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1. Author and Creator (25) p 961
2. Transferee and Assignee ($ 26) p 961
3. Joint Owners or Authors (27) p 961
4. Aliens (0 28] p 962
5. Employer and Employee ($ 29) p 962
6. Photographs [$ 30) p 963
7. Architectural Plans and Drawings (8 31) p 963

8. Letters ($ 32) p 963
D. Assignments, Transfers, Licenses, and Contracts [60 33-39) p 966

1. In General ($ 33] p 966
2. Assignments and Licenses Distinguished ( 34) p 966
3. Necessity of Writing [35] p 966
4. When Title Passes ($ 361 p 967
5. Performing Licenses ($ 37) p 967
6. Rights Conferred or Reserved (838) p 968

7. Contracts Generally (8 39) p 971
E. Publication (10 40–56) p 973
1. Effect of Publication (00 40-45) p 973

a. Law 1 р
b. Under Copyright Legislation (6 41] p 973
c. Present Rule 10 $ 42-45) p 974

+ (1) General Publication (6 42) p 974
(2) Limited or Qualified Publication (843) p 977
(3) Consent to Publication ( 44] p 978

(4) Place of Publication (8 45) p 978
12. What Constitutes Publication (9946–56) p 978

a. In General ($ 46] p 978
b. General and Limited Publication [47] p 980
c. Of Particular Subject Matter 108 48–56] p 981

(1) Manuscripts (6 48) p 981
(2) Books ( 49) p 981
(3) Pictures, Photographs, Etc. (50) p 983
(4) Dramatic Compositions (851) p 984
(5) Musical Compositions [52] p 986
(6) Lectures, Sermons, Addresses, and Oral Recitals (53] p 987
(7) Telegraphic News Service (54] p 988
(8) Architectural Works ($ 55) p 988

(9) Deposits in Copyright Office (56) p 989
F. Abandonment (( 57) p 989
G. Infringement [58-59) p 989

1. In General ($ 58] p 989

2. Reproduction from Memory ( 59] p 990
H. Remedies and Procedure (0$ 60-64) p 990

1. In General (0 60) p 990
2. Actions at Law [8 61) p 991
3. Suits in Equity [62] p 992
4. Jurisdiction of State and Federal Courts ( 63) p 994

5. Burden of Proof [664) p 994
* II. ORIGIN AND NATURE OF COPYRIGHT (00 65-68] p 995

A. Historical Summary [65) p 995
B. Right Purely Statutory (0 66] p 995
C. Incorporeal Nature (8 67] p 996

D. Personal Property [68] p 997
IV. STATUTORY AND CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS (0$ 69–89) p 997
A. General Statement [08 69–84) p 997

1. England (669) p 997
2. United States (59 70–71] p 998

a. State Statutes ($ 70] p 998

b. Federal Statutes [$ 71) p 998
3. Hawaii (72] p 998
4. Porto Rico ( 73] p 999
5. Canal Zone ($ 74) p 1000
6. Philippine Islands ($ 75] p 1000
7. Alaska ($ 76] p 1000
8. Imperial and Colonial Copyright in British Empire (0877-84] p 1000

a. Imperial Copyright ($ 77] p 1000
b. Colonial Copyright (1978-84) p 1002

(1) Canada (78) p 1002
(2) South African Union (879) p 1004

(3) Newfoundland (80) p 1004
For later casos, dovelopments and changes in the law see cumulative Annotations, same title, page and note number.

