Lapas attēli
PDF
ePub

own

" honor system” and are allowed to make rules for their guidance through a number of committees. They work when they work and play when they play, idling but little. The chief officers have organized classes, and daily instruction is given to petty officers and common seamen in mathematics, navigation, and languages. Squads run through military setting-up exercises daily. Some of the men work for the Government, including fifty ship carpenters engaged in the construction of the new barracks, and others are employed as day laborers. The pay ranges from $20 to $30 a month. A number of the men work in the sevenacre tract, where a fine crop of vegetables is growing, and others find diversion in their own little garden plots. Agriculture appeals to most of the interned men.

By the riverside the officers have built a village of miniature rustic houses, using tree limbs and roots, stones, odds and ends of material found on the hotel grounds. One house has panels of old matting. A small church with a steeple is nearing completion. The prisoners are allowed to receive newspapers and other reading matter, and, subject to the station censorship, to write and receive letters. About thirty members of German officers' families have gone to the village of Hot Springs, and these the officers are privileged to receive for an hour each Sunday. They can see them as often as they wish, the families coming to the fence, but no conversation is allowed except during the Sunday hour. Few visitors are allowed to inspect the station, and they are not permitted to speak to the Germans except by way of salutation in passing. The Germans do not salute the Americans in charge, although they generally speak in salutation. The watchmen are not supposed to talk with them. The Germans are well fed on plain food -potatoes, beans, cabbage, turnips, and material for soups and stews. The United States furnishes the food at a cost of about 50 cents per man a day, and the German chefs cook it.

Methods of Handling Prisoners In the expectation that the progress of the war will throw on the United States

the burden of looking after large numbers of prisoners, the War Department is completing plans for handling many thousands more. According to an official statement, all war prisoners, whether military or naval, will ultimately be placed in the custody of the War Department, and the Adjutant General of the army will have general control through five principal bureaus, namely:

1. A bureau of administration charged with the composition and personnel of the guards, the pay, rations, clothing, and transportation of them.

2. A bureau of employment in charge of the labor of prisoners, both within their places of internment and on Federal, State, and private projects without the prisons.

3. A bureau of religious and educational welfare, to which bureau all matters connected with religion, education, rec- . reation, and the dealing with Red Cross and benevolent assistance will be conducted.

4. A bureau of inquiry charged with the custody of the records of war prisoners, and through which information concerning the prisoners will be transmitted to the enemy's Government and to the National Red Cross Society. This bureau is also charged with the forwarding of mail, money orders, and packages sent from the prisoners' home country for delivery to individual prisoners; and

5. A bureau of repatriation, charged with the final restoration of prisoners to their home country at the conclusion of hostilities,

Three War Prison Barracks The places of detention are known as war prison barracks and at present three such barracks have been established, located at Fort McPherson, Ga.; Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., and Fort Douglas, Utah. Each barracks is commanded by a Colonel of the regular army, assisted by a staff of officers similar to that of a commanding officer of an army post or camp.

The general regulations under which war prisoners are held were made the subject of a special article of the Fourth Hague Convention. In addition to this, the United States is bound by certain provisions of the Geneva Convention.

Officers who may be made prisoners are allowed, under the provisions of The Hague Convention, the pay of officers of the corresponding grade in the army of the captors' Government, and such is the present practice in the United States.

The enlisted men who are made pris- out postage. Mail matter for domestic oners are given the same medical atten- destination is subject to postage, as is tion, pay, clothing, and quarters as are also all incoming mail, both outgoing allowed United States soldiers. The and incoming mail being censored at the quarters authorized for war prisoners barracks. are similar. to and constructed in ac- As the number of prisoners increases,. cordance with the specifications govern- the Adjutant General will, under the auing the construction of cantonments used thority granted him by Paragraph 6 of by the army of the United States. War the Fourth Hague Convention, authorize prisoners are not confined in the sense the employment of these prisoners on of being placed in jails or prisons or work connected with the public service, penal institutions, but as it is necessary for individuals, and upon their own acto limit their freedom of movement, the count. cantonments in which they are confined In arriving at the wages to be paid are surrounded by a wire fence. Within prisoners for these classes of work, the the limits of this fence prisoners are provisions of international law govern. given liberty of action.

