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.62 COXSTANT CURRENTS OF WIND AT HIGH ALTITUDES. ferred, Ist, That a load may be transported currents at some height, and it could be with perfect safety over sound ice, eight easily ascertained by a few aerial trips inches in thickness, by distributing the en- made by an experienced person on purtire weight of the system, so that each square

pose for that intent. foot (in contact with the bottom surfaces of

With respect to guiding balloons by the runners) shall experience a pressure of

sails, supposing that by placing them not more than about 1115 lbs. 2nd. That a load cannot be safely transported over sound

obliquely you were enabled to obtain a ice, 5.56 inches thick, when the weight is so

little side way, it would, I think, be too distributed, that each square foot of surface triling, compared with the length you (in contact with the bottoms of the runners) would have gone in the same time with shall experience a pressure so great as about the wind, to be of any practical advan. 1125 lbs.

tage, and to compensate for the greater size and expense of the balloon. It is

as unreasonable, in the words of Dr. Ar. CONSTANT CURRENTS OF WIND AT

nott, to suppose that an insect, driven HIGH ALTITUDES.

along at the rate of eight or ten miles an Sir,-I think that if, as has been hour by a river torrent, should have lately stated, there are at different alti- power to stop or sail against the stream, tudes opposite currents of air always as a man in a balloon by means of wings blowing in the same direction, aerosta. or sails, could resist or change a motion tion may, noth withstanding all that has in the air generally exceeding fifty miles been said about it, prove a pleasant

an hour. but sure method of travelling to the

I remain Sir, Continent and back again, Now, as is

Your obedient servant, well known, directly any portion of the

VINCENT BROWN. atmosphere gets heated, it becomes rarefied, and as such it is lighter than it was

BALLOONING. before, and consequently it rises, and the cooler air rushes into the space that it Sir, -It gives me great pleasure to hefore occupied, and thus forms a wind. perceive that an attempt is about to be As the sun may be considered always made to turn air-balloons to some useful over the equator, the air directly under account; and that the conduct of the it, or that in the middle of the torrid undertaking is likely to be intrusted to zone must become considerably warmed, the active mind and enterprising spirit of and consequently rise, and there must Colonel Maceroni. Perhaps the whole be a corresponding rush of cooler air amount of utility to be derived from air. below from the north and south to sup- balloons is very limited; but they are ply its place. That there is such, is pot on that account tu be disregarded. known in the form of the trade winds, We must not despise small things; the and the reason of their not being due happiness of mankind, such as it is, is north and south is owing to the whirling made up of a number of small enjoy. of the earth; but the heated air becom- ments. It is a pity, I had almost said it ing cooled as it ascends, must in the up- is a disgrace to an intelligent nation, that per regions form an opposite blast to the this interesting art should be allowed to trade winds; and it has been clearly remain in its present worse than useless seen that there is such, by large masses state. At all events, the mere attempt to of clouds being observed rapidly moving advance it is honourable; whilst the at a great height in a contrary direction failure can be no disgrace. to the wind, at the surface of the earth. The difficulty consists simply in this: Á balloon taken to almost any part, The resistance is greater than any power within thirty degrees of the equator, that has been hitherto applied to overwould quickly ascertain at what height come it. To meet this difficulty, we the change took place, and ballooning must increase the power and decrease the might prove of utility out there, if it resistance. pever does in this country. Although With respect to the power, I would the winds near the earth in the tempe- refer Colonel Maceroni, and rate zones are not, from various local generally, to a paper on that suhject in circumstances, very steady, there is great No. 637 of the Mechanics Magazine. probability that there may be different To decrease the resistance, the present

your readers



globular form of the balloon must be rejected altogether; nothing can be done whilst this shape is retained. It appears to me that an oblale cone offers the largest capacity with the smallest resistance, or rather a cylinder with conical ends. The cylinder might be kept in a compressed form by connecting the opposite sides by means of curds in the interior of the balloon, so as to allow of its being distended by the gas in a lateral direction only. Colonel Maceroni objects, that the cone might rise endwise, or any way but the desired one. This may be easily guarded against by having the interior divided into several compartments, so as to prevent the gas from shifting.

I am convinced that the difficulties and obstacles which at present appear to stand in the way of this undertaking, may be uvercome by ingenuity and perseverance-and that in calm weather a balloon might be conducted with safety and certainty in any direction that the aeronaut might desire to steer.

