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Mr. ARENDS. It will probably be available before we get through with these hearings.

Mr. BLANDFORD. Before we get through with these hearings I am sure it will be available.

General WETZEL. May I state in response to your statement that I am certainly not questioning the responsibility of the Congress nor the authority that they are given in the Constitution. I submit only that so often when you are not the fellow charged with it it is hard to understand why he does certain things.

Mr. BLANDFORD. That is right. I agree with that, General. We will run into this throughout these hearings.

General WETZEL. It is difficult, and yet none of us can say what we would do if we were the guy.

Mr. BLANDFORD. Personally I wouldn't take the job of public information officer for any branch of the service if they made me a twostar general tomorrow. It is the unhappiest job anybody can have. You get blamed for everything that goes wrong and no credit for anything that goes well. You get blamed for everything, including shoelaces. I think that came up at one time.

Office of the Chief of Staff is self-explanatory. I would like to ask you, General, about this: You mentioned the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, and I find nothing comparable for that in the Navy and I don't know whether the Army has anything comparable to that or not, you indicated he was a mighty busy individual. Would you explain what the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff does that the Vice Chief of Staff doesn't do?

General WETZEL. Can I first ask if any of the other personnel here can comment on whether the

Army or the Navy has such a position? Mr. BLANDFORD. General Powell, does the Army have an Assistant Vice Chief of Staff?

General POWELL. No officer in that position. Vice Chief of Staff is assisted by a colonel assigned to the Office of the Secretary of General Staff,

Mr. BLANDFORD. Thank you very much.
That leaves you by yourself, General.
General WETZEL. How about the Navy?
Mr. BLANDFORD. The Navy does not, I am sure.
General WETZEL. How about the Marine Corps?

Mr. BLANDFORD. A Chief of Staff and Deputy Chief of Staff. They have a commandant, assistant commandant, a Chief of Staff, a Deputy Chief of Staff, and then the four

General WETZEL. A commandant

Mr. BLANDFORD. Yes. But, as a matter of fact, you will find that the Marine Corps and Air Force are closer together than any two branches of the service.

General WETZEL. Is that right?
General WETZEL. I am anxious to get our figures straight.

Mr. BLANDFORD. I might mention this: The Marine Corps does not have a general officer who is an executive to a Chief of Staff as you have it. They have a commandant who acts as your Chief of Staff. Then they have Chief of Staff and then they have a Deputy.

General WETZEL. I see.

Mr. BLANDFORD. So with the exception of the executive officer, who is a general officer in the Air Force, they do not have any comparable person. They have a person who is a colonel who occupies a comparable responsibility. However, that would be normal in relationship to the size of the Marine Corps as compared to the size of the Air Force.

General WETZEL. Let me read his job description, or his mission in life, what he gets paid for, and then we can talk about it further.


General WETZEL. The Assistant Vice Chief of Staff assists the Chief of Staff and the Vice Chief in the development and implementation of plans and policies and in the overall direction of the United States Air Force. He exercises general supervision over administration in the Air Staff.

He, General McKee, runs the Air Staff. The Chief of Staff does not. I have an idea he does not in either the Army or the Navy probably. They are busy on Joint Chiefs' activities, and in my opinion if he is a good Chief of Staff he is out of Washington frequently looking through the store, letting the troops see him and finding out what goes on.

During those absences the Vice Chief acts as Chief and attends Joint Chiefs of Staff meetings and Armed Forces policy council meetings. Therefore, the Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, who acts for the Chief and for the Vice Chief, and runs the Air Staff, deals with directors, is the approving authority, and runs the business.

In the Air Force, and perhaps it is just because of the way we are organized, in my opinion, and, of course, in the opinion of the Chief and Vice Chief, it is a very necessary position. It certainly carries the responsibility of a major general. McKee handles the Deputy Chiefs of Staff, of which there are 5, 5 in the rank of 3-star generals.

I am sorry I don't know more about the Army and Navy business on that.

Mr. BLANDFORD. Actually the Navy has five deputies. Then you have a Vice Chief of Naval Operations and a Chief of Naval Operations. They do not have an assistant Vice Chief of Naval Operations who acts as such, nor do they have a flag officer who acts as an executive officer. They have secretaries and aids, I think, to the flag officers who are usually captains. However, it is not anything of major importance.

Office of Inspector General intrigued me for four reasons. What does the Air Provost Marshal do? I can appreciate a provost marshal in the Army where they are charged, may be charged with the responsibility for controlling prisoners as they did during World War II, but I just mention this: The Navy's comparable setup is commanded by a lieutenant colonel in the Marine Corps, and I would guess that the Air Force would have about as many prisoners as the Navy would have in the event of a war. I don't know. What justifies a major general as an Air Provost Marshal?

General WETZEL. Once again we are in the position that we were before. Let me read his duties and responsibilities. He exercises supervision, responsibility over all matters pertaining to the maintenance of military discipline, enforcement of security, and the security of the atomic-energy program in the Air Force. He recommends his plans, policies, and procedures for improvement of discipline and

enforcement of law and order. He establishes individual training of air police and civil guards. He establishes organization of air police, and civil guards; equipment standards for police, air police, and civil guards; selection and utilization standards for the same, and recommends policies and procedures for joint action in police and prisonerof-war matters. I have a page and a half more which simply outlines the duties of a provost marshal.


POSITION: THE AIR PROVOST MARSHAL (MILITARY) General statement.--The Air provost marshal will, under the direction of the Inspector General, USAF, exercise supervision responsibility over all matters pertaining to the maintenance of military discipline enforcement of security and the security of the atomic-energy program in the USAF.

Duties and responsibilities.- Recommends plans, policies, and procedures for improvement of discipline, and enforcement of law and order. Establishes individual training of air police and civil guards; establishes organization of air police and civil guards. Establishes selection and utilization standards for air police and civil guards. Recommends policies and procedures for joint action in police and prisoner-of-war matters.

Coordinates in the establishment of policies, develops plans, and procedures for the USAF security enforcement program; acts as a focal point in the Air staff for establishing minimum standards for the physical protection of USAF installations and classified or vital matter contained therein; plans, directs, and supervises all activities of the security division.

Establishes procedures and enforces policy for the prevention of security violations and compromises of classified information and material to include atomicenergy information, enforces policy for the storage, handling, transmission, and classification of classified military information, develops personnel circulation control and interior systems, formulates and promulgates procedures pertaining to the security indoctrination of USAF personnel.

Makes recommendations, when necessary, for the removal of unfit, disloyal, and/or subversive military or civilian personnel. Recommends clearance action on persons whose investigative files are other than favorable. Maintains liaison with Central Loyalty Security Board and issues clearance or denials for members of Central Loyalty Security Board and its local boards throughout the Air Force, and also for the management and administrative division of the Inspector General and the Office of the Air Provost Marshal.

Exercises staff supervision over the operation of USAF censorship and travel control of persons.

Is responsible for staff supervision of the effective protection of Air Force information and material in the possession of civilian contractors to the Air Force from loss or damage by the elements, sabotage, or other dangers arising within the United States.

Exercises staff supervision over all aspects of the confinement and retraining of USAF prisoners.

Prepares Air Force regulations, Air Force letters, lectures, Air ROTC material, training, standards, articles, and other written guidance to advance modern penological concepts for the use of the Air Force.

Mr. BLANDFORD. The thing that bothers me is that in addition to that on page 8 you have a United States Air Force Security Service with a major general and a brigadier general. One of the duties of the provost marshal, according to what you read there, is security.

Of course, I realize this other security service is a different proposition entirely.

General WETZEL. Completely and entirely different.

Mr. BLANDFORD. But it is difficult for me to comprehend the necessity for a major general in charge of the air police when the Navy has functioned for a long time without even a billet of that nature. They have their shore patrols and, as I say, I am sure they would handle as many prisoners of war as the Air Force. I don't know whether you had that situation in the Pacific during the war or not, but it is again a job that on the surface, at least, seems to me to be heavily loaded with rank, and in making a comparison the only thing I can compare it with at this point is the Navy because the Army has a different situation on its hands entirely.

General WETZEL. Why, if I may ask?

Mr. BLANDFORD. Because they are charged with prisoners of war. That is a large undertaking. I think this situation over in Korea has been evidence of that.

This doesn't seem to me that you need a major general to run what amounts to a series of shore-patrol activities.

General WETZEL. What does the Army have?

Mr. BLANDFORD. A major general, and the Navy a lieutenant colonel of the Marine Corps.

General WETZEL. You want to discuss this now or later? It is entirely different.

Mr. BLANDFORD. When you mentioned security I thought ought to have something in the record because this will appear in the record. I understand what their job is.

General WETZEL. Yes. Air police in the United States Air Force involves more than just a couple of men on the downtown street at night in the local community to pick up airmen who may or may not have gotten into trouble.

