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Officers' Training Camps
Fort Leavenworth, Kan., 525 students. Vancouver Barracks, Wash., 160 students. Total, 1,110 students.
Second series: Aug. 27 to Nov. 26, 1917. Total men admitted to all camps, 20,669.
Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y.-Commanding officer, Colonel Paul A. Wolf.
Fort Niagara, N. Y.-Commanding officer, Colonel J. W. Heavey.
Fort Myer, Va.--Commanding officer, Lieut. Col. C. W. Fenton.
Fort Oglethorpe, Ga.-Commanding officer, Colonel Herbert J. Slocum.
Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind.--Commanding officer, Major Alvan C. Read.
Fort Sheridan, Ill.-Commanding officer, Lieut. Col. James A. Ryan.
Fort Snelling, Minn.-Commanding officer, Colonel J. D. Leitch.
Leon Springs, Texas-Commanding officer, Lieut. Col. J. D. L. Hartman.
Presidio of San Francisco, Cal.--Commanding officer, Lieut. Col. F. W. Sladen.
The regular army organization camps are located at:
Chickamauga National Park, Ga.
DEPARTMENTS AND COMMANDERS HEADQUARTERS, COAST ARTILLERY DISTRICTS, &c.
EASTERN DEPARTMENT.—Headquarters, Governors Island, N. Y.; commander, Brig. Gen. Eli P. Doyle, retired.
Middle Atlantic Coast Artillery DistrictHeadquarters, Fort Totten, N. Y.
Panama Coast Artillery District-Headquarters, Ancon, Canal Zone.
NORTHEASTERN DEPARTMENT. —Headquarters, Boston, Mass. ; commander, Brig. Gen. John A. Johnston.
North Atlantic Coast Artillery DistrictHeadquarters, Boston, Mass.
CENTRAL DEPARTMENT.--Headquarters, Chicago, Ill. ; commander, Major Gen. William H. Carter, retired.
SOUTHEASTERN DEPARTMENT.-Headquarters, Charleston, S. C.; commander, Major Gen. William P. Duvall, retired.
South Atlantic Coast Artillery District, Headquarters, Charleston, S. C.
SOUTHERN DEPARTMENT.--Headquarters, Fort Sam Houston, Texas; commander, Major Gen. John W. Ruckinan.
WESTERN DEPARTMENT.-Headquarters, San Francisco, Cal.; commander, Major Gen. Arthur Murray, retired.
South Pacific Coast Artillery District, Headquarters, Fort Miley, Cal.
North Pacific Coast Artillery DistrictHeadquarters, Seattle, Wash.
PHILIPPINE DEPARTMENT.-Headquarters, Manila, P. I.; commander, Major Gen. Charles J. Bailey.
HAWAIIAN DEPARTMENT.-Headquarters, Honolulu, Hawaii; commander, Major Gen. Frederick S. Strong.
MEDICAL OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMPS
Allentown, Penn., 150 students, (Ambulance Corps.)
Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind., 1,200 students.
Fort Des Moines, Iowa, 13 students, (colored.)
Fort Oglethorpe, Ga., 1,300 students.
Total approximate number attending, 3,625 students.
NAVY TRAINING CAMPS AND STATIONS
Philadelphia, (League Island ;) Newport, R. I.; Cape May, N. J.; Charleston, S.
C.; Pensacola, Fla.; Key West, Fla.; Mare Island, Cal. ; Puget Sound, Wash., (Bremerton :) Hingham, Mass. ; Norfolk, Va.; New Orleans, La.; San Diego, Cal. ; New York Navy Yard ; Great Lakes, II. ; Pelham, N. Y.; Hampton Roads, Va., and Gulfport, Miss., (Winter.)
ENGINEER OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMPS
American University, Washington, D. C., 42.) students.
MARINE CORPS TRAINING CAMPS Port Royal, S. C.; Mare Island, Cal., and Quantico, Va.
A Great American Mercantile Marine for the
HE destruction of allied and neutral ships had been disabled by their crews,
shipping since the war began in 1914 work was immediately begun to repair
and the diversion by the Allies of an them. Early in June fourteen of the enormous amount of tonnage from nor seized ships were assigned to the service mal trade channels had already, before of the Navy Department and renamed, the United States became a belligerent, while at the end of the same month forced this country to consider very seri President Wilson signed an executive ously the problem of creating a mercan order authorizing the Shipping Board to tile marine of its own on a scale com take possession and title " of eightymensurate with its commerce. Ever seven of the German-owned ships, represince the civil war the United States has senting 500,000 tons. The board secured occupied a secondary position as a carry
from the President the broadest powers ing nation. It has depended upon foreign to repair, equip, man, operate, lease, or ships for its ocean transportation, al charter the vessels in any service for the though for half a century efforts were United States or in any commerce, forrepeatedly made to establish a mercantile eign or coastwise. These ships were in marine.
various ports on the Atlantic and Pacific The European war accentuated the
and in insular ports. The directions reproblem. The Government was urged to
ferring to them did not affect the fourtake the matter in hand, and finally
teen ships which had been taken over by President Wilson secured the passing of
the Navy Department. The eighty-seven legislation which authorized the appoint
ships were specified by name in the ment of a Shipping Board and the crea
President's executive order. tion of a corporation to build ships. It On July 27 Secretary Daniels was provided that the majority of the nounced that the American flag had that stock in this corporation should be held
day been hoisted on the great German by the Government. Again there was de
liner Vaterland. He also stated that lay, but our entry into the war hastened fifteen other German ships had been events, and on April 16, 1917, the Emer
taken over by the Government and the gency Fleet Corporation was organized
work of fitting them out for transport by the Shipping Board, and Major Gen.
service would be rapidly pushed to comGeorge W. Goethals, the engineer who
pletion. The work on all these ships built the Panama Canal, was appointed
was begun some time previously by conGeneral Manager. Congress authorized tract under the Shipping Board. The the use of $50,000,000, and work was
Navy Department had now taken over immediately begun to build a vast fleet
this work under its direction. Repairs of both steel and wooden ships to trans
to the Vaterland, which has been report supplies to the Allies and thus frus named the Leviathan, cost slightly less trate the German submarine campaign.
than $1,000,000. The Leviathan is the Contracts were awarded to various ship
largest merchant vessel in the world. building firms, and shipyards on both
Subsequently other German ships were the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts began to
placed under the American flag. hum with increased activity.
The seized German ships represent the
beginnings of the new American mercanSeizure of German Shipping
tile marine. But more important addiThe first warlike act of the United tions are being made by purchase and States on entering the war was to seize construction. Thus, Austro-Hungarian all the German merchant ships laid up ships have been acquired by purchase, in the ports of the United States and its since a state of war thus far does not insular possessions. As many of these
exist between the United States and
Austria-Hungary. International law permits the requisition of foreign tonnage if due compensation is paid to the owners. The first Austro-Hungarian ship thus acquired was the Martha Washington, 8,312 tons, which the Shipping Board announced would be requisitioned and turned over to the War Department for emergency service.
The Shipbuilding Program Major Gen. Goethals on July 13 outlined his shipbuilding program. He stated that contracts had then been awarded for 348 wooden ships, representing 1,218,000 tons and costing $174,000,000, and seventyseven steel ships, representing 642,800 tons and costing $101,660,356. He added that negotiations were proceeding for another hundred wooden ships. Major Gen. Goethals then explained that he mainly relied on the construction of steel ships of standard pattern for getting the greatest amount of the most serviceable tonnage in the shortest time. Contracts were to be offered for the building of two plants (to be owned by the Government) for the construction of fabricated steel ships, to produce 400 ships, aggregating 2,500,000 tons, within eighteen to twentyfour months, and absorbing $550,000,000. Major Gen. Goethals also foreshadowed the commandeering of ships then in process of building for private account, aggregating ore than 1,500,000 tons.
Disagreement between Major Gen. Goethals and the Shipping Board, of which William Denman was President, led to the resignation on July 20 of Major Gen. Goethals and the demand by President Wilson that Mr. Denman likewise resign. Edward N. Hurley, formerly Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, was appointed President of the Shipping Board, and Rear Admiral W. L. Capps, Chief Constructor of the Navy, was designated General Manager of the Emergency Fleet Corporation. Bainbridge Colby of New York was also appointed a member of the Shipping Board.
The first important act of the Government after the reconstitution of the Shipping Board was the commandeering of all power-driven cargo-carrying and pas
senger vessels above 2,500 tons dead weight capacity under construction, and all materials, machinery, equipment, and outfit pertaining to such construction. The order was issued to the owners of shipyards on Aug. 3 by Admiral Capps in virtue of the authority delegated to the Emergency Fleet Corporation. Compensation, the order explained, would be paid at a later date. Thus, by a single stroke, the United States came into possession of over 1,500,000 tons of shipping in process of construction. Most of the 700 vessels commandeered were owned in Great Britain and Norway. When completed, these vessels will almost double America's steam tonnage in foreign trade.
With the submission of new estimates by the Shipping Board on Aug. 24 the Government's complete shipbuilding program was made public. It called for a total of 1,270 ships, of 7,968,000 tons, in addition to nearly 2,000,000 tons of shipping which was already under construction in American yards, and which had been commandeered by the Emergency Fleet Corporation. The program is to be carried out by the end of the fiscal year on June 30, 1918, and requires a new billion-dollar appropriation, thus bringing the total amount required for building, commandeering, and purchasing vessels up to two billions. The details of the program are shown in the following table:
Num- Ton Estimated
ber. nage. Cost. Ships contracted for.133 1,919,200 $285,000,000 Ships ready to
contracted for when
funds are available. 452 2,968,00) 453,500,000 Ships under negotiations
.2:37 1,281,400 194,000,000
$934,500,000 Miscellaneous vessels.1.50 1.800.000 300,000,000 Organization and other miscellaneous expenses......
35,000,000 Amount authorized by Congress
June 6, 1917, ($:300,000,000 appropriated)
550,000,000 Amount to be authorized for
building program immediately in sight, making no allowance for changes in cost of labor and material
them will be capable of 18 knots or more. For commandeered ships, amount
Careful investigations made by Chairman required.
Hurley of the Shipping Board and SecreFor commandeered ships, amount authorized by Congress June 6,
tary Redfield of the Department of Com1917
250,000,000 merce showed that vessels capable of 16
knots or more were practically free from Balance requiring authorization
successful submarine attack. by Congress
A question which is causing some perPURCHASE PROGRAM
plexity was raised by the commandeering For vessels to be purchased other than under construction or com
of the ships building for British interests. mandeered
150,000,000 On one side it was proposed that they SUMMARY
should be retained by the United States Totai amount, in round figures,
in spite of the objections of Great Britto be purchased in addition to
ain, but it was pointed out on the other amounts already authorized :
hand that soon after the arrival of the For commandeered vessels. ..... 265,000,000 For construction of new vessels. 719,500,000
British War Mission in the United States For purchase of new vessels.a.. 150,000,000 the British Government gave assurances
that it would not protest against the Grand total
commandeering of British vessels Amounts desired
American stocks. Later there was an enpriated for remainder of fiscal
deavor to put through an inter-allied year 1918:
$365,000,000 For commandeered vessels.
chartering agreement, which, in the view For building program.
of American officials, would have given For purchase of vessels.
the United States hardly enough repre
sentation of power in the control of allied Total
shipping. For this reason the proposal Three Great Shipyards
was rejected. Following this, Great Contracts for the construction of three
Britain is understood to have changed her great Government-owned shipbuilding
position on the question of commandeer yards were awarded on Aug. 31 by the
and to have demanded that the ships she Emergency Fleet Corporation to the
is building here be turned back to her on American International Corporation, the
their completion. Submarine Boat Corporation, and the
The Chartering Commission Merchants’ Shipbuilding Company. After
Another far-reaching development in the first ship is turned out from one of
the control of the Shipping Board took these yards it will be possible to produce
place on Sept. 6, when Mr. Hurley anone 5,000-ton steel vessel every two
nounced the formation of an American working days.
Chartering Commission, with headquarOn Sept. 7 it was announced that the
ters in New York, to have absolute power United States is to build a great fleet of
over all charters of American ships or merchant vessels of from 10,000 to 12,000
by American shippers. The proposed tons, capable of attaining a speed of 16
powers of the American Chartering knots or better. Contracts already en Commission are much broader than those tered into for ships of smaller capacity of the Inter-Allied Chartering Committee and lower speed would be carried out, but in London. Mr. Hurley and the Shippractically all of the millions which Con
ping Committee of the Council of Nagress had been asked for in addition to
tional Defense agreed upon a tentative the original appropriation of $500,000, universal shipping rate to be enforced 000 for construction would be devoted to
on all Government shipments on Amerthe fast ships. At least 150 cargo ships ican vessels. Close co-operation was also aggregating from 1,500,000 to 2,000,000 arranged between the Embargo Administons will be built under the new Shipping tration Board and the Shipping Board to Board plan, and not one of them will be insure the widest possible control of alien slower than 16 knots, while many of tonnage.
The rounding off of the Shipping Board's jurisdiction was made manifest in the conclusion arrived at by the Exports Board and the Shipping Board that the United States has full authority to commandeer neutral to age tied up in American ports, as war necessity.” This decision affected 400,000 tons of neutral shipping, of which 250,000 was Dutch. An interesting point involved in this step was the revival of the ancient right of angary, which is recognized as part of international law and means
the right to enforce transportation. All efforts to effect an agreement with the Allies for a general rate reduction in the Atlantic have so far proved ineffective, owing to the fact that Great Britain's method of shipping control has made it impossible for the British to co-operate in the Shipping Board plan. In regard to shipping on the Pacific, where Japan dominates the situation, negotiations were begun on the arrival of the Japanese War Mission headed by Viscount Ishii.
Enemies Within the United States The Government's Treatment of Enemy Aliens.
Spies, and Seditionists
HE large number of enemy aliens
in the United States presents one of the many problems with which
the Government has to deal. Technically, every German who has not taken out first papers and who, therefore, still owes allegiance to the Fatherland is an enemy alien; but, while the great majority of these aliens are naturally either sympathetic to German war aims, or at least unable to give their wholehearted support to the Allies, they are not a source of danger to the United States. Only a small section have given evidence of disaffection, or endeavored to cause trouble.
On the outbreak of war in 1914 the British Government interned all German subjects because it was difficult to know who were and who were not engaged in some form of espionage. Such a measure would be impracticable in the United States, and efforts have accordingly been limited to watching and arresting only those Germans whom there was some reason of suspecting as spies or agents of the German Government. This is the task of the Secret Service, and from the nature of its work it is impossible to give any idea of what has been done except where the arrest of Germans has actually been reported.
Prisoners of War The largest group of interned Germans consists of those who come under the heading of prisoners of war, as distinct from men suspected of espionage. Practically all these prisoners of war are officers and men who formed the crews of the German merchant vessels seized in American ports; and most of them were arrested in New York and sent in the first place to Ellis Island. The Government has leased a hotel and grounds at Hot Springs, N. C., and there established a detention camp, where several hundred German merchant officers and sailors are now accommodated in very comfortable quarters. Five hundred officers and a hundred sailors here enjoy their new-found leisure in a hundred acres of shaded lawn, and need not work unless they feel so inclined. As soon as new buildings are erected another six hundred men will be sent to Hot Springs.
The Germans at Hot Springs have caused no trouble, and do not seem inclined to do so. They are seafaring men and philosophic enough to enjoy their enforced holiday. They obey the few rules imposed on them. They answer roll call at 9 A. M. daily and take part in a fire drill. Then they are practically free within the grounds until taps sound at 11 P. M. They are practically on the