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à total of 215,000 men were enrolled for instruction in a total of approximately 350 colleges and universities. If the professional schools of medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine are excluded
the number of colleges and universities utilized was only 283. By | August 31, 1944, the trainees had been reduced to 40,830 and the
institutions to 138. Again excluding the professional schools, the number of institutions was but 98. It is estimated that by July 1, 1945, there will be only 19,857 trainees in the colleges, of whom nearly half (8,085) will be in medical schools. It is estimated that not more than 50 institutions will be under contract to offer instruction other than medicine and that the average number of trainees in each will not exceed 200. If larger quotas are assigned to individual institutions, the number of colleges and universities will be proportionately less.
The Navy college training programs (V-1, V-5, V-7, and V-12) reached their peak from July 1 to October 30, 1943. There were then on college and university campuses 138,136 Navy men and of these the colleges gave instruction to 105,336. The number of institutions was approximately 300, including the schools of medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and theology. Exclusive of these professional schools, the number was 138. During the period from July 1 to October 30, 1944, the total number of trainees was 113,531, of which number instruction was given by the colleges to 86,264. Quotas were reduced as much as 40 percent in some colleges although the number of institutions remained the same. After July 1, 1945, the number of trainees in college will not exceed 36,000 and the number of participating institutions will be decreased accordingly. In a statement to the Senate Naval Affairs Committee on November 22, 1944, the Navy representative stated that its college training program is being gradually liquidated. It is anticipated that it will merge into a permanent Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps with a quota of 14,000 trainees distributed among only 50 institutions.
The total number of individual colleges and universities with Army and Navy programs, exclusive of duplication, was 489 at the peak. Maximum quotas had hardly been reached when the Army made drastic and the Navy gradual curtailments in the programs. By October 1944 contracts with more than 50 percent of the institutions had been terminated, and quotas had been reduced in almost all of the others. During the current academic year these programs will shrink almost to the vanishing point with small quotas remaining in less than 100 institutions, exclusive of the also decreasing number in the professional schools of medicine, dentistry, and theology. Civilian pilot training programs.
The civilian pilot training program was established by an act of Congress in 1939. Total appropriations for the years 1939 through 1944 were $229,000,000. This program was administered through the Civil Aeronautics Authority of the Department of Commerce. Contracts were negotiated with colleges located near airports, and both ground and flight instruction in aviation were given.' By 1941 contracts had been made with approximately 600 colleges and universities, many of them being comparatively small institutions, since a major factor in the selection of an institution was its proximity to a flying field. The Federal Government reimbursed the institution for
the full cost of instruction, but very few members of the regular faculty were utilized in this program. During 1942 and 1943 the training was taken over by the War and Navy Departments, and the number of institutions participating in it rapidly declined. By August 1944 the entire program had been discontinued, and many of the institutions that had anticipated the continuance of this activity were left with no military programs. Research
With the outbreak of war, contracts were made with colleges and universities to carry on extensive research essential for military effectiveness. A total of $82,255,493 was spent, during the 18 months from March 23, 1943, to October 6, 1944, in colleges and universities for such research under the general supervision and control of the Office of Scientific Research and Development established for this purpose in June 1941. Only 105 institutions participated in the program, but more than 90 percent of the funds were allocated to eight of this number. Although this program has been of little direct aid to most institutions of higher education, it is an excellent illustration of close cooperation among institutions and between the colleges and the Federal Government.
Since March 1944 contracts have terminated at nineteen of those institutions. It is probable that the number of institutions participating in the program will continue to decrease, as will the extent of the participation of those remaining, and will be totally discontinued except for research in connection with the Pacific war immediately after victory in Europe. This has direct bearing upon the reemployment of faculty members. It is probable that some portions of the research programs will be continued under military auspices in the centralized research centers already established, but to the extent that the contracts are terminated the research personnel will be relieved of such employment. In many cases such releases will occur during the time that enrollments will be small and the return of these faculty members to their institutions will create a further financial liability for the college or university, as noted above. Engineering, science, and management war training program.
