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The following table indicates that some increase in the acreage harvested for seed took place in 1943, stimulated by the limited acreage payment in the agricultural-conservation program and the seedloan program. As a result of the 1944 special-payment program, however, the results were much more substantial, with red clover showing the most significant increase in the acreage harvested for seed.
Acreage of seed harvested 1940 to 1944
(In thousands of acres)
As shown in the above table, the acreage increase in alfalfa for seed was only 25 percent, but unfavorable weather reduced the acreage for seed in some of the important midwestern areas so that the full response to the program is not reflected by statistics. The program was announced too late to have much effect on the harvested acreage of alsike clover seed. Timothy seed was not included in the 1944 program, but the data are included in the above table for comparative purposes.
The following table shows the pounds of clean seed produced:
Seed produced is, in large measure, dependent upon weather conditions and this explains why alfalfa seed production in 1944 was less than in 1943, although the acreage was 25 percent greater. With more favorable weather conditions, production of alfalfa seed probably would have equaled the 1940 crop. Lespedeza seed production was a record crop both because of the large acreage harvested and the high level of yield. This makes for reasonably plentiful supplies of seed for the southern half of the country but seed supplies continue short for the northern alfalfa and clover areas.
The following table shows, with respect to alfalfa, red clover, and alsike, the carry-over as of June 30 in each year, beginning with 1940, plus the production for such year.
As already indicated, unfavorable weather accounts for the low yield of alfalfa in 1944 and the fact that the payment program was announced too late to substantially affect alsike, plus unfavorable weather conditions, accounts for the low acreage and production of alsike. It should be noted that supplies of each of these seeds in 1944 were very much less than supplies in 1940.
The following table shows the production of alfalfa, red clover, and alsike clover since 1937 and the production goals for 1945 as established by the War Food Administration. These goals include estimated domestic requirements for 1946, minimum exports to our allies, and necessary carry-overs.
It should be noted that the required production for 1945 is substantially greater than the 1944 production. In fact, with respect to alsike clover, it is double the 1944 production.
Even with the larger production of seed last year, farmers are still unable to get as much alfalfa and clover seed as they need. Adequate hay and pasture seeds are necessary to maintain good pastures and forage for livestock and to assure the proper rotation so necessary in maintaining yields of other crops. Special attention must be given to seed production because it may be overlooked in the rush to get food and war materials. Seed production is more or less incidental on most farms and, therefore, when other crops are high priced, seeds are not always harvested. Our present acreage of alfalfa and clover can produce a much larger quantity of seeds if farmers are given adequate encouragement to harvest the seed.
After carefully considering the results of the 1944 special seed program and the testimony of representatives of the Agricultural Adjustment Agency, farm organizations, and seed distributors, all of whom recommended the enactment of H. R. 2175, as to the future seed requirements, the committee is of the opinion that the special seed program should be continued in 1945 for alfalfa, alsike clover, medium red clover, and mammoth red clover, in addition to the seed-harvesting payments provided for in the regular 1945 agricultural conservation program. The special payments under the 1944 program were also in addition to seed-harvesting payments under the regular agricultural conservation program.
Accordingly, H. R. 2175, to be known as the War Emergency Legume Seed Act, would authorize and direct the War Food Administrator to make payments through the Agricultural Adjustment Agency to producers of alfalfa, alsike clover, medium red clover, and mammoth red clover, in addition to the seed harvesting payments provided for under the 1945 agricultural conservation program. Such payments would be made on an acreage basis for the harvesting of such seed and on a clean-seed basis for such seed sold into commercial channels and would be made subject to the applicable provisions of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, as amended. It is contemplated that a small payment would be made for each acre of such seed harvested, which would compensate the farmer in some degree for the risk involved in foregoing a crop of hay to take a chance on obtaining a crop of seed. This acreage payment, together with a payment for each pound of harvested seed which is moved into channels of distribution, would help to make returns from seed production comparable with returns from other crops.
The bill would authorize the War Food Administrator to promulgate such rules and regulations as he deemed necessary to administer the act and would also authorize him to cooperate with agencies of the Federal and State governments and with domestic producing, trading or consuming organizations in encouraging and securing the production and distribution of the four kinds of seed to which the bill relates.
Section 6 of the bill would authorize the appropriation of not to exceed $15,000,000 to carry out the provisions of the bill. Section 6 provides further that any sums appropriated pursuant to that section shall be merged with the funds appropriated for carrying into effect the provisions of sections 7 to 17, inclusive, of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, as amended.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
REPORT • No. 189
REPATRIATING NATIVE-BORN WOMEN RESIDENTS OF
THE UNITED STATES
FEBRUARY 21, 1945.-Referred to the House Calendar and ordered to be printed
Mr. ALLEN of Louisiana, from the Committee on Immigration and
Naturalization, submitted the following
(To accompany H. R. 384)
The Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, to whom was referred the bill (H. R. 384) to repatriate native-born women residents of the United States who have heretofore lost their citizenship by marriage to an alien, having considered the same, report favorably thereon without amendment and recommend that the bill do pass.
PURPOSE OF THE BILL
The purpose of the bill is to provide a means not now afforded by law of repatriating native-born women residents who lost their citizenship by marriage to an alien and who have continued to reside continuously in the United States since the date of such marriage.
Prior to the act of September 22, 1922, an American-citizen woman lost her citizenship by virtue of marriage to an alien. By the terms of the act of June 25, 1936, it was provided that a woman, being a native-born citizen, who lost her United States citizenship solely by marriage prior to September 22, 1922, to an alien, and whose marital status with such alien is terminated, shall be deemed to be a citizen of the United States to the same extent as though her marriage to said alien had taken place on or after September 22, 1922. That act did provide, however, that such a woman could not claim any rights of citizenship until she should take the regular oath of allegiance prescribed by the Naturalization Act of June 29, 1906. Under date of July 2, 1940, that act was amended so as to include the privilege of repatriation to women who continuously resided in the United States since the date of their marriage prior to September 22, 1922, such repatriation to occur even though the marriage had not terminated. The Nationality Act of October 14, 1940, specifically repealed the act of June 25, 1936.
In section 317 (b) of the Nationality Act of 1940, it is provided that from and after the effective date of that act, which is January 13, 1941, a woman who was a citizen of the United States at birth and who lost her United States citizenship solely by marriage prior to September 22, 1922, to an alien, and whose marital status had terminated, would, if no other nationality was acquired by affirmative act other than by marriage, from and after the taking of the oath of allegiance prescribed in the Nationality Act, be deemed to be a citizen to the same extent as though her marriage to said alien had taken place on or after September 22, 1922. The Nationality Act of 1940 carried through the provision vesting citizenship in women who had lost it by marriage, where the marriage had terminated. It failed to carry through the principle of the amendment of the 1936 act taking care of women who lost it by marriage but who had continued to reside in the United States.
The only thing that this bill does is to rewrite into the Nationality Act of 1940 the provision which the Congress wrote into the law on July 2, 1940, permitting women to be reinvested with their citizenship where it was lost solely through marriage prior to 1922, and where these women had continued to reside continuously in the United States.
As a matter of fact, the Department of Justice holds that such women have been restored to citizenship but a number of Federal courts have decided otherwise and it is for this reason that the amendment becomes necessary.
This bill is identical with H. R. 1289, which passed the House of Representatives in the Seventy-eighth Congress.
The Attorney General addressed the following letter to the chairman of the committee under date of February 10, 1945:
FEBRUARY 10, 1945. Hon. SAMUEL DICKSTEIN, Chairman, Committee on Immigration and Naturalization,
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. MY DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: This is in response to your request for my views relative to a bill (H. R. 384) to provide for the repatriation of native-born women residents of the United States who have heretofore lost their citizenship by marriage to an alien.
Prior to the enactment of the Cable Act on September 22, 1922 (42 Stat. 1021), a female citizen of the United States lost her citizenship by marrying an alien. The Cable Act in effect provided that thereafter such a marriage should not have this result, but that the wife should retain her own citizenship status.
The Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1146; 8 U. S. C. 717 (b) (1) ) provides that a natural-born female citizen who lost her citizenship by marrying an alien prior to September 22, 1922, but whose marriage has terminated, may reacquire citizenship by taking an oath of allegiance. The bill under consideration would extend this privilege to natural-born female citizens whose marriage is still in effect, and who have lived in the United States continuously since their marriage.
The act of June 25, 1936 (49 Stat. 1917), as amended by the act of July 2, 1940 (54 Stat. 715), provided that women who married aliens prior to September 22, 1922, and whose marital status shall have terminated, or who resided continuously in the United States since the date of the marriage, should be deemed citizens of the United States as though the marriage took place on or after September 22, 1922. That act, however, also provided that the rights of citizenship should be withheld until the oath of allegiance was taken. Although the act was expressly repealed by the Nationality Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 1174), this Department has taken the position that such women reacquired their citizenship upon its original enactment and that they did not lose their citizenship as a result of the subsequent