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universities because of the war and the large accumulation of deferred needs in personnel and facilities, it will be difficult, if not impossible, for them to meet the added burdens of the educational needs indicated as desirable.
FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TO HIGHER EDUCATION The Federal Government, through a long series of legislative acts beginning with the Ordinance of 1787, has continually encouraged and assisted institutions of higher learning. In so doing, it has aided them in extending their activities and increasing their services over a wide field. The methods through which such assistance has been given may be grouped as follows:
1. Grants for the founding and early maintenance of several private colleges.
2. Grants to States for land-grant colleges and State universities, both for general use and for the development and operation of agricultural experiment stations.
3. Grants for specific institutions: United States Military Academy, United States Naval Academy, and others.
4. Payment to both publicly and privately administered educational institutions for specific services, both continuous and for the emergency: Agricultural extension; training of war workers in engineering, science, and management; R. O. T. C. and N. R. 0. T. C.; civilian pilot training; Army and Navy college training programs; research and others.
5. Scholarships and student aid in various forms for students enrolled in both privately and publicly administered colleges and universities.
6. Funds for refinancing through the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and for construction under the Public Works Administration, available only to publicly administered educational
institutions. There is no consistent pattern running through these Federal legislative acts. During the emergency of the depression the Federal Government expanded both the amount and types of Federal assistance and its coverage. As the war emergency developed and became more acute, the Federal Government made increasing requests of the colleges and universities and contracted for many special types of services. These services were purchased from the institutions best able to provide them, whether publicly or privately administered.
There is no question of whether or not the Federal Government has made direct use of higher educational institutions. The question is rather what needs should be met, to what extent, and in what form.
The Federal Government has frankly accepted its obligation to assist these institutions to survive and to recuperate. It has recog- . nized, too, that higher education is fundamental to the national welfare. The initiative for the resolution authorizing this study came not from education, but from the Congress in its desire to assure the maintenance of colleges and universities at a high level of effectiveness.
TABLE I.—Total number of institutions of higher education ! and number and percent
reporting complete data for the study of higher education 2
1 Educational Directory, U. 8. Office of Education, 1943-44.
: A total of 1,156 replies were received representing 1,064 institutions or 64 percent of the total. The difference is accounted for by those that omitted comparable data for the 3 years included in the study, that came in too late for tabulation, or that submitted only judgment statements.
In addition 31 of the 41 national education associations returned judgment statements. Several submitted summaries of a poll of their institutional members, making a total of 162 replies.
: Does not include junior colleges with enrollment of less than 50 students. Total number approximately 600.
TABLE II.- Resident civilian students in institutions of higher education, 1939–40,
1943–44, and 1944-45, by type of institutions and sex of personnel
1 Estimated on the basis of 786 institutions which reported 50.6 percent of the total instructional and research staff and 56.7 percent of the resident college enrollments in 1939-40.
TABLE III.- Enrollment of resident civilian college students in institutions of
higher education with no military program and those with civilian and military program, 1939–40, 1943–44, and 1944-45
TABLE IV.-Enrollment of resident civilian college students in institutions of higher
education, 1939–40, 1943–44, and 1944-45, by size of student body, 1989–40, and by sex of students
1 Estimated from reports of 786 institutions enrolling 56.7 of total reported in 1939-40.
TABLE V.-Enrollment of resident civilian college students in institutions of higher
education, 1939–40, 1943–44, and 1944-45, by sex and race
i Sex distribution estimated.
* These figures include Negro students in institutions attended by white persons. The number of such students in 1939-40 was estimated at 5,000.
TABLE VI.- Enrollment by schools or colleges of resident civilian students in 786
institutions of higher education, 1939–40, and percent which enrollment in 1943-44 and 1944-45 bears to that in 1939–40
22,071 1, 750 2, 731 41. 468 2,951 4, 806 45, 228 66, 652 3, 192
89 1, 440 12, 423 203, 395 12, 346 1,211 2,881
263 3, 245 1, 412 19, 887 25, 382
401 3,083 11,931
401 81, 928 548
1 19, 850
580 160, 745
1 4,693 6,989 411
13 19 19 18 41 108 17 51
9 11 11 16 31 47 26 36 14 33 43 37 43
93 93 92 105
64 289 (1)
0 11 17
95 105 103
118 169 162
· Base number (1939–40) too low to make calculation sale.