When the work is for branches of the Entire Religious Freedom

public service or for private persons, the The Hague Convention requires that

conditions are settled in an agreement

with military authorities. The wages of war prisoners shall enjoy complete liberty in the exercise of their religion.

prisoners go toward improving their poTo provide for this, there is a chaplain

sitions, and any balances remaining are of the regular army on the staff of the

paid them on their release, after deductcommandant of each war prison bar

ing the cost of maintenance. racks, who has general supervision of

Complete records are kept of all sums the religious matters connected with the

disbursed for the care and upkeep of war prison, and services are authorized for prisoners, and at the close of hostilities all prisoners so clesirmg where churches reports of these disbursements are forcf special denominations are located in warded to the enemy Government for rethe vicinity of the places of internment.

imbursement. A representative of the International

Some of Those Interned
Committee of Young Men's Christian
Associations is also accredited to each

Among the Germans who have been arwar prison barracks and, in conjunction

rested on the suspicion of being spieswith the barracks chaplain, assists in

by Secret Service agents of the Governthe athletic and social affairs of the

ment are Carl Heynen, for years one of prisoners. In the event of the death of

the most influential German agents in a war prisoner, the same. honors and North America, and at one time German respect are shown as in .case of the Consul General at Mexico City; P. A. death of an individual of corresponding Borgemeister, formerly a New York rank in the United States Army.

banker, but more recently confidential The educational welfare of the pris- secretary to Dr. Heinrich Albert, late oners is under the immediate control of Financial Attaché of the German Emthe barracks chaplain, who is charged bassy in Washington; Professor Jonawith the organization of courses of in

than Zenneck, an

expert in wireless struction as elected by the prisoners and telegraphy, and Heinrich S. Ficke, auwho is aided in the work by the prisoners ditor in New York City of the North themselves. Later, vocational training German Lloyd Steamship Company, will be introduced in each barrack to whose home on Staten Island commands provide for prisoners who are without a view of the ships entering and leaving any trade or vocation, the qualified pris- New York Harbor. These and other oners being used as instructors for the suspects were connected either directly others.

or indirectly with the German GovernPrisoners are entitled to send mail ment and great financial, industrial, and matter through international mails with- maritime concerns owned or controlled by

or

German interests. Most of the spy suspects are interned at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia.

A Copenhagen dispatch, dated July 26, stated that more effective measures than were then in force for supervision of Scandinavian liners plying to the United States must be put into effect if the passage of numerous German agents and couriers and the transmission of intelligence by German spies in America were to be checked. It was said authoritatively that German passport-forging bureaus were equipping German agents in Scandinavia with fraudulent Scandinavian passports. These were copied from genuine originals in the same fashion as American passports had been counterfeited photographically by the Pass Bureau of the Admiralty. New names and descriptions are substituted occasionally, but sometimes the only change is to attach a new photograph of the ostensible holder. Every liner sailing to the United States carries 200 or 300 passengers, principally of Scandinavian nationality. There is little to prevent the Intelligence Department of the German Admiralty, now under the leadership of Captain Karl Boy-Ed, ex-Naval Attaché at Washington, from planting any desired number of agents, equipped apparently with genuine Scandinavian passports, among the passengers. Various attempts to recruit neutrals for courier and information missions to the United States had been reported more or less definitely. The Scandinavian police, the dispatch continued, also could tell a tale of unmasked Americans who were employed in the German Secret Service.

Those Who Organize. Scdition Among the measures instituted by the United States Government is the prohibition of German residents from going within a certain distance of forts, armories, shipyards, piers, and other places where the presence of enemies or spies would be dangerous. Germans who can prove their good faith are allowed to go within the barred zones provided they have permits.

