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here for ten or more years. The North and South Italians and Lithuanians each show that of those who have lived in this country from five to nine years a larger proportion earn $5 or over and $7.50 or over than do those who have lived here for ten years or more.

The following table shows, by race of individual and length of residence in the United States, the comparative earnings per week of foreign-born female employees who were 18 years of age or over:

TABLE 37.-Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born female employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 200 or more females reporting.]

IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

In the group less than five years in the United States the Hebrews other than Russian show the highest percentage earning each specified amount under $12.50 per week, while the Bohemians and Moravians show the highest percentage earning $12.50 per week or over and $15 per week or over in each of the three periods.

The Lithuanians show the smallest percentage earning $10 or over, $12.50 or over, and $15 or over in the first and second periods, and the South Italians show the smallest percentage earning $12.50 or over and $15 or over in the third period.

The table indicates an increased earning capacity with continued residence in the United States, the percentage of increase being

greater between the first and second periods than between the second and third. The South Italians, however, show a lower earning capacity in the third period than in the second. The Bohemians. and Moravians show the highest earning capacity in the third period and the Lithuanians report the smallest earning capacity in the second period.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.

The annual earnings of heads of families studied are next considered. The first table presented shows, by general nativity and race of husband, the number and per cent of husbands at work, together with their average annual earnings.

TABLE 38.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Of a total of 782 husbands in the 796 families selected for study in the above table, 99.2 per cent are at work and earn an average of $530 per year.

The native-born of foreign father shows 100 per cent of their husbands at work, with an average earning of $591, while the foreignborn shows 99.2 per cent of their husbands at work, with an average earning of $528.

The South Italian and Polish show the largest proportion, or 100 per cent, while the Bohemian and Moravian show the smallest proportion, or 97.6 per cent, of their husbands at work.

The range in annual earnings of male heads of families is set forth in the following table according to general nativity and race of husband:

TABLE 39.—Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 470.]

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

A total of 776 families were selected for the foregoing study. For that number the average earnings per year of the male heads are $530. Less than 5 per cent of the total number of families have heads who have an income of more than $1,000 per year. Only 1 per cent have incomes under $100, while 63.7 per cent have incomes under $600. The foreign-born show a small porportion of families the heads of which have a yearly income of more than $1,000, but none of the native-born of foreign father males have incomes above that amount. None of the male heads of the latter general nativity group have incomes under $200 per year. Among the foreign-born, all of the Poles have incomes under $1,000. The largest proportion of male heads of families who have an income of more than $1,000 is shown by the South Italians. Excepting the Poles, who show 5 per cent, no race shows more than 2 per cent as having an income of less than $100. Among the families having an income of less than $600 the Lithuanians show the largest proportion.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In the table next submitted the average and range of annual earnings of all males in the households studied who were 18 years of age or over are shown by general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 40.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the native-born males of foreign father 71.3 per cent earn under $600 per year. The corresponding proportion of foreign-born is 66.5 per cent. In every instance, moreover, the foreign-born have the smaller proportion earning less than the specified amount. Consequently, there is a higher level of earnings among the foreign-born than among the native-born of foreign father.

The greater part of the males of each race reporting earn under $600, the proportion ranging from 58.6 per cent of the Poles, who have the highest average earnings, to 80.6 per cent of the Lithuanians, who have the lowest average earnings.

ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FEMALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The following table shows by general nativity and race of individual the yearly earnings of all females in the households studied no were 18 years of age or over and who were working for wages: TABLE 41.- Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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a Not computed owing to small number involved.

Of the native-born females of foreign father, 50 per cent earn under $300 per year. The corresponding proportion of foreign-born females is 64.6 per cent. Moreover, in every instance the foreign-born show the larger proportion earning less than the specified amount. Consequently, there is a higher level of earnings among the native-born females of foreign father than among the foreign-born females.

ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.

In the series of tabulations which are next presented the average amount and range of annual family income are studied, together with the different source of family income and their relative importance. The following table, which is the first submitted in this connection, shows by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified

amount:

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