ready for service. It costs at least $75,000 to equip a base hospital with beds, blankets, sterilizers, operating tables, tents, dental outfits, automobiles, and kitchens.”
500,000 White Plague l'ictims One of the most important undertakings of the Red Cross in France is to combat the tuberculosis peril. The report says that at the present time 500,000 persons are afflicted with tuberculosis as a direct result of the war, and that
scientific efforts to control the spread of the malady are not only of supreme concern to France herself but they are of great importance in making France healthy for our own troops." All work is being done under the general administration of the French Government and by French people.
For the relief of wounded and sick French soldiers and their families the American Red Cross has appropriated $1,000,000, and the organization has made plans to take care temporarily of the hundreds of thousands of destitute refugees in France. The report cites the French Ministry of the Interior as authority for the statement that these refugees number about 400,000, but adds that “ there is reason to think that the number is much larger."
Budget of Expenditures The following summary, covering the financial part of the Red Cross' great undertakings, concludes the report:
The budget of the Department of Civilian Relief in France, prepared by Homer Folks, Director of the Red Cross Department of Civil Affairs in France, up to Nov. 1, 1917, calls for $2,190,353.
The budget of the Department of Administration in Paris, prepared by Carl Taylor, Director of Administration, up to Nov. 1, 1917, calls for $115,700.
The budget of the Planning Department, prepared by George B. Ford, Director, up to Nov. 1, 1917, calls for $3,890.
General appropriations have also been made, amounting in all to $10,692,601. They cover hospital supplies, foodstuffs, transportation supplies and motors, building material, machinery, medical research, child welfare work, clothing, American Ambulance Hospital expenses, nurses, &c.
Before appropriations are recommended by the French Commission they are carefully prepared by the Director of the particular department concerned. They are then considered by a Finance Committee, consisting of Major Murphy, Chairman; J. H. Perkins, H. H, Harjes, H. O. Beatty, Carl Taylor, Homer Folks, William Endicott, and Ralph Preston. Three of this committee constitute a quorum, and every appropriation reported must receive the consent of all present.
Most of those in charge, for the Red Cross, of the work in France are giving their own time and paying their own expenses. A special fund of $100,000 has also been privately contributed to meet expenses of members of the French Commission unable to pay their own way.
The appropriations made for use in Europe outside of France, covering drugs and medical supplies, relief funds, and expenses, are reported as follows: For Russia
$322,780.87 For Rumania
247,000.00 For Italy
210,000.00 For Serbia
222,300.00 For England
8,800.00 For Armenia
600,000.00 Other appropriations
36,000.00 The total appropriations by the War Council for Red Cross work in Europe are as follows: In France
.$10,692, 601.00 Outside of France.
The budget for expenditures in France to cover the period until Nov. 1, 1917, prepared by J. H. Perkins, Director of the Department of Military Affairs, Red Cross Commission in France, is for a total expenditure of $1,773,250. This work for the United States Army, surgical dressings, equipment and operation of diet kitchens, canteens, American Red Cross Motor Ambulance service, hospital expenses, &c.
. $12,339,681.87 Some of the European appropriations are to cover a full year, but the greater part, the report adds, will have been spent by November of this year.
Recording Campaigns on All Fronts and Collateral Events
through the Swedish Legation in Buenos
Aires President Wilson issued a proclamation for
in charge of Baron Lowen, by
Count Luxburg, German Chargé d'Afbidding exports to neutral countries with
faires at that capital. The Swedish out licenses.
Foreign Office decided not to recall Baron The first contingent of drafted men for the
Lowen, declaring that he did not know National Army arrived at their canton
the contents of the messages. The British ments Sept. 5. The second contingent
Government asked Sweden for an explanawas sent Sept. 18.
tion. Argentina dismissed the German Pacifists held a meeting in Chicago under
Minister, recalled her Naval Attaché at the auspices of the People's Council of
Berlin, and demanded an explanation from America for Democracy and Terms of
Germany. An oral apology
from the Peace. Labor voiced its loyalty to the Government
Under Secretary of the German Foreign
Office to the Argentine Minister at Berlin at the conference of the American
was pronounced unsatisfactory. Germany Alliance for Labor and Democracy in
sent a note to Sweden expressing regret Minneapolis. President Wilson sent a reply to Pope Bene
for the disagreeable issues raised. dict's peace note, Aug. 27, rejecting the CAMPAIGN IN EASTERN EUROPE proposals and refusing to have any deal
Aug. 22-Germans begin offensive between ings with the present German autocracy.