I am, Sir,
Your obedient servant,

Sept. 26, 1836.

shire, paint and colour-manufacturer, for an improved method of operating upon certain vegetable and animal substances in the process of manufacturing candles therefrom ; being a communication froin Frederick Hempel, of Oranienburg, aforesaid, deceased. September 15; six months.

Joshua Bates, of Bishopsgate-street, London, merchant, for improved apparatus or inachinery for making metal hinges; being a communication from a foreigner residing abroad. September 15; six months.

Peter Ascanius Tealdi, formerly of Mendovi, in Piedmont, but now resiling in Manchester, Lancashire, merchant, for a new extract or vegetable acid, obtained from substances not hitherto used for that purpose, which may be employed in various processes of manufacture and in culinary or other useful purposes, together with the process of obtaining the same ; being a communication from a foreigner residing abroad. September 15: six months.

Wiliiam Bates, of Leicester, fuller and dresser, for improvements in the manufacture of reels for reeling otton. September 16; six months.

Moses Poole, of Lincoln's Inn, Middlesex, gen. tleman, for improvements in the description of pub, lic vehicles called cabs; being a communication from a foreigner residing abroad. September 21; six months,

Robert Jupe, of Bond-street, Middlesex, cabinet maker, for improvements in apparatus applicable to book and other shelvez. September 22 ; six months.

William Crofts, of Radford, Nottinghamshire, machine-maker, for certain improvements in ma. chinery for bobbin-net lace, also called twist-net or lace, part of which improvements are for the purpose of making tigured or ornamented lace, or figured or ornamented twist-lace. September 22 ; six months.

Henry Van Wart, of Birmingham, Warwick shire, gentleman, and Samuel Aspinall Goddard, of the same place, merchant, for certain improve ments in locomotive steam-engines and carriages, parts of which improvements are applicable to ordinary steam-engines and other purposes. September 22 ; six months.

John Smith, of Halifax, Yorkshire, dyer, for certain iimprovements in machinery for dressing worsted and other woyen fabrics. September 22 ; six months.



Robert Griffiths, of Birmingham, machine-maker, and John Gold, of the same placc, glass-cutter, for certain improvements in machinery for grinding, smoothing, and polishing plate-glass, windowglass, marble, slate, and stone, and also glass vessels and glass spangles and drops. Sepiember 1; six months to specify.

John Pickersgill, of Coleman-street, merchant, for improvements in preparing and in applying India-rubber (caoutchouc) to fabrics : being a comnuunication from a foreigner residing abroail. Septeinber 1; six months.

James Surrey, of York House, Battersea, miller, for a new application of a principle by which me. chanical power may be obtained or applied. Sep. tember 1; four months.

William Bush, of Wormwood-street, Bishopsgate Within, surveyor and engineer, for improvements in the means of, and in the apparatus for, building and working under water, part of which inprovements are applicable for other purposes. September 3; six months.

Charles Farina, of Clarendon-place, Maida Vale, Middlesex, gentleman, for an improved mashing apparatus. September 15 ; six months.

William Hinckes Cox, of Bidminster, near Bris. tol, tanner, for an improvement or improveinents iu tanning bides and skins. September 15; six months.

John Frederick William Hempel, of Oranien. burg, Prussia, but now of Clapham, Surrey, Officer of Engineers, and Henry Blundell, of Huli, York


John Sharp, of Dundee, N. B., fax-spinner, for certain machinery for converting ropes into tow, and certain improvements in preparing hemp or tax for spinning, also certain improvements in cera tain machinery for the preparation thereof for spinning, part of which improvements are also ap: plicable to the preparing of cotton, wool, and silk, for spinning. Sealed August 24.

James Champion, of Manchester, machine. maker, for certain improvements in machinery for spinning, twisting, and doubling cotton and other fibrous substances. August 31.

John Springall, of Oulton, Suffolk, iron-founder, for an improved mode of manufacturing certain parts of ploughs. September 2.

Richard Thomas Beck, of Little Stonham, Suf. folk, gentleman, in consequence of a communication marie to bim by a foreigner residing abroad, for a new or improved apparatus or mechanism for obtaining power and motion, to be used as a me.

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chanical agent generally, which be intends to deno. minate rolæ vivæ. September 10.

Henry Scott, jun., ant Robert Stephen Oliver, halters,' of Edinburgh, in consequence of a com munication from abroad, for a crtain improvement or improvements in the inanafacture or hars, caps, aird bonnets. September 10.

Elisha Haydon Collier, of the East India Cot. tage, Ciry-road, Middlesex, form:rly of Boston Massachusetts, U. S., civil engineer, for an improvement or improvements in steain-boilers. September 20.

William Barnett, of Brighton, founder, for certain improvements in apparatus for generating and purifying gas for the purposes of illumination. September 21.

NOTES AND NOTICES. Submarine Nlumination by the Drummond Light.-We find by the Irish newspapers, that Mr. Strele, who has devoted himself with so much ardour to the subject of submarine operations, and who is the inventor of the communicating diving. bell, has lately unde a very important iinprov • ment in this departinent of physica' science. This improvement consists in the substitution for the light which he originally proposed for the irradia. tion of objects under water, of what he calls " the piercing ray of the Druinmond light in its gorgeous glory." He has con qited several lighl, distine guished engineers of tl's m: trop lis, a:id they have been unanimous in their o;inion, that this new application of the Drummond light is an improvement of the createst inportance, in! it is impossille that any tring can be more simple than the mode pro. posed by Mr. Steele for its application to his pare pose. It appears from the Irish newspapers ihat this improvenient in his theory was made by him wbile observing Mr. Deane's operations at Kilk-e, on the coast of tlie county Clare. We have seen suvei al of Mr. Steele's publications on this subject in the journals of our Irish contemporaries, and he writes in terms of measure.ess almiration of the infinite beauty and perfection of Mr. Deane's sysa tem of rapid diving. Among the London engineers who have expressed the highest approbation of Mr. Steele's new theory of submarine irra.. diation by the Drummond light, is, we understaud, Mr. Alexanler Gordon, who has particularly ap. plied linself to the subject, and lately obtained a patent for a very beautiful mode of generating and applying the oxy-hydrogen gas. Suit.

Nanumotive-Carriuge.-A mechanic, a whitesmith by trade, named Nicholsın, of the town of Enniscorthy, has invented a new carriage, on srost simple principles. It is very ingenjou ly con. stracted, having three wheels, one in front and two belind--the latter about three feet in diameter, the former one and a half. It i. piropelled by an iron handle, which the gaide moves to and fro with the right hand, and not tiresome, being quite a gen. tle motion; on the left there is a small lever, to be touched by the finger when any obstruction appears on the road, which raises the tirst wheel over such impediments, and prevents the guide from receiv. ing any shock or interruption. Then over the sma'l wheel there is a handle, or tiiler-stick, to be touched when the driver wishes to turn the gig, and which is done instantan.olisly; there is another spring for the foot, whi.h retards the pro. gress of the machine.

The maker is quite con. fident of its ultimate success, and says he can

improve on the general principle, the preseat mo. del being too small to contain more that one per: son : an we suppose the driver or guide would work it for eight or ten miles without tiring. It lias takchi tlic artist some years in its completion, and we wish him every success and encouragement to which his genius' and industry justly entitle him.-Dublin Paper.

Another Locomotive-Engine for Russia. - On Thurs :ay: the 15th of September, a large and power. ful locomotive-engine, built by Mr. Tiimothy Hack. worth, of New Shildun, for the Emperor of Russia, was shipped on board the Barbara, at Middlesbro'. This engine is constructed on an inproved prir. ciple, and finished in the bert manner. She bas been tried in the premises, and propelled at the rate of 72 miles per hour. It is said that this mi. chine, and the similar one built at Newcastle, will, on their arrival at St. Petersburgh. Have cost the Emperor upwards of 2,0001. each. Who, a few years ago, would have dremel of the exportation of inachinery froin the river Tecs. This engine is for travelling on the railroad froin Si. Pet rsburgh to Pawlowsky, where stands one of the country palaces of his Imperial Majesty.-- From a Correspondent.

Magnetic Balance.-Could not swall philosophical scales be more nicely suspended by magnetism than by the present method ; with the precaution, to use no metal in their construction acted on by jagnetism, except the centres, the edges of which must be reversext?-TYRO-MECHANICUS.

Correction.-Sir, If you will review p. 383, you will tind that some alteration of the manuscript text of that paper on “ The Tides"-through juadvertent omission, I apprehend-has rendered the pa sage ur:intelligible as it there tands. I there. fore beg lvave to send you the subjoined emenda. lion, in failure of the original being at land :" It is manifest that atmosphere, a transparent firmament, is interposed to conluck (not originate, it to qualify the hues by extraneous tloating particles of moisture, the light, howerer distant; rather than, b; a property at variance with its titness as medium of all rays, to impede their progress to récipient vision." -W. FRA. GODOLPHIN WAL. DRON, Sept. 15, 1836.