To meet the needs of preservice and on-the-job training, this program of part-time or intensive courses was established in October 1940. It is administered by the United States Office of Education through contractual relationships with colleges and universities. The responsibility of the individual institutions participating in E. S. M. W. Î. has been largely that of organizing courses and supervising instruction. But little of the actual teaching is done by members of the regular faculty. The total number of trainees is now less than 50 percent of the number at the peak of the program in December 1943 and is continuing to decline.
The program provided significant service for war production and a valuable experience in developing close working relationships between institutions of higher education and industrial concerns. It has been, however, of little financial assistance to the colleges. Training of nurses.
Because of the rapidly increasing demand for nurses, the Bolton Act, Public Law 74, Seventy-eighth Congress, was passed on June 15, 1943. The act provided for the appropriation of $57,000,000 to provide a training program for nurses, and for the establishment of the United States Cadet Nurse Corps. The act is administered through the Public Health Service of the Federal Security Agency. The training institution is reimbursed for the cost of instruction and maintenance of the individual, and the cadet nurse receives a small compensation. Only a very small number of institutions participate directly in the program, and a few others provide limited instruction in specified fields, such as chemistry. Approximately 112,000 cadets have entered upon this training program sunce July 1, 1943, and it is probable that it will continue in approximately its present strength during the war period. This program, too, is of little financial assistance to the colleges, other than a limited number of institutions. Education of veterans.
One of the major factors that will influence the ability of colleges and universities to maintain an effective program is the number of persons discharged from military service who will enroll for work in the field of higher education. As of December 31, 1944, approximately 1,500,000 individuals had been separated from the armed forces.
It would appear that those discharged from military service would, to a large degree, make up the losses in enrollment caused by induction. The facts do not bear out this inference. With the exception of those discharged for disability, only a few are those who might be assumed to be of the age or dependency status to return to colleges and universities.
This is demonstrated by the number of individuals who have taken advantage of the very generous provisions of Public Law 16 (vocational rehabilitation of veterans) and Public Law 346 (G. I. bill), Seventy-eighth Congress. As of December 31, 1944, 6,804 veterans were enrolled in schools and colleges under Public Law 16, and 12,864 under Public Law 346. Of this group, 73 percent are enrolled in colleges and universities. Information to date clearly indicates that enrollment of veterans will continue to be small and will be unevenly distributed among colleges and universities.
It is but conjecture to estimate potential enrollments beyond July 1, 1945, but four facts are evident: (1) Both the Army and Navy have stated there will be no significant increase in the number of separations from military service after the termination of the European war; (2) those discharged other than for service-connected disability will be selected on the basis of length and character of their military service, age, and dependency, all factors that will tend to separate from service the older men, and hence those less likely to continue their education; (3) even after the cessation of total war, the limitations of transportation will delay the return of men from overseas for many months and perhaps years; (4) the majority of veterans discharged during a period of high employment and high wages will seek jobs rather than continue their education.
Only one conclusion can be drawn: Colleges and universities cannot look to veterans for any significant increase in the student enrollment until after final victory. It is expected that the peak load will come 6 to 18 months later.
Return of war workers.
The number of individuals who will be discharged from war industries will depend entirely upon the extent of cancelation or failure to renew war production contracts. As in the case of the veterans, the number who will enroll in colleges and universities will depend also upon the speed of reconversion and the possibility of procuring employment in nonwar production industries. Individuals who have had successful experience at relatively high wages will tend to seek continuous employment rather than to interrupt such employment to further their education. Through Public, 113, Seventy-eighth Congress, provision is made for the education of those who are injured in "war industry or otherwise." It is significant to note that less than 4,000 of those eligible for the benefits of this act are enrolled in colleges and universities. Again, it appears that while many war workers will be released somewhat sooner than military personnel, this group will not constitute an immediate or important source of students. General Summary.
An analysis of the foregoing data clearly indicates that with the exception of nurses training and the education of veteran and war workers, the number of students in colleges and universities through governmental contracts has decreased rapidly during the present calendar year.
