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TABLE 42.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see p. 470.

The greater portion of the total number of families have a total income under $750. This is characteristic both of the native-born of foreign father and of the foreign-born. However, except in one instance, the proportion of native-born of foreign father having an income less than each specified amount exceeds the corresponding proportion of foreign-born. Relatively larger incomes are general among the latter class.

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The greater number of families of each specified race have a total income under $750. Comparatively small incomes are most general among the Polish, 45 per cent having less than $500. Relatively large incomes, on the contrary, are most general in Bohemian and Moravian and South Italian families.

The extent to which the wives of the families studied were regularly employed for wages outside the home, together with their average annual earnings, is shown in the following table according to general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 43.-Wives at work, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

Number

General nativity and race of head of family. of selected families.a

Bohemian and Moravian..

German.

Foreign-born⚫

WIVES AT WORK.

Native born of foreign father, by race of

father:

Bohemian and Moravian.

Hebrew

Italian, South.
Lithuanian.

Polish.

Russian.

Grand total....

Total native-born of foreign father.
Total foreign-born..

24
2

173

366

145

55

20

11

796

26 770

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a For selection of families, see p. 470.

Not computed, owing to small number involved.

5

64

3

61

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Of the 794 wives in the 796 families selected for study in the preceding table, 64, or 8.1 per cent, are at work and earn an average of $128 per annum. A larger proportion of the wives of native-born of foreign father than of foreign-born husbands are at work. Considering the foreign-born by race it is seen that the Poles show the largest and the Hebrews the smallest proportion of wives at work.

RELATION BETWEEN EARNINGS OF HUSBANDS AND THE PRACTICE OF WIVES OF KEEPING BOARDERS OR LODGERS.

Although a proportion of the wives of the families the heads of which were clothing operatives, as well as other female members of the families, seek regular employment outside the home as a means of contributing to the family support, a much larger proportion of the wives add to the earnings of their husbands by taking boarders or lodgers into the home. The extent to which the wives of the families find it necessary to supplement in this way the earnings of their husbands is set forth in the following tables which show the number and per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, according to yearly earnings and general nativity and race of head of family.

TABLE 44.-Number of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers, by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[The families here represented are only those where both husband and wife are present.]

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Foreign-born:

165

362

142

Bohemian and Moravian.

Hebrew.

Italian, South.
Lithuanian..
Polish...

54

20

11

780

26

754

Grand total...

Number of husbands
earning-

Under
$400. b

Total native-born of foreign father..
Total foreign-born.............

40

133

35

22

6

2

242

4 238

General nativity and race of head of family.

$400

and under $600.

Native-born of foreign father, by race of father, Bohe

mian and Moravian....

10

1

66

104

43

22

7

3

256

11

245

$600 or over.

10

1

59

125

64

10

Under
$400. a

(b)

282

7

6

11

271

(*)

Number of wives having employment or keeping boarders or lodgers.

22.5

13.5

51.4

72.7

66.7

28.5

34

46

39

11

5

200

4

196

28.2

Number of wives hav-
ing employment or
keeping boarders or
lodgers where hus-
bands' earnings are-

$400
Under and $600
$400.c under or over.

$600.

2

$400 and under $600.

IN 8 NA8888

20.0

22.7

21.2

41.9

77.3

28.6

30.1

18.2

30.6

18

18

16

a For selection of families, see p. 470.

b This column includes 3 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."
This column includes 1 family in which husband's earnings are reported as "none."

4

2

69

2

67

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TABLE 45.-Per cent of families in which wife has employment or keeps boarders or lodgers,

by yearly earnings of husband and by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more selected families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races. For selection of families, see p. 470. Of the selected families only those which have both husband and wife present appear in this table.]

$600 or
over.

0.0

16.9

16.8

15.6

60.0

71.4

19.1

.0

19.9

Per cent of wives having employment or keeping
boarders or lodgers where husbands' earnings

are

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a This column includes 3 families in which husbands' earnings are reported as "none."
Not computed, owing to small number involved.

21

Total.

10

6

5

54

54

16.7

20.6

16.9

32.4

72.2

55.0

25.6

15.4 26.0

The largest proportion of wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers is of families where the husbands earn $400 and under $600. However, it is only a slightly less frequent practice among families where the husbands earn under $400. The figure for the total num

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bers closely reflects the situation in the foreign-born families. The employment of the wife or the keeping of boarders or lodgers is less frequent among the native-born of foreign father.

The proportion of wives employed or keeping boarders or lodgers in South Italian families steadily decreases as the husbands' earnings increase. Among most of the races, however, a greater proportion of wives are employed or keep boarders or lodgers in families where the husband earns $400 and under $600 than in families where the husband gets under $400. In Polish families the practice is most prevalent where the husband gets $600 or over.

SOURCES OF FAMILY INCOME.

The two tables next presented exhibit the sources of family income in detail. The first of these, which immediately follows, shows by general nativity and race of head of family the per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources. The past year referred to in the table means the twelve months immediately preceding the

collection of the data.

TABLE 46.-Per cent of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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a For selection of families, see p. 470.

Of 796 families selected for study in the preceding table 97.5 per cent have an income from earnings of husband; 8 per cent from earnings of wife; 24.7 per cent from the contributions of children; 19.1 per cent from payments of boarders or lodgers, and 9.5 per cent from other sources. A larger proportion of the families whose heads are native-born of foreign father than of those whose heads are foreign-born have an income from earnings of husband and from earnings of wife, while the reverse is true with regard to those having an income from the contributions of children, payments of boarders or lodgers, and other sources. The families the heads of which are Polish show a larger proportion than the families the heads of which are of any other given race having an income from the earnings of

husband and of wife. The families the heads of which are Bohemian and Moravian show the largest proportion having an income from the contributions of children and sources not specified, while the proportion of families whose heads are Lithuanians and who have an income from payments of boarders or lodgers is noticeably large.

The table next presented also shows the sources of family income according to general nativity and race of head of family, but differs from the preceding table in that each specified source is exclusive of all other sources.

TABLE 47.-Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

Per cent of families having entire income from

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Total number of selected

families.a

Husband and children.

Husband and wife.

Husband, wife, and children.

Husband.

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Children and boarders

or lodgers.

Children.

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Boarders or lodgers.

Sources or combination

of sources not before

specified.

0.0 0.0

4.2

.6 .0

21.4 .0 .0 11.2 .0 .0 6.9 1.8 .0 14.5 .0 0 15.0 .3 .0

12.6

0 0

3.8 3 .0 12.9

a For selection of families, see p. 470.

Of the total number of families selected for study in the above table, 48.2 per cent have their entire income from husband, husband and children contribute the entire income to 17.3 per cent of the families, and 14.6 per cent have their entire income from husband and boarders or lodgers. Comparatively small proportions have their entire income from each other specified source. No households derive their entire income from wife and boarders or lodgers, or boarders or lodgers, while 12.6 per cent have their entire income from sources or combination of sources not specified in the table. Comparing the households whose heads are native-born of foreign father with those the heads of which are foreign-born it is seen that the former show a larger proportion of families having entire income from husband, as well as from husband and wife, while the latter shows the larger proportion having entire income from each other source. Except the Lithuanian, each group of families whose heads are foreignborn shows a larger proportion of their families having entire income from husband than any other source. The Lithuanian shows a larger proportion from husband and boarders or lodgers. The families whose heads are Hebrews or Lithuanians, alone show a proportion

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