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447 amount in number to the linear inch, 'it or it might be produced by their simple would be still better. I know not whether adherence, merely caused by their lateral there are any practical difficulties in ob- pressure within the frame. taining wires of such exceedingly small I now come to treat of the advantages magnitude, but should there be any, I which this possesses over wood-engravtrust they may be overcome, as the re- ing. sources of art and manufacture have 1. Wood-engraring is allowed to be a seldom been found deficient in supplying somewhat difficult process; the chief diffithe wants of men.
„culty seeming 10 consist in cutting out mi2. Let us now suppose the wire-plate nute portions of the wood to form the ligbt to have been constructed, and to be in a parts of the engraving. How much more fit state for engraving upon. The pre- simple is the mode of execution with the - paratory step is, to lay the plate down on wire-plate, wherein the same effect is a moveable cushion, having a plane level prorluced by simple pressure ;-where, surface at 'top, where it is covered with instead of the difficult and laborious task : soft leather, beneath which a blanket is requiring to be most carefully performed, stretched. In this state, if a graving
all that is reqnired, is a momentary prestool be applied to the upper surface of sure with the graving-tool. Surely an the plate and drawn over it, a sunk line advantage like this cannot fail of being will be formed, which, on luruing the appreciated by artists occupied in engrav. plate, will be found to have produced a ,ing. raised edge or ridge on the other side, 2. Another advantage of the wire. consequent on the depression of the wires plate engraving is, that in the event of a taking place in the line of direction of false stroke being made, or if in any the graving-tool. This effect must needs other respect the work done be not perfollow, because it requires a less effort fectly to the artist's mind, he has the * for the graving-tool to press down the power of repairing his error immediately, wires than to pass between them. It is by merely turning the plate and operating from a number of such ridges and pro
on the other side, either to replace the jections formed on the one side of the wires in their former position, to be plate by the action of the graver's tool on operated upon afresh, or else by a few the other side, that an engraving, similar .strokes or touches, to produce the desired to. wood-engravings, is proposed to be
effect. taken off. Also in the progress of the
3. A third advantage of the wire-plate work the plate may be operated upon on
is, that afier it has served one set of the one side or on the other, according as engravings, or one series of inpressions convenient, or as the artist may think
has been worked off the plate, it may be good for the completion of his design. made to serve another set, without any
When the plate has been fully engraved assignable limits. This may be done by upon, the next step is, to give fixity 10 restoring the plate to its original state, the wires in the places assigned 10 them
or to the stile in which it was before by the graving-tool. This may be done being engraved upon, which is thus to by pouring over that side of ihe plate be effected. The ground at the back of from which the engraving is not to be the plate is first removed, and the plate taken a composition of nieled wax or
is then to be pissed under a roller, or resin, or some similar compound which between two rollers, so as to press back hardens on cooling, and which will thus the wires in'o their natural order, wherein form an abutment to the wires, so as to
-the ends of the wires constituted a plane prevent them shifting their places on or level surface on the two sides of the pressure being applied, as in taking off plate. These are, I believe, the chief the engraving, &c. It will be a point advantages of the wire.plate system of of some nicely to determine the exact engraving. I now come to a view of its degree of facility the wires should pre- disadvantages, or those at least which, sent to being pressed dov
whether well or ill-founded, it may be ing-tool, and that degree of firmness or thought toʻlabour under. resistance required to hold them in their : 1. The wire-plair, it may be said, places on ordinary occasions. This point would be too expensive a construction to might be attained by, causing wax to supersede the use of wooden blocks in occupy the interstices between the wires, engraving. To this it may be replied,
by the grave
NOTES AND NOTICES. that the first expense would be all, as Editor, and your readers, to determine to may be seen by a reference to No. 3 which side the balance leans. In the abore. Besides which, let the expense mean time, yours, &c. of wooden blocks, arising from the con
V. W. GARDINER. tinual demand for them in engraving, be considered. These two circumstances
NOTES AND NOTICES. conjointly may tend to equalise more
Patent Law. Sir, You will rery much oblige nearly than would at first be imagined, an old subscriber, by giving hiin your opinion the difference in the cost of wire-plate upon the following point:-, master has had a and blocks of wood.