The number of these students will continue to decline and will reach almost the vanishing point by July 1945. The nurses training program is of significance to only a very small number of colleges and universities. The number of separations from military service of those who are of usual college age is now, and will continue to be, only a small fraction of the total separated from the services. The number of veterans and discharged war workers who will take advantage of educational opportunities will remain small at least during the continuance of the period of ready employment and high wages.
From now until final victory, Federal assistance through contracts for research and for Army and Navy college training will remain of little consequence in terms of the number of institutions involved and, in most of these, the amount of such Federal assistance will be greatly reduced. There is no prospect of any significant increase in civilian enrollment until at least 6 months after final victory. Yet, at the same time, many of the more able faculty members who have had employment in war services of various kinds will be released and, in many cases, will wish to return to the staffs of their institutions.
These facts demonstrate that not only will the present emergency tend to become more and more acute, but also that very few institutions will be in a financial position to re-employ sufficient numbers of their staffs to restore their faculties to pre-war strength or to meet the accumulated deferred needs of physical plant and equipment necessary to meet the unprecedented demands that will be made upon them after final victory. JUDGMENT STATEMENTS OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY PRESIDENTS
The total number of judgment statements received from college and university presidents was 716; they came from every State in the Union and from all types of institutions of higher education. Replies were received also from officers of 38 national organizations of higher education. The replies are, therefore, a good cross-section of the thinking of officials in higher education.
In general, they express serious concern regarding the precarious position of colleges and universities as a result of the war and the many difficulties they must face in preparing to meet the immediate post-war unusual demands. They are concerned, too, about the unmet needs for higher education if this country is to live up in a reasonable manner to the social, political, and cultural desires of a democratic society in the modern industrial age.
In response to the question, "Do you think it is desirable and advisable for the Federal Government to provide a program of aid to the colleges and universities?” two-thirds of the 560 replying favored it as a temporary policy: The ratio remained the same from both publicly and privately administered institutions. In considering the desirability of such aid as a long-range policy, the opinions were more closely divided-44 percent being in favor and 56 percent against.
In interpreting these opinions in regard to Federal aid, attention should be called to the fact that any were opposed to such aid as a matter of principle but were not opposed to specific forms of Federal aid to meet particular educational needs. Practically all presidents of these institutions are opposed to Federal control, and some believe that the latter is inevitable even under the best of circumstances. Nevertheless, there were comparatively few of these college officials who were unalterably opposed to Federal aid when they discussed the specific and varied forms it might take in response to important needs. One president of a middle western institution closes his letter as follows:
Our whole system of higher education in the United States is reaching far too few persons with a program that is too low in quality. Certainly all the landgrant colleges need to intensify and broaden their work. I believe most sincerely that we stand in danger of losing democracy in this country simply because we do not have enough minds that have been equipped to think broadly, deeply, and clearly. Instead of having 4 percent of our population college graduates, we should raise the percentage to at least 10 percent as quickly as we can. The quality of education needs to be increased; this is true of purely technical training in such fields as electronics, and it is also true of general education, which needs to supplement, and even guard against the dangers of sheer specialized training. It is quite clear that a good share of the States cannot, by themselves, do the kind of job that needs doing. The Federal Government must extend aid and raise the necessary funds by a system of taxation that is fair to all.
Some point out that in view of the growing list of permanent educational enterprises that Congress has established and financed over the last century and a half it is no longer a question of whether the Federal Government shall play an important role in education, but what the direction and pattern of Federal action in education shall be. Some who favor Federal aid suggest that such action should be limited to two broad functions; namely, (1) financial assistance and (2) leadership of a stimulating but noncoercive character.
În reply to the question as to the types of services the institution could render and for which the Federal Government might justifiably make appropriations, they suggested many types, including vocational
, professional, and general education in a variety of forms; classroom instruction for youth and adults in practically all fields; extension programs; research of all types; military training; and such community services as conferences, forums, panels, libraries, and museums. In other words, there is clear recognition of the fact that unmet needs for higher education in all forms are great in number and variety and