Another aspect of the enemy alien problem is the participation of Germans in movements of native origin, such as

the stirring up of labor troubles, aiding anti-war agitation, and encouraging the activities of anarchist groups. As many of these movements were in existence before the United States entered the war and are local manifestations of a worldwide discontent with the existing social order, it is not always easy to draw the line between genuine reformers and pro-Germans; but to be on the safe side the Government has taken vigorous action in combating all movements opposed to the conduct of the war or tending to prevent enlistment and to destroy the fighting spirit in the nation. Under the Espionage act it is unlawful to discourage or oppose recruiting, and the Postmaster General has power to stop the mailing privilege of any publications which give voice to anti-war anti-conscription views. About twenty Socialist and radical newspapers and magazines have been so dealt with.

A further development has been in connection with the German-language papers of the United States. Some of these newspapers have been, either by direct comment or by insinuation and satire, conducting active campaign against the Government, and already several of them have been suppressed.

Considerable resentment has been expresssed by Socialists, radicals, and others against these measures on the ground that the Government is acting autocratically in abridging the freedom of the press and other rights guaranteed under the Constitution. Street meetings have also been prohibited or broken up; the headquarters of the Socialist Party in Chicago has been subjected to a domiciliary visit by Department of Justice agents, and papers seized; the home of Professor Scott Nearing, a radical writer on economics, has been similarly searched; and in every direction the Government has been vigorously endeavoring to suppress revolutionary and radical movements that are suspected of being seditious and treasonable.

The organization which has caused the greatest concern is the I. W. W., (the Industrial Workers of the World,) whose

an

over

main tenet is the Syndicalist idea of dispossessing employers of their property and conducting the industries of the nation under the direct ownership and management of the workers themselves, organized in industrial unions, or guilds. The I. W. W. program, however, besides aiming at this form of industrial democracy, also approves methods of violence, which are due to anarchist influences, such as the destruction of property. This is the so-called plan of

sabotage,” and it is this which has caused the Government to regard the I. W. W. as the most dangerous element in the community at the present time, and to suspect that the organization is being encouraged by German interests.

Drafting Friendly Aliens A resolution passed Congress on Sept. 13 authorizing the draft of all friendly aliens who have been in the country one year; those who claim exemption through

treaty will be allowed ninety days to leave the country. It is estimated that this action will call approximately 1,275,000 men to the American colors; besides these there are 81,000 enemy aliens who under the resolution could be put to work related to the war, but not as soldiers. It is understood that Great Britain and France will take

their drafted nationals; the others would become part of the American forces.

On Sept. 19 a joint committee on the Trading With the Enemy act approved a clause stipulating that all papers printed in foreign languages, when criticising war measures, must file translation accompanied by an affidavit, with the Post Office of the city in which the publications are located. Congress also enacted into law

a

Work of the American Red Cross

Sketch of a Great Relief System

T"

HE War Council of the Red Cross,

carrying drastic regulations against any commercial intercourse in this country in which subjects of Germany may be financially concerned.

measure

with Henry P. Davison of J. P.
Morgan & Co. as Chairman, was

created May 10, 1917, by President Wilson to carry on the extraordinary relief work made necessary by the entrance of the United States into the European war. From May 10 to Aug. 31 this council appropriated for its work in the countries of the Allies the sum of $12,339,681. An elaborate report of the work of the American Red Cross, issued in September, contains many interesting details. The general objects of the work in France are described as follows:

1. To establish and maintain hospitals for soldiers in the American Army in France:

2. To establish and maintain canteens, rest houses, recreation huts and other means of supplying the American soldiers with such comforts and recreation as the army authorities may approve.

3. To establish and maintain in France canteens, rest houses, recreation huts, and other means of supplying comforts and

recreation for the soldiers in the armies of our allies.