Tirul marshes and the River Aa, SUBMARINE BLOCKADE
penetrating Russian positions.
Aug. 23-Russians evacuate Riga. According to British official statements, Eng
Aug. 21-Germans reach the River Aa land's losses for the week ended Aug.
some places on the Gulf of Riga. 18, included fifteen vessels of over 1,600
Aug. 27-Germans take important positions tons; for the week ended Aug. 25, eighteen
east of Czernowitz and advance on the vessels; for the week ended Sept. 1,
Riga front northwest of Jacobstadt. twenty; for the week ended Sept. 8, twelve.
Sept. 2-Germans cross the Diva River near These included the Royal Mail Com.
C'xkul and push northward, and also adpany's steamer Desna and the Leyland
vance toward Riga from the south. liner Devonian.
Sept. 3–Germans occupy Riga. France lost between two and five ships of
Sept. 4-Russians retire northeast of Riga ; over 1,600 tons each week.
Germans cut a nine-mile gap in their Norway lost twenty-one ships in August,
line. Four American members of the crew of the
Sept. 5–Russians in their retreat toward the British schooner Minas Queen were lost
northeast cross the Livonian River; forces when the ship was torpedoed.
east from Riga retire to Segevold, LemThe American steamer Susan was sunk.
berg, and Detesubrayd. Several American vessels, including the . Sept. 10–Russians take the offensive in the Westwego, were attacked by submarines
region of Segevold, and force Germans off the coast of France on Sept. 5. In
back in a southerly direction. the battle which followed, one submarine Sept. 11-Russians begin an offensive in the was lost.
southeast section of Bukowina. The Atlantic Transport liner Minnehaha was Sept. 14-Russians on the Riga front capture sunk on Sept 7, and fifty members of
Kronberg. Keitzen, Sisseral, and Peine. the crew were lost. Statistics showed that 4,561,000 tons of ship
BALKAN CAMPAIGN ping were sunk between Jan. 1 and
Aug. 24-Teutons repulse Russo-Rumanian atSept. 1.
tacks near Soveja, Rumania. Germany sent a note to Argentina promising Aug. 29-Russian division abandons its posi
to modify her blockade, giving Argentine tion in the region of Fokshani. food ships freedom of the seas. Argen- Aug. 30/Teutons repulsed by Russians near tina accepted an offer of indemnity for Sochka. the sinking of the Toro and announced Sept. 1-Rumanians ousted from hills norththat she considered the incident closed. east of Fokshani; Greek troops take part Soon after this, however, Secretary in raid in the Vardar sector. Lansing made public dispatches containing Sept. 17-Italian troops move eastward unneutral information for the German
through Albania and menace the Bul Government, sent in the Swedish code garian right flank,
Sept. 18—Rumanians in the Suchitza Valley
capture part of Teuton fortified positions near Varnitza.
CAMPAIGN IN WESTERN EUROPE
Verdun on an eleven-mile front, gaining
attack north of Epehy. Aug. 21-French capture the Côte de l'Oie,
Regneville, and Samogneux; Canadians carry German positions on a mile front
at Lens. Aug. 22–British capture important strategic
positions for a mile along the YpresMenin road, and penetrate German
trenches further north. Aug. 23-Canadians take important positions
south of Lens. Aug. 24-French capture Hill 304 on the Ver
dun front and advance one and one-quarter miles beyond it; British forced from
the ground won on the Ypres-Menin road. Aug. 25—French capture three fortified works
near Béthincourt; British forced to give
up ground captured near St. Quentin. Aug. 26-French gain on a two and a half
mile front east of the Meuse; British ad
va ce half a mile east of Hargicourt. Aug. 30-British repulse German attacks on
the Verdun front, and penetrate German
positions in Champagne east of the Teton. Sept. 1-3-French repulse German attacks
between Cerny and Hurtebise. Sept. 4Canadians advance 250 yards on 600
yard front at Lens. Sept. 6-French repulse violent attacks in the
region of Cerny. Sept. 7-British forced to relinquish positions
gained north of Frezenburg. Sept. 8-French launch new offensive on the
right bank of the Meuse, occupying important positions on a front of about one and a half miles; Germans repulsed in Lorraine, east of Rheims, and north of
Courcy. Sept. 11-British on the Somme. carry a Ger
man trench near Villeret and ad".nce
their line nearly a quarter of a mile. Sept. 12-French in Champagne drive across
two lines of German trenches, between St. Hilaire and St. Souplet, and enter the
third line. Sept. 14-Germans enter French trenches on
a 500-yard front north of Caurières Wood. Sept. 15-French retrieve
losses north of Caurières Wood, but lose height near Chaume; British advance in Belgium east
of Westhoek. Sept. 18–Germans on the Champagne front, after
a violent bombardment south of the Miette River, reach the French lines toward the Neufchatel Road; British improve their positions east of St. Julien and raid trenches in Inverness Copse.
ITALIAN CAMPAIGN Aug. 20_Italians cross the Isonzo River
north of Gorizia. Aug. 21- Italians capture defenses between
Corite and Selo. Aug. 22-24-Italians advance on the north
ern and southern wings of the Isonzo
front in great drive on Trieste. Aug. 25-Italians capture Monte Santo. Aug. 27-Trieste civilians evacuate the city;
Austrians evacuate Monte Santo. Aug. 29-Italians gain complete control of
the Bainsizza Plateau and enter the
Chiapovano Valley. Aug. 30--Italians surround Nakobil and at
tack the forest of Tarnovo. Aug. 31-Italians consolidate their gains on
the Bajnsizza and Carso Plateaus, and
make further gains on San Gabriele. Sept. 1-German troops appear for the first
time on the Carso front. Sept. 2-3—Italians push on in the Bresto
vizza Valley. Sept. Italians capture Monte San Ga
briele. Sept. 5- Italians capture an Austrian posi
tion south of Ocrogio and repulse enemy attacks on the Carso Plateau from Cas
tagnevizza to the sea. Sept. 6-9-Monte San Gabriele changes hands
several times. Sept. 10_Turkish reinforcements thrown
into the campaign along the Isonzo front, Sept. 14 Italians gain the northwestern
crest and the peak of Monte San Gabriele.
AERIAL RECORD On Aug. 22 Zeppelins raided Yorkshire, kill
ing one man, and Gotha airplanes raided Dover, Margate, and Ramsgate, killing eleven persons and injuring thirteen. Eight German machines were brought down. Another raid was made on the east coast on Sept. 2, and on Sept. 3 bombs were dropped on the naval station at Chatham, killing 108 persons and wounding 92. The first moonlight raid over the London district occurred Sept.
Eleven persons were killed and sixtytwo hurt. The British bombarded Zeebrugge, Bruges,
and many points back of the German
lines in Belgium and Northern France. The Germans attacked Calais and Dunkirk. French aviators raided Stuttgart, Colmar,
and bases near Metz. British naval seaplanes dropped bombs on
German destroyers along the Belgian coast, hitting one destroyer and sinking
at least one trawler. Italians raided Pola. The Germans attacked Vandelaincourt Hos
pital on Aug. 22, killing ten wounded men, one
woman nurse, and nineteen men nurses. Another attack on the same hospital was made on Sept. 6, when nineteen persons were killed and twenty-six
Petrograd, where Kerensky proclaimed a state of siege.. General Denikine, commander on the southwestern front, and the whole of his headquarters staff and General Erdelli were arrested. The Baltic fleet unanimously placed itself on the side of the Provisional Government. Kerensky became Commander in Chief of the army and General Alexeieff, Chief of Gen
eral Staff. General Krymoff, commander of the troops
sent by Korniloff to capture Petrograd, was arrested and committed suicide. Kor
niloff himself was taken into custody. The Bolshevikis gained control of the Pet
rograd Council of Deputies. This resulted in friction between the Constitutional Democrats and the Socialists in the Cabinet, followed by the withdrawal of all the Constitutional Democrats save one. A new Cabinet of five members
formed. A republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government on Sept. 14.
MISCELLANEOUS Louis J. Malvy, Minister of the Interior and
Radical Socialist, quit the French Cabinet, and the head of the Secret Service, M. Leymarie, also gave up his post as a result of disclosures of alleged anti-patriotic activities on the part of Miguel Almereyda, editor of the Bonnet Rouge, and some of the directors of the paper.