(4) Australia (8 81] p 1004

(5) New Zealand (82] p 1004

(6) India ( 83) p 1004

(7) Cyprus (0 84] p 1005

B. Constitutionality of Statutes [00 85–86) p 1005

1. Federal Statutes (885) p 1005

2. State Statutes (86] p 1007

C. Construction and Operation (0$ 87-89) p 1007

1. In General (8 87] p 1007

2. Strict or Liberal Construction (8 88] p 1008

3. Extraterritorial Operation (689) p 1008

V. WHAT MAY BE COPYRIGHTED (00 90–143] p 1009

A. General Requirements [08 90–100) p 1009

1. Statutory Provisions (90) p 1009

2. Originality and Authorship (1 91-97) p 1009

a. In General ($ 91) p 1009

b. Matter Previously Published (92) p 1011

c. Double Copyrighting (693) p 1012

d. Independent Production of Similar or Identical Result (894) p 1013

e. Compilations (695) p 1013

f. Abridgments (8 96] p 1015

g. Index or Concordance ($ 97) p 1015

3. Literary or Artistic Merit ($ 98) p 1015

4. Morality and Legality [99] p 1016

5. Domestic Manufacture [100] p 1017

B. Particular Subject Matter (10 101-143) p 1021

1. Books Generally [101] p 1021

2. Newspapers and Periodicals [$ 102) p 1023

3. Unpublished Works (0$ 103–106) p 1024

a. In General ( 103] p 1024

b. Lectures, Sermons, and Addresses (6 104) p 1024

c. Manuscripts [0 105) p 1025

d. Inchoate or Intended Works ($ 106] p 1025

4. Dramatic or Dramatico- Musical Compositions (08 107-109) p 1025

a. In General ($ 107] p 1025

b. What Constitutes (108] p 1025

c. Dramatic Originality (6 109) p 1028

5. Musical Compositions [10 110–111) p 1028

a. In General (8 110) p 1028

b. Musical Originality ( 111) p 1029

6. Maps (112] p 1029

7. Charts [113] p 1030

8. Artistic Works 100 114-116] p 1031

a. Works of Art ( 114) p 1031

b. Models or Designs for (115) p 1031

c. Reproductions of (0116] p 1031

9. Drawings or Plastic Works 10 117) p 1031

10. Photographs (Ø 118] p 1032

11. Prints and Pictorial Illustrations; Engravings; Cuts [$ 119) p 1033

12. Motion Pictures 105 120-122] p 1034

a. In General ($ 120) p 1034

b. Motion Picture Photoplays (121) p 1034

c. Motion Pictures Other Than Photoplays (122) p 1034

13. Mechanical Devices; Music Rolls, Records, Etc. (8 123) p 1035

14. Articles Designed for Physical Use [124] p 1035

15. Government Publications ( 125) p 1036

16. Official Letters and Documents (8 126) p 1036

17. Translations (127) p 1036

18. Market Quotations and News Items (8 128] p 1036

19. Credit Ratings [$ 129) p 1037

20. Directories and Gazetteers ($130) p 1037

21. Abstracts of Title ($ 131] p 1037

22. Patent Specifications ( 132) p 1037

23. Cyclopedic and Composite Works [ 133] p 1037

24. Legal Works (0g 134-138) p 1037

a. Law Reports (134) p 1037

b. Statutes and Court Rules ($ 135) p 1038

c. Digests ( 136] p 1038

d. Cyclopedias and Textbooks (137) p 1038

e. Legal Blanks ($ 138] p 1038

25. New Editions (8 139) p 1038
26. Advertisements, Catalogues, and Price Lists (140) p 1039
27. Labels and Prints for Manufactured Articles (8 141] p 1041
28. Trade-Marks [ 142) p 1043

29. Title of Work [ 143] p 1043
VI. WHO ENTITLED TO COPYRIGHT 100 144–166) p 1045
A. Statutory Provisions [00 144-145) p 1045

1. General Statement ( 144] p 1045

2. Limitation to Persons Named [ 145] p 1045
B. Author, Inventor, or Designer [0] 146-149) p 1046

1. In General ( 146] p 1046
2. Joint Authors [147] p 1046
3. Photographs (148) p 1046

4. Works Made for Hire ($ 149) p 1047 C. Proprietors (150-153] p 1047

1. In General (5 150) p 1047
2. Who Is a Proprietor [ 151) p 1048
3. Employer or Employee ($ 152] p 1049

4. Photographer or Customer ( 153] p 1051
D. Assigns (154) p 1051
E. Executors and Administrators (155) p 1052
F. Trustees ( 156] p 1052
G. Citizenship and Residence as Affecting Right ( 157-162) p 1053
1. Under United States Statutes [ 157-160) p 1053

a. Citizens and Residents ( 157] p 1053
b. Nonresident Aliens (158) p 1053
c. Residents of Hawaii, Porto Rico, and Philippine Islands ($ 159) p 1056

d. Assigns (0 160] p 1056
2. Under English Statutes (161) p 1056

3. Under Canadian Statutes [0 162] p 1058
H. Law Reports (163) p 1058

I. Crown Copyright (164) p 1059
J. University Copyright (165) p 1060

K. British Pharmacopæia (Ø 166] p 1060
VII. REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURING AND PRESERVING COPYRIGHT (08 167–234) p 1060
A. Under United States Statutes [08 167–219) p 1060
1. Compliance with Statute (0 0 167–170] P 1060

a. In General (167) p 1060
b. What Law Governs 10 168] p 1062
c. Strict or Substantial Compliance ($ 169) p 1062

d. Rules of Copyright Office [ 170) p 1062
2. Requirements of the Act of 1909 as Amended (08 171-197) p 1062
a. Publication (00 171-173) p 1062

*(1) In General [§ 171] p 1062
(2) What Constitutes Publication ($ 172] p 1063

(3) Place of Publication (173) p 1063
b. Deposit of Copies and Registration ( 174–187) p 1063
(1) Published Works (89 174–180] P 1063