We feel in the Air Force-may this be off the record?
(Off the record.)

Mr. Van Zandt. Is it not true that the air police do the job in the Air Force that the marines do for the Navy?

General WETZEL. That is substantially true.

Mr. BLANDFORD. There are two other general officers in the Office of Inspector General that are of interest. You have a Major General Bertrandias. The committee met Major General Bertrandias and Brigadier General O'Keefe also. I don't know anybody who will question the importance of flight safety, particularly when you are charged with responsibility for MATS and vast numbers of passengers you handle, but I want the record to show something in response to this question: Why the Air Force feels that these two positions require general officers when comparable job is done by a captain in the Navy?

General WETZEL. Let me explain, if you would like, the responsibilities of the Inspector General. His mission is to report upon the state of readiness, efficiency, and economy of the Air Force, to make recommendations pertinent thereto, and to provide an effective Air Force facility for inspection, security, investigation, and aircraft accident prevention activities. These functions are grouped into two broad categories of effort, one being that of security and investigation, the other of inspection involving every phase of Air Force interest.

A deputy inspector general is assigned to each of these two broad inspector general areas of responsibility: General Bertrandias is assigned as deputy inspector general for inspection in California. Under his direct supervision are the directors of readiness and materiel inspection, procurement inspection, and flight-safety research. The two positions now that you have in mind, one I have just described, Major General Bertrandias. His responsibility is not only flight safety but under him he has a brigadier, O'Keefe, director of flight-safety research. Under the Deputy Inspector General for Security are the Directors of Special Investigations and Air Provost Marshal.



Statement of functions.—Develops policies, standards, and procedures governing the Air Force aircraft accident prevention program, and monitors the conduct thereof throughout the USAF. Conducts continuing research into design and engineering phases of aircraft development and procurement to assure that maximum safety is incorporated into Air Force equipment, and conducts research into the physiological and psychological factors pertaining to accident prevention. Participates in examinations of new aircraft models by engineering evaluation boards. Evaluates initial reports of aircraft accidents and determines responsibilities of Hq USAF and commands in the investigations of such accidents. Conducts investigations of selected aircraft accidents, accident trends, and Air Force facilities related to flying operations. Analyzes reports of aircraft accidents, records of flying time, accident statistical data, and reports of unsatisfactory conditions, materiel, and procedures; compiles statistics therefrom, and conducts statistical research to determine or predict trends in causes of aircraft accidents. Prepares and disseminates educational and informational material and statistical studies and reports pertinent to general and specific matters affecting flying safety. Recommends pertinent changes in USAF policies, standards, procedures, or material to promote the flying safety objective and follows up each recommendation to a satisfactory conclusion. Responsible for approving all ground controlled approach, instrument-landing systems, and instrument letdown procedures. Supervises flight-safety competition and safety educational programs. Is official custodian of all aircraft-accident reports and individual flight records, and furnishes any information therefrom to interested Government agencies and research organizations engaged in studies pertaining to aircraft-accident prevention.

Mission.The mission of the Directorate of Flight Safety Research is to exercise staff supervision over all matters pertaining to the prevention of aircraft accidents in the United States Air Force. The objective of this mission is maximum conservation of lives, aircrew experience, and aircraft to insure the highest state of combat effectiveness.

The USAF flight safety concept is to achieve maximum accident prevention through the application of scientific investigative and engineering techniques in the correction of design and maintenance of material, and through proper selection and education of personnel. These problems are approached through systematic research including engineering accident investigations and analyses, psychological and physiological research into human factors, analysis of accident histories, education of personnel, and close observation of all Air Force operations. Particular emphasis is placed on applying these techniques at the earliest possible time to the latest items of equipment, and in the earliest phases of training.

Through active liaison and guidance in the field, Flight Safety Research has established a close relationship with the major Air Force commands down through base levels. By working with and through operating organizations the directorate has gained wide acceptance of its recommendations. A greatly increased emphasis on operational efficiency in the commands is attested by numerous favorable comments received from major commanders.


NORTON AIR FORCE BASE, CALIF. Mission.—Office of the Inspector General, USAF, Norton AFB; exercises staff supervision over inspection activities of the Air Force, and is responsible for the aircraft accident prevention program. Is responsible for direct supervision over the Directorates of Flight Safety Research, Procurement and Supply Inspection, Technical Inspection, and Readiness Inspections.

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