The Ribot Cabinet resigned, and Paul Painlevé, MinS last month's chronicle closed, the
injured. British-American hospitals on
bombarded Trieste, while British monitors
Italian and British monitors shelled Pola. Feur German mine sweepers were destroyed
by British light craft off the coast of Jut
land. A German submarine bombarded Scarbor
ough on Sept. 5, killing three persons and
injuring five. German submarines appeared in the Gulf of
Piga, and shelled several places on the
cow on Aug. 26.
spiracy to accomplish a coup d'état by arresting the Provisional Government was unearthed and many arrests were made in Moscow. Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch and Grand Duke Paul were arrested, together with Mlle. Margaret Hitrova and Mme. Liubov Hitrova. The Minister of Justice resigned after being upbraided by Kerensky for his failure to
unearth the plot. Several adherents of the old imperial régime,
including Mlle. Virubova, were exiled and
taken across the Swedish frontier. General Soukhomlinoff, the former Minister
of War, was placed on trial on a charge of treason and his wife on a charge of
being an accomplice.
position of the Constitutional Democratic
the majority toward the Ukraine. I'remier Kerensky deposed General Korniloff
and arrested his envoy, Vladimir Lvoff, following Korniloff's demand that all civil and military powers be turned over to him as Commander in Chief of the army. Korniloff responded to the order of dismissal by moving an army against
ister of War, formed a new Ministry. Because of the failure of efforts to induce
the Poles to fight for Germany and Austria, the Central Powers decided to abandon their project with regard to the Kingdom of Poland as outlined in the joint proclamation of Nov. 5, 1916. They were reported to have planned a new partition, Germany to annex such parts of Russian Poland as she needed to rectify her strategic frontier, this including about onetenth of the territory, and Austria to annex the remaining nine-tenths, uniting it with Galicia and proclaiming the whole the Kingdom of Poland, with a status similar to Hungary's, and with Emperor Charles as King. A decree published at Lublin and Warsaw on Sept. 12 transferred the supreme authority to a regency council of three members, appointed by the monarchs of the occupying powers.
Military Events of the Month
By Walter Littlefield
battle line from Flanders to the Adriatic seemed everywhere to be
in movement. The British and French were again striking hard northeast of Ypres. The Canadians, already having cracked the carboniferous nut of Lens, appeared to be on the point of extracting the kernel. North of the Aisne and in Champagne the French were still checkmating the costly assault of the German Crown Prince. A bombardment at Verdun from the French side seemed to be puzzling military critics. The Italians were just launching their second great offensive of the year.
On the eastern front all was confusion and uncertainty-in the south the Rumanians and Russians were still gallantly contesting Moldavia with the Austrians, but further north the Russian military mutiny and the Teutonic obvious lack of men and munitions to take full advantage of it left the military situation there dominated by the question: Where will the Germans strike in order to obtain a maximum gain-strategic, political, or industrial—with the minimum extension of line?
In the course of the month three movements have developed and detached themselves from the foregoing mass until, by their intrinsic military importance, their sensational details, or their bearing upon the future, they have overshadowed all else. These are the great Italian offensive, which has changed the battle of the Isonzo into the battle of the Julian Alps; the occupation of Riga by the Germans, and the French expansion of their lines north of the town of Verdun, which, beginning as something of an enigma, like the great German assault on that place in 1916, is gradually assuming a strategic movement of definite progress and objective.
Flanders Offensive Suspended But first let us dismiss as briefly as possible the events which have suffered obscuration by comparison on the western front. Between Aug. 18 and 22 the British and French had consolidated their gains in Flanders northeast of Ypres on a three-mile front beyond St. Julien and Fortuyn, and had made a perceptible gain on the Ypres-Roulers road. The English alone had done the same on the road to Menin. These movements seemed a necessary preparation to an attempted envelopment of the Westhoek Ridge, which lies between.
Then, in the early days of September, occurred an event which caused the Allies in this region to suspend operations until they could discover its meaning. This was the German order to the civil populations of Thourout, Courtrai, 'and Roulers to take refuge in Ghent and Limbourg. Two explanations of this act have been advanced: First, that the Germans meditated a retreat to their fortified line, Scheldt-Ghent-Sas van Get; second, that they intended to flood the front of the Allies from Dixmude to Ypres by damming the Scheldt east of Ghent and turning its waters at that place up the Lys, which would also be dammed by the same obstruction, just as they had already flooded the country between Nieuport and Dixmude by means of the Yser and its canals.
To meet either emergency would require an entirely different line of action. It will be remembered that in both the Nieuport-Dixmude affair of 1915 and the German retreat to the Hindenburg line last Spring the Allies were taken by surprise. Now, Germany's advertised evacuation by the civil population of an area of 550 square miles in West Flanders is full of interesting possibilities.
At Lens, on the night of Aug. 21-22, both Germans and the Canadians exe