4. To distribute hospital equipment and supplies of all kinds to military hospitals for soldiers of the American or allied armies.

5. To engage in civilian relief, including:

(a) The care and education of destitute children.

(b) Care of mutilated soldiers.
(c) Care of sick and disabled soldiers.

(d) Relief work in the devastated areas of France and Belgium, such as furnishing to the inhabitants of these districts agricultural implements, household goods, foods, clothing, and such temporary shelter as will enable them to return to their homes.

(e) To provide relief for and guard against the increase of tuberculosis.

6. To furnish relief for soldiers and civilians held as prisoners by the enemy and to give assistance to such civilians as are returned to France from time to time from the parts of Belgium and France held by the enemy.

7. To supply financial assistance to committees, societies, or individuals allied with the American Red Cross and carrying on relief work in Europe.

An ap

Scope of Red Cross Work

“ The War Council has appropriated Separate commissions of representa

$100,000 for medical research work in

France, tive Americans, skilled in medical and

To be able to do its work without administrative work, have been sent to Europe. The first commission, which

delay, the Red Cross is establishing warewent to France, is headed by Major

houses at different points of importance

in the French theatre of war. Grayson. M. P. Murphy, Vice President of the Guaranty Trust Company of New

propriation of $500,000 has been voted York, has general supervision over the

to establish this service and provide its

first stock of supplies. work of the American Red Cross in Europe, and its membership is composed of Millions Spent for Supplies fourteen leading experts in special lines

“In response to a cable from the comof work. Each of the other commissions

mission in France, the War Council aphas been selected along similar lines, and propriated $1,500,000 to purchase foodthe work 'of all these commissions is

stuff to be sent to France. either volunteer or is paid by private con

“ It has also appropriated $1,000,000 tributions.

for the purchase of supplies in France; “ The effort," the report adds, “has

all for use in the hospital supply service. been, in accordance with the expressed

“ Near the firing line the Red Cross is views of the President of the United

establishing field canteens. Extending States and of the civil and military au

the work already begun by the French thorities of France, to co-ordinate along

Red Cross, it will provide one of these helpful lines all relief work being done in

canteens for every corps of the French France and America."

army, and as well later for the AmeriConcerning the scope of the Red Cross

can Army. work in behalf of the United States

“ To carry out these plans the War Army the report says:

Council has made appropriations of about “ The first and supreme object of

$700,000, which will establish the canAmerican Red Cross care is our

own

teens and maintain them for about three army and navy. The American Army in

months. Much of the equipment will be France is received in large reception

supplied by the French Army. camps on the coast, and after several

“ A Red Cross transportation service, weeks of preliminary training the men

through the co-operation of the French, are sent across the country to permanent

British, and Italian Governments, the training camps back of the firing lines.

United States Shipping Board, and the Along the route followed by the troops

comthe Red Cross has established infirmaries

leading steanship and railroad

panies, has been established to handle and rest stations, each in charge of an

the vast quantities of medical and relief American trained nurse with an Ameri

supplies now being shipped almost daily can man to assist her.

to France, Belgium, Serbia, Russia, and “ Additional infirmaries and rest sta

other belligerent countries. tions will be established in the near fut “ The Red Cross will have cargo space ure, and adequate buildings are also

on every steamer chartered by the United being erected wherever needed.

States Shipping Board. Army transports “ Canteens are being established by the

also will carry Red Cross supplies. Red Cross at railway stations where

“ In advance of the fighting forces the American soldiers on reserve duty or on United States sent to the European batleave, and those returning to or from tlefields six base hospitals organized durduty, may find rest and refreshment.

ing the last year by the Red Cross—the Baths, food, games, and other comforts first United States Army organization will be made available at these canteens. sent to Europe. These were sent at the

“ When American troops start for request of the British Commission. France the men are given comfort kits.

an a zer ase hospitals orChristmas parcels will be sent over later. ganized by the American Red Cross are

« More

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »