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instruments among the living, if the inconsistency be not so great as to avoid the instrument for uncertainty. But in the construction of wills it has been said that the latter course prevails, on the ground that it is presumed to be a subsequent thought or purpose of the testator, and therefore to express his last will.

Ar inaccurate description, and even a wrong name of a per son, will not necessarily defeat an instrument. But it is said that an error like this cannot be corrected by construction, unless there is enough beside in the instrument to identify the person, and thus to supply the means of making the correction. That is, taking the whole instrument together, there must be a reasonable certainty as to the person. It is also said that only those cases fall within the rule in which the description so far as it is false applies to no person, and so far as it is true applies only to one. But even if the name or description, where erroneous, apply to a wrong person, we think the law would permit correction of the error by construction, where the instrument, as a whole, showed certainly that it was an error, and also showed with equal certainty how the error might and should he cor rected.

Instruments are often used which are in part printed and in part written; that is, they are printed with blanks, which are afterwards filled up; and the question may occur, to which a preference should be given. The general answer is, to the written part. What is printed is intended to apply to large classes of contracts, and not to any one exclusively; the blanks are left purposely, that the special statements or provisions should be inserted, which belong to this contract and not to others, and thus discriminate this from others. And it is reasonable to suppose that the attention of the parties was more closely given to those phrases which they themselves selected, and which express the especial particulars of their own contract, than to those more general expressions which belong to all contracts of this class. But if the whole contract can be construed together, so that the written words and those printed make an intelligible contract, this construction should be adopted. Because the intention of the parties is presumed to be "alive and active

throughout the whole instrument, and that no averments are anywhere inserted without meaning and without use."



THERE are some general presumptions of law which may be considered as affecting the construction of contracts.

Thus, it is a presumption of law that parties to a simple contract intended to bind not only themselves, but their personal representatives; and such parties may sue on a contract, although not named therein. Hence, as we have seen, executors, though not named in a contract, are liable, so far as they have assets, for the breach of a contract which was broken in the lifetime of their testator. And if the contract was not broken in his life time, they must not break it, but will be held to its performance, unless this presumption is overcome by the nature of the con tract; as where the thing to be done required the personal skill of the testator himself. So, too, if several persons stipulate for the performance of any act, without words of severalty, the presumption of law is here that they intended to bind themselves jointly. But this presumption also might be rebutted by the nature of the work to be done, if it were certain that separate things were to be done by separate parties, who could not join in the work.

It is also a legal presumption that every grant carries with it whatever is essential to the use and enjoyment of the grant. But this rule applies more strongly to grants of real estate than to transfers of personal property. Thus, if land be granted to another, a right of way to the land will go with the grant.

Where anything is to be done, as goods to be delivered, or the like, and no time is specified in the contract, it is then presumption of law that the parties intended and agreed tha the thing should be done in a reasonable time. But what is a reasonable time is a question of law for the court. They will consider all the facts and circumstances of the case in determining this, and if any facts bearing upon this point are in question it will be the province of the jury to settle those facts, although

the influence of the facts when they are ascertained, upon the question of reasonableness of time, remains to be determined by the court.



We have already had occasion to remark, that a custom which may be regarded as appropriate to the contract and com prehended by it, has often very great influence in the construction of its language. The general reason of this is obvious enough. If parties enter into a contract, by virtue whereof something is to be done by one or both, and this thing is often done in their neighborhood, or by persons of like occupation with themselves, and is always done in a certain way, it must be supposed that they intended it should be done in that way. The reason for this supposition is nearly the same as that for supposing that the common language which they use is to be taken in its com. mon meaning. And the rule that the meaning and intent of the parties govern, wherever this is possible, comes in and operates. Hence an established custom may add to a contract stipulations not contained in it; on the ground that the parties may be supposed to have had these stipulations in their minds as a part of their agreement, when they put upon paper or expressed in words the other part of it. So custom may control and vary the meaning of words; giving even to such words as those of number a sense entirely different from that which they commonly bear, and which indeed by the rules of language, and in ordinary cases, would be expressed by another word.

This influence of custom was first admitted in reference to mercantile contracts. And indeed almost the whole of the lawmerchant, if it has not grown out of custom sanctioned by courts and thus made law, has been very greatly modified in that way. For illustration of this, we may refer to the law of bills and notes, insurance, and contracts of shipping generally. And although doubts have been expressed whether it was wise or safe to permit express contracts to be controlled, or, if not controlled, affected by custom in the degree in which it seems now to be established that they may be, this operation of custom is now

fixed by law, and extended to a vast variety of contracts; and indeed to all to which its privileges properly apply. And qualified and guarded as it is, it seems to be no more than reasonable. In fact, it may be doubted whether a large portion of the common law of England and of this country rests upon any other basis than that of custom. The theory has been held, that the actual foundation of most ancient usages was statute law, which the lapse of time has hidden out of sight. This is not very probable as a fact. The common law is every day adopting as rules and principles the mere usages of the community, or of those classes of the community who are most conversant with the matters to which these rules relate; and it is certain that a large proportion of the existing law first acquired force in this way.

Other facts must be considered; as how far the meaning sought to be put on the words departs from their common meaning as given by the dictionary, or by general use, and whether other makers of this article used these words in various senses, or used other words to express the alleged meaning. Because the main question is always this: Can it be said that both parties ought to have used these words in this sense, and that each party had good reason to believe that the other party so understood them?

Custom and usage are very often spoken of as if they were the same thing. But this is a mistake. Custom is the thing to be proved, and usage is the evidence of the custom. Whether a custom exists is a question of fact. But in the proof of this fact questions of law of two kinds may arise. One, whether the evidence is admissible, which is to be settled by the common principles of the law of evidence. The other, whether the facts stated are legally sufficient to prove a custom. If one man testified that he had done a certain thing once, and had heard that his neighbor had done it once, this evidence would not be given to the jury for them to draw from it the inference of custom if they saw fit, because it would be legally insufficient. But if many men testified to a uniform usage within their knowledge, and were uncontradicted, the court would say whether this usage was sufficient in quantity and quality to establish a custom, and

if they deemed it to be so, would instruct the jury, that, if they believed the witnesses, the custom was proved. The cases on this subject are numerous. But no definite rule as to the proof of custom can be drawn from them, other than that derivable from the reason on which the legal operation of custom rests; namely, that the parties must be supposed to have contracted with reference to it.

As a general rule, the knowledge of a custom must be brought home to a party who is to be affected by it. But if it be shown that the custom is ancient, very general and well known, it will often be a presumption of law that the party had knowledge of it; although, if the custom appeared to be more recent, and less generally known, it might be necessary to establish by independent proof the knowledge of this custom by the party. One of the most common grounds for inferring knowledge in the parties, is the fact of their previous similar dealings with each other. The custom might be so perfectly ascertained and universal, that the party's actual ignorance could not be given in proof, nor assist him in resisting a custom, If one sold goods, and the buyer being sued for the price, de fended on the ground of a custom of three months' credit, the jury might be instructed that the defence was not made out unless they could not only infer from the evidence the existence of the custom, but a knowledge of it by the plaintiff. But if the buyer had given a negotiable note at three months, no ignorance of the seller would enable him to demand payment without grace, even where the days of grace were not given by statute. In such a case, the reason of the law of custom-that the parties contracted with reference to it-seems to be lost sight of. But in fact the custom in such a case has the force of law; an ignorance of which cannot be supposed, and, if it be proved, it neither excuses any one, nor enlarges his rights.

No custom can be proved, or permitted to influence the com struction of a contract, or vary the rights of parties, if the custom itself be illegal. For this would be to permit parties to break the law because others had broken it, and then to found the rights upon their own wrong-doing.

Neither would courts sanction a custom by permitting its

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