De British and Foreign Patents taken out will economy and despatch ; Specifications, Dis. claim.'rs, and Amendments, prepared or revised ; Caveats entered; and generally erery Bianch of Patent Business promptly transacted.

A complete list of Patents from the earliest period (15 Car. II. 1675,) to tlie present time may be examined. Fee 25. 6.1. ; Clients, gratis. Patent Agency Office,

Peterborough-court, Fleet-street,

LONDON: Published by J. CUNNINGHAM, at

the Mechanics' Magazine Ofiice, No. 6, Peterbo. rough-couri, between 135 and 136, Fleet-street. Agent for the American Edition, Mr. 0. Rich, 12, Red Lion.square. Sold by G. W. M. Rey. NOLDS, Proprietor of the French, English, and American Library, 65, Rue Neuve, Saint Augustin, Paris. CUNNINGHAM and SALMON, Printers,






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Acoustics applied to the New Houses of Par-

liament, Dr. Reid's evidence on, 69
Aerial locomotion, on the practicability of, &c.

of, 32, 158, 307, 383, 394, 408, 44),
< 458, 462
Aeronautic club, proposal for 412

observations, 336
Air, effect of the velocity of, in smelting

iron, 142
Alarm floats, to prevent steam-boiler explo-

sions, 90; Professor Bache's, 118
Alcohol, stationary temperature of, on heated
metals, 173

-, vaporisation of, 174

from apples, 190
Alloys, fusible, inquiry into the use of plates

of, to prevent explosions of steam-boilers,

103, 114
America, rise of a city in the wilds of, 315
American Patents, recent, 44, 125, 151, 190,
255, 398

law of patents, 232, 249
Animal substances, preservation of, 112,

159, 192
Anthracite, fire-places and grates for burn-
ing, 45, 126

coal, use of, in steam-vessels, 368
Anvil, how to deaden the noise of hammering

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on, 224

Balloon, double, with two gases, 393

Mr. Green's large, 288, 395, 410.
See Aerial Locomotion.
Balloons, Dr. Agme's project for propelling,

as now constructed, 383
Barry's, Mr., designs for New Houses of

Parliament, 132
Bedstead, invalid's, Cherry's patent, 385
Beer from potatoes, 176
Beet-root sugar, manufacture of, in France,

in Russia,
Belgium, steam engines in, 432
Birch's first class railway-carriage, 369
Bismuth plates, alloy of, &c., to prevent
steam-boiler explosions, 1033

--, fusing point, &c. of, 121
Black Sea, substitute for lighthouses on the

shores of tbe, 357
Blackfriars Bridge, widening of, 21

report of Commons
Comunittee on, 287
Blind, printing for the, 304
Book lettering-tools, new mode of heating,

Boot and shoe studs, 22
Boots and shoes, making and water-proofing,

Botanical Society of London, 384
Brass, ductility, &c. of, 202
Brick-making machine, Heaton's, 282, 336
Bridge, Blackfriars, 21, 287
suspension, at Battersea, 32

at Sagar, Central India,

over the Rhone, fall of,
British Association, meeting of, at Bristol,

selections from the proceedings of, 363,
371, 397, 445

Museum, 24, 38, 74, 237, 288, 311,

-, History of the, 259

-, report of the Commons
Committee on, 285
Bronzing iron, mode of, 192
Brunel's mode of constructing arches without

centering, 48
Brunton's patent gas-retort, 449
Buffer, railway-carriage, Millichap's, 147
Burden's twin steam-boat, 176
Burrs, improved mode of casting, 128
Busk's improved mode of propelling vessels,

• C.
Cab, Hansom's new safety, 59
Calendering cloth, improvement in, 191
Canal lucks, suggestions for working, 198

-- navigation, experiments in, 364

Apples, alcohol from, 190
Arago, M., experiments by, on steam-boiler

explosions, 91
Arches, Mr. Brunel's mode of constructing,

without centering, 48
Arms and hands, mechanical, 112
Arnott's, Dr., new stoves, 320
Ars nic, detection of, 202, 320
Ash-pan for locomotive-engines, Curtis's, 337
Artronomical observations facilitated, 293
Auger, improved, 46
Aurora Borealis, cause of the, 204
Automaton, Hancock's steam-carriage, 401
Avery's rotary steam-engine, 412

Bache, Professor; his fusible alloy to prevent
steam-boiler explosions, 118

on the non-conducting
power of ice, 200
Bacon, Roger, writings of, 384
Baddeley, Mr. William, on Merryweather's

fire-engine branch-pipe, 35; Merrywea-
ther's fire-ladders, 65; Ford's fire-escape,
(29; Mordan's patent triple pointed pens,
153; Stevens's improved fountain inks,
229; the use of pipe-clay in washing,
270; Heaton's brick-making machine,
282; improved handle for street water-
posts, 378; fires and London fire-engines,

Balance, magnetic, 464


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Canal tunnels, new mode of traction through,

257, 365, 397
Candlestick, Walker's patent self-extinguish-

ing, 60
Caoutchouc, machinery for dissolving, &c.,

for spreading on
cloth, 204

candles, 144
Cape of Good Hope Library, 222
Capillary tubes, methods of making, in me-

tal, 22
Carbonic acid in vegetation, 140
Carbonisation, preservation of animal sub-

stances by, 112, 159
Carlisle, Sir Anthony, evidence by, against

railway-tunnels, 326
Carriage speed-regulator, 384

warmer, new, 176
Carstairs, on steel-pens, 155
Case-hardening iron, 64
Catalogues of the British and other Mu-

seums, 76
Cave, M., the French engine-maker, notice

of, 272
Cement for road-making, 151
Chaffinch, maternal affection of, 314
Charcoal, improved modes of preparing, 401

meat-safe, 192
Chemical works, St. Rollox, 400
Cherry's patent invalid's bedstead, 385
Cheverton, Benjamin, Esq.; Observations

on Exley's Theory of Physics, 418
Chimney-hood for locomotive-engines, Cur-
tis's, 337

turn.cap, Dr. Fox's, 40
Chinese Magazine, Gutzlaff's, 179
Chronometers, prize, 32
Chuck, Wilbee's eccentric, 297
Churning, machine for, 45
Circulating decimals, 12, 43, 68, 109, 175,

197, 253
City in the Wilds, rise of a, 315
Clock, oldest English, 26
Clocks and watches, Henderson's history of,

Cloth, improvement in the manufacture of,

Colossus Redivivus, 112
Condensing railway-locomotive, Nickolls's,

Coins and medals, plan for safely exhibiting,
at British Museum, 39

--, new mode of transmitting, to poste-
rity, 96
Colonial literature, 78
Combustion, spontaneous, 320
Contents of vessels, short mode of calculat-

ing, 366
Cooler, wine, 223
Copper, vaporisation of water by, 123, 160,

ductility, &c., of, 202
boilers, manner of bursting of, 208

Copper sheathing, mode of preserving, 25
Cork-cutting machine, 126
Cornish steam-engine work. See Steam-

Cornwall Polytechnie Society, third report

of, 2
Cotton trade of Glasgow, 432
Crosse, Mr. A., galvanic experiments of, 375
Crystals, artificial, produced by galvanism,

375, 397
Cube-root, extraction of the, 366
Curtains, &c., new roller for, 125
Curtis's safety-break for railway-carriages,

145; safety railway-carriages, 144; chim-
ney-hood and ash-pan for locomotives,
337 ; lubrication by water, 380

Danube, steam-boats on the, 48
Davy's, Sir H., safety-lamp, 442
Deakin, Mr. Thomas, on the long-work

system of mining, 108
Deep sea lead, Ericsson's patent, 354, 459
Deposits in steam-boilers, experiments on the

effect of, 215
Design, School of, National, 143, 345
Dickson's steam-plough, 289
Drapery obstructs the transmission of sound,

Drawing-boards, improved in, 232, 281, 390
Drummond light for submarine illumination,

Dust, protection from, 259

Eclipse of the sun, 137, 283
Electric currents, 271
Electrical theory of the universe. See Mack-

apparatus for dancing-figures im.
proved, 247
Electricity, connexion of, with vegetation,
25, 53, 94, 107, 140

--, experiments in, 271
Embossing on wood, 368
Engraving cheque plates, new mode of, 47

-, wire-plate, 446
Ericsson's påtent lead, 353, 459
Euphrates expedition, 287, 302
Evaporation, machine to facilitatę, 151
Ewbank's mode of preventing the foaming of
water in steam-boilers, 89

alarm- float, 90
Exley's theory of physics, Mr. Cheyerton's
observations on, 418

Felloes, machine for bending, 125,
Férussac, Baron de, notice of, 32
Fire-engine, horse-worķed, 9.

American, 46
Odiorn's, 153
establishment, London, 36

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