(a) Necessity for, and Effect of, Omission [174] p 1063
(b) Time of Deposit and Registration (175) p 1064
(c) Nature and Number of Copies Deposited (0g 176–180) p 1064

aa. In General ( 176] p 1064
bb. Works by Alien Authors ($ 177) p 1064
cc. American Manufacture [ 178) p 1064
dd. Periodicals ($ 179) p 1064

ee. Contributions to Periodicals [ 180) p 1064
(2) Unpublished Works (06 181-186) p 1064

(a) In General (8 181) p 1064
(b) Lectures, Sermons, Addresses, Dramatic and Musical Compositions, Etc. (182)

p 1065

Cover

(c) Photographs (Ø 183] p 1065
Yd) Works of Art, Models, or Designs, Drawings or Plastic Works (8 184) p 1065
(e) Motion Pictures (Ø 185) p 1065

(f) Subsequent Publication ( 186] p 1065
(3) Application for Registration ( 187] p 1065
c. Affidavit of Manufacture (9 188-192] p 1066

(1) Necessity and Contents (8 188) p 1066
(2) By Whom Made ($ 189) p 1066
(3) Before Whom Made (190) p 1066

(4) Time of Making (191) p 1066 For later casa, developments and ohangos in the law see cumulative Annotations, same title, page and note number,

(5) Penalty for False Affidavit (192) p 1067
d. Ad Interim Copyright for Foreign Books (193) p 1067
e. Notice of Copyright (0 0 194–197) p 1067

(1) Necessity for Notice and Effect of Omission ( 194] p 1067
(2) Form and Contents of Notice [195) p 1068
(3) Place of Notice (196) p 1069

(4) Number of Notices ($ 197] p 1069
3. Requirements Prior to Act of 1909 [09 198–219) p 1069

a. Present Importance of Former Law [ 198] p 1069
b. Deposit of Title or Description of Work (18 199-204) p 1069

(1) Statutory Provisions ( 199] p 1069
(2) Necessity of Deposit 10 2001 p 1069
(3) Sufficiency of Copy [201] p 1070
(4) Variance between Title Deposited and Title Published (202) p 1070
(5) Change of Title after Deposit ($ 203) p 1071

(6) Who May Deposit Title (204) p 1072
c. Deposit of Copies or Photograph of Work [09 205–208) p 1072

(1) Statutory Provisions (205) p 1072
(2) Necessity of Deposit ($ 206] p 1073
(3) Sufficiency of Deposit (207] P 1073

(4) Time of Deposit Iộ 2080 p 1073
d. Publication (08 209–211) p 1074

(1) Necessity of Publication (209) p 1074
(2) Time of Publication [210] p 1074

(3) Place of Publication ( 211] p 1074
e. Notice of Copyright (0 212-219) p 1074

(1) Statutory Provisions ($ 212] p 1074
(2) Necessity of Notice; Effect of Omission [ 213) p 1075
(3) Form and Contents of Notice ( 214–217) p 1076

(a) In General ( 214] p 1076
(b) Entry for Copyright [6 215) p 1076
(c) Date of Entry (0 216] p 1077

(d) Name of Person Taking Out Copyright ( 217) p 1077
(4) Place of Inscribing Notice (218) p 1078

(5) On What Copies or Editions Required [ 219) p 1079
B. Under English Statutes (08 220-233) p 1082
1. Under Copyright Act of 1911 [00 220-222] p 1082

a. In General ($ 220) p 1082
b. Published Works (0 221] p 1082

c. Unpriblished Works (0 222] p 1083
2. Under Prior Statutes [0 223-233) p 1083

a. In General (223) p 1083
b. Publication ($ 224) p 1083
c. Registration at Stationers' Hall (08 225–231) p 1084

(1) Books (6 225) p 1084
(2) Dramatic or Musical Works [ 226] p 1085
(3) Engravings, Prints, and Lithographs (0 227) p 1085
(4) Paintings, Drawings, and Photographs (6 228) p 1085
(5) Sculptures (8229) p 1085
(6) Effect of Registration ($ 230) p 1085

(7) Amending or Expunging Entry 1 231) p 1085
d. Deposit of Copies (0 232) p 1086

e. Inscribing Name of Proprietor and Date of Publication ($ 233) p 1086 C. Under Canadian Statutes [$ 234) p 1086 VII. DURATION OF COPYRIGHT AND RENEWAL OR EXTENSION OF TERM (08235-244] p 1087

A. Under United States Statutes (08 235–239) p 1087

1. In General [ 235) p 1087
2. First or Original Term [236] p 1087
3. Renewal or Extension of Term ($ 237-239) p 1088

a. Length of Extensión ( 237] p 1088
b. Proceedings to Obtain Renewal or Extension; Time of ($ 238) p 1088

c. Persons Entitled to Renewal ($ 239) p 1088
B. Under English Statutes (0$ 240-241) p 1092

1. Under Copyright Act of 1911 [ 240) p 1092

2. Under Prior Statutes ( 241] p 1092
C. Under Canadian Statutes ( 242] p 1092
D. Effect of Expiration of Copyright ($ 243] p 1093

E. Abandonment or Loss of Copyright ( 2441 p 1093
X. TRANSFERS, LICENSES, AND CONTRACTS ( 245-262) p 1094

A. In General (0 245) p 1094

B. Assignment of Copyright (09 246-252) p 1094

1. In General ( 246] p 1094
2. Partial or Limited Assignments [ 247) p 1094
3. Assignment Distinguished from License to 248] p 1096
4. Writing and Signing [ 249) p 1096
5. Recording ($ 250) p 1097
6. Agreement to Assign (0251) p 1098

7. Construction and Operation (0 252] p 1099
C. Mortgages (253) p 1100
D. Bequest and Intestate Succession ($ 254) p 1100
E. Attachment, Execution, Bankruptcy, and Creditors' Bill ( 255) p 1100
F. Licenses (0 256-259) p 1101

1. In General (0 256) p 1101
2. Writing and Signing 1 257) p 1101
3. Assignability of Licenses (258) p 1101

4. Construction and Operation of License Contracts (259) p 1102 G. Contracts in Restraint of Trade; Price Restrictions ( 260) p 1104 H. Joint Owners ($ 261) p 1105

I. Remedies and Procedure ($ 262] p 1106
X. INFRINGEMENT OF COPYRIGHT (0) 263-335) p 1106
A. General Rules (88 263–296) p 1106

1. Definition of Infringement or Piracy (263) p 1106
2. Rights Conferred by Copyright [264) p 1106
3. Rights Not Conferred by Copyright (08 265–271) p 1107

à. In General (265] p 1107
b. Art or System Expounded [ 266) p 1107
c. Facts, Theories, Speculations, Ideas, and Opinions ($ 267) p. 1108
d. Subject of Work ( 268] p 1110
e. Form and Size ($ 269) p 1110
f. Plan and Symbols Used in Imparting Information [270) p 1110

g. Mode of Advertising (271) p 1110
4. Component Parts of Copyrighted Work 100 272-275) p 1110

a. In General (0 272) p 1110
b. Pictorial Illustrations, Maps, Charts, Cuts, Prints, Engravings, Etc. 16 273) p 1111
c. Composite Works and Periodicals (0274) p 1112

d. Title of Work [0 275) p 1112
5. Copying [09 276-288) p 1112

a. What Constitutes Copying (276) p 1112
b. Necessity of Copying [0] 277-278] p 1113

(1) Rule Stated (0277) p 1113

(2) Similarity or Identity without Copying [ 278] p 1113
c. Sufficiency of Copying [ 279-288) p 1115

(1) Reproduction and Paraphrasing [ 279) p 1115
(2) Quantity and Quality of Matter Copied ( 280) p 1116
(3) Proportion of Defendant's Work Copied from Plaintiff's Work (281) p 1117
(4) Competition between Respective Works (282] p 1117
(5) Improvements and Additions ($ 283] p 1119
(6) Acknowledgment of Source 10 284) p 1119
(7) Indirect Copying 10 285) p 1119
(8) Reproduction from Memory [286] p 1120
(9) Reproduction by Author Who Has Parted with Copyright (6 287] p 1120

(10) Fair and Unfair Use ($ 288) p 1120
6. Intent or Purpose; Animus Furandi (289) p 1121
7. Publication, Sale, and Distribution of Copies [00 290-291) p 1122

a. In General [290) p 1122

b. Restrictions in Licenses, Contracts, and Notices ( 291) p 1123
8. Importation as Infringement (292) p 1124
9. Repair, Binding, or Restoration of Copies ($ 293] p 1124
10. Compulsory Licenses ( 294-295) p 1125

a. United States Statutes [0 294] p 1125

b. English Statutes [$ 295) p 1125
11. Extraterritorial Acts [296) p 1125
B. Particular Subject Matter (Ø 8 297-330) p 1126
1. Books or Literary Works [ 297-310) p 1126

a. In General (297) p 1126
b. Copying 1 298) p 1126
c. Fair or Noninfringing Use ($ 299) p 1126
d. Extracts and Quotations [ 300) p 1127
e. Translation [0 301) p 1128
f. Dramatization; Performance; Readings ($ 302) p 1129

g. Illustrations or Cuts [0 303] p 1131 For lator cases, dovelopments and changes in the law see cumulative Annotations, same title, page and note number.

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