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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States-General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied-The first and second generations compared-Weekly earnings-Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied—Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family incomeWives at work-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of the different sources of family income [Text Tables 14 to 48 and General Tables 6 to 21].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT
HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

In order that a comparison may be made of the condition of the immigrant clothing operatives in this country with that while abroad, it is necessary to point out their general industrial status and the principal occupations followed by them before emigrating from their native countries. This is done in the following series of tables, the first of which shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country:

TABLE 14.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Nearly 75 per cent of the total number of persons included in the above table worked for wages abroad before coming to this country. Only 12.1 per cent were working without wages, 11.1 per cent were working for profit, and 4.8 per cent were without occupation. Less than 1 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians and none of the Poles were without occupation abroad. Among those who were

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283

working for wages the South Italians show the largest proportion and the Bohemians and Moravians the next largest proportion, while the smallest proportion is shown by the Lithuanians. Almost 50 per cent of the Lithuanians were working without wages, as compared with 3.2 per cent of the South Italians. The Hebrew is the only race that shows a proportion greater than 6 per cent for persons who were working for profit abroad. The proportion for the Hebrews is 18.9 per cent, and the next highest proportion, 5.8 per cent, is shown by the Bohemians and Moravians.

The principal occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming is shown in the following table, according to race of individual:

TABLE 15.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

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Of the foreign-born males of the specified age 72 per cent had worked for wages before coming to the United States, 50.6 per cent having been in the clothing industry; moreover, excepting the Lithuanians, the greater proportion of each race working for wages have been in the clothing industry. The greater part of the Lithuanians working for wages had been farm laborers.

Of the total number of the foreign-born 12.1 per cent had worked without wages. Relatively large proportions of the Lithuanians and Poles had worked without wages, and most of these had been farm laborers.

Of the total number of foreign-born males 11.1 per cent had worked for profit; 1 per cent had been farmers, 5.5 per cent in trade, and 4.5 per cent in other occupations. The Hebrews show the largest proportion working for profit, or 18.9 per cent, 11.7 per cent having been in trade.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 16.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreignborn.]

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Race of individual.

753

Bohemian and Moravian..
Hebrew..

Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Polish.

Without оссираtion.

Total...

56 304

107

24

13

513

Number

Working for wages.

Number reporting com-
plete data.

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Per cent without occupa

tion.

147

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Per cent working for
wages.

Per cent

Working for wages.

136 41.2 0.020,6 5.1 0.0 2.227.9
381 79.8 .0 2.9 9.7 .0 2.915.5
148 72.3 .0 2.7 14.9 1.4 5.4 24. 3
55 43.6 5.5 3.6 5.5 .0 3.618.2
20 65.0
.0 .0
.0
.0
.0 .0
753 68.1 .4 6.2 9.3 .3 3.3 19.5

27.9

15.5

24.3

18.2

.0

Of the total number of females who were 16 years of age or over when they came to the United States 68.1 per cent were without occupation abroad; 19.5 per cent had worked for wages; 10.8 per cent had worked without wages; only 1.6 per cent had worked for profit.

19.5

Each of the specified races had a greater proportion without occupation than in any other industrial condition. The Hebrews and South Italians show especially large proportions who were without occupation. The Bohemians and Moravians and South Italians show relatively large proportions who worked for wages.

The Lithuanians, Poles, Bohemians, and Moravians report about one-third of number as having worked without wages.

Working without

wages.

The following table analyzes the preceding table into the principal occupation followed, before coming to the United States, by foreignborn females, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. The presentation is by race of individual.

30.9
1.0

1.4

36.4
35.0

10.0

TABLE 17.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreignborn.]

30.9

1.8

2.7

38.2

35.0

10.8

Working for

profit.

Per cent work-
ing without
wages.

0.0

2.9

.7

.0

.0

1.6

08780

Per cent working for profit.

0.030.9 0.0 0.0 0.0

.8 1.8 2.1 .8 2.9

.7

1.4 2.7 .0

1.838.2 .0 .0 .0

.7

.035.0 .0 .이 .0

.810.8 1.1 .5 1.6

A total proportion of 19.5 per cent of the females had worked for wages before coming to the United States, 9.3 per cent in the clothing industry, and 6.2 per cent in domestic service.

The greater proportions of the South Italians and Hebrews who had worked for wages had been in the clothing industry. Of the Bohemians and Moravians 27.9 per cent had worked for wages, 20.6 per cent having been in domestic service. Ten and eight-tenths per cent of the females had worked without wages, 10 per cent having been farm laborers. One and six-tenths per cent had worked for profit, 1.1 per cent, all of whom were Hebrews, having been in the clothing industry.

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING
TO THE UNITED STATES.

The table next presented shows the per cent of foreign-born male employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States.

TABLE 18.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The preceding table shows that 62.5 per cent of the 6,219 males reporting complete data were engaged in the manufacture of clothing before coming to the United States, 13 per cent were in trade, 8.1 per cent were farming or farm laborers, 7.2 per cent were in hand trades while small proportions were in other occupations and other manufacturing. Germans show the highest per cent who were engaged in the manufacture of clothing before coming to this country, while no races show less than 50 per cent who were engaged in this pursuit. Lithuanians and Poles show the highest per cent who were farming or farm laborers and Russian Hebrews, Magyars, and Hebrews other than Russian the highest per cent who were in trade.

The following table shows by race of individual the per cent of foreign-born female employees who were in each specified occupation before coming to the United States:

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TABLE 19.-Per cent of foreign-born female employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreignborn.]

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Hebrew, Russian..
Hebrew, Other
Italian, South..
Lithuanian..
Russian..

Total..

292

80

153

223

113

114

1,255

Race.

81.5

91.3

81.7

87.9

39.8

64.9

75.6

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Baltimore.

50.2

(a)

(a)

0.0

1.3

7.2

2.2

(a)

(a)

49.6

21.9

10.8

Domestic
service.

The preceding table shows 75.6 per cent of the females studied were engaged in sewing, embroidering, and lace making before coming to the United States, 10.8 per cent were farmers or farm laborers, 4.9 per cent were in trade, 4.1 per cent were in domestic service, while small proportions were in other occupations or in other manufacturing Russian Hebrews, Hebrews other than Russian, North Italians, and South Italians show between 80 and 90 per cent who were engaged in sewing, embroidering, lace making, etc., before coming to this country. Lithuanians show the smallest proportion of females engaged in this pursuit and also the highest per cent who were farming or farm laborers. Russian Hebrews show no females who were farmers or farm laborers, but the highest per cent who were engaged in trade.

The extent of the training and experience while abroad of the immigrant operatives for the work in which they are engaged in this country is set forth in the following table, which shows by locality and by race of individual the per cent of foreign-born male employees who were engaged in the manufacture of clothing before coming to the United States:

55.7

TABLE 20.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who were engaged in the manufacture of clothing before coming to the United States, by locality and by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

1.0

1.3

Chicago.

2.6

1.8

9.7

7.0

4.1

53.3

48.3

67.9

65.5

50.0

60.7

Trade.

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

11.0

2.5

3.9

2.7

.0

1.8

4.9

New York
City.

Other оссира

tions.

63.3

59.3

1.0

1.3

.7

1.8

.9

3.5

1.6

66.8

59.8

62.7

64.4

Total

clothing.

58.5

56.6

68.2

57.8

53.8

62.5

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