maebine at work in his factory for five years, but
bad not thought it worth patenting. He finds, how. 2. Another objection to the wire-plate erer, that another person has lately taken out a system would be, that by these means patent for the same thing in principle, and with
only a few alterations in the construction. Can no even or distinctly marked line could
the patentee stop the previous inventor and user be impressed on paper, but that all such from working his machine?-Your humble serlines would be jagged and rough at their
vant, N. B."-In answer to our correspondent, we
refer him to the following extract from the Patent sides, or otherwise could only be marked Law Ainendment Act :- And be it enacted, that by a succession of dots. The force of if, in any suit or action, it shall be proved or spe.
cially found by the rer :ict of a jury, that any this objection is very considerable, for
person who shali have obtained letters patent for certainly no line engraving could be exe- any inrention or supposed iavention was not the
first inventor thereof, or of some part thereof, by cuted by the wire-plate. However, this
reason of some other person or persons having ohjection does not hold good generally, invented or used the same, or some part thereof, or it cannot be considered quite fatal to
before the date of such letters patent, or if such
patentee or bis assigns shall discover that some the plan proposed, as, if so, it applies other person lead, unknown to such patentee, inequally to every system of engraving, vented or used the same, or some part thereof,
before the date of such let'ers patent, it shall and excepting that performed in the line
may be lawful for such pa'entee or bis assigne, to manner. Now there is a style of en. petition bis Majesty in council to confirn the said graving on copper which is not per
letters patent, or to grant new letters patent, the
matter of which petition shall be heard before the formed by lines, but by dots, and which, Judicial Committee of the Privy Council; and such althougil perhaps not equal to line en- Committee, upon examining the said matter, and
being satisfied that such patentee believed himself graving, is still very beautiful in its way,
to be the tirst and original investor, and being and is certainly preferable in point of sati:fied that such invention or part thereof had execution to any system of wood-engrav.
not been publicly and generally used before the
date of such tirst letters patent, may report ing extant. The decision, or accurately to his Maje:ty their opinion that the prayer of such defi:sed impression of metal over wood, petition onght to be complied with, whereupon his
Majesty may, if he think fit, grant such prayer ; gives it certainly the preference where it
and the said letters patent shall be available in law can be employed; and this end, I think, and equity, to give to such petitioner the sole right may be attained by substituting wire. of usiny, making, and vendiny such invention as
against all persons whatsvever, any law, usage, or plate for wood, in the particular mode of
custom to the contrary thereof notwithstanding." engraving for which both are adapted. In the Bill the following exception was bere add
ed :-" Save and except sich person or persous as 3. A third ohjection to the wire-plate
dil use the same invention before the date of the may be its inability to indicate very fine first letters patent." This saviny clause was, how. line's on paper, as 'every such line must ever, lost in the passage of the Bill ibrough Parlia
ment.-EU. M. M. hare a breadth equal at least to the diameter of the wires entering into the cona B British and Foreign Patents taken out with struction of the plate ; and that in many
econoiny and despatch ; Specifications, Dis.
claimers, and Arneudments, prepared or revised ; cases the line will have a double breadth
Caveats entered; and generally every Branch of alternating with a single, according as Patent Business promptly transacted. the graving-tool shall take over one or
A complete list of Patents from the earliest pe
riod (15 Car. II. 1675,) to the present time may be two wires in succession. The only answer examined. Fee 28. 6.1.; Clients, gratis. I can give to this objection is, that the
Patent Agency Office,
Peterborough court, Fleet-street. wires are proposed to be so excessively small or minuie in diameter, as to render
LONDON: Published by J. CUNNINGHAM, at the prac:ical difficulties of the case, as the Mechanics' Magazine Office, No. 6, Peterbohere stated, a matter of very little con.
rough-court, between 135 and 136, Pleet-stroet.
Agent for the American Edition, Mr. O. Rici, sequence.
12, Red Lion-square. Sold by G. W. M. R I. I believe I have now stated all that
NOLDS, Proprietor of the French, English, and be said, of chief importance at least, pro
American Library, 55, Rue Neuve, Saint
Angustin, Paris. and con, respecting the wire-plate system
CUNNINGHAM and SALMON, Printers, of engraving ; and I leave it to you, Mr.
BRUNTON'S PATENT GAS-RETORT. BRUNTON'S PATENT GAS-RETORT. the coke in the cistern E by being de. * Fig. 1 is a section of a retort with the
posited in the box I, outside the cone,
from whence it may be removed when various parts attached, viz. a feeder or hopper, A; a plunger or piston-case, B;
required by a tap or plug. The end.
piece D is furnished with a small cover a round taper retort open at both ends,
or lid H, which may be at any time reC; an end piece, D, with a discharge
moved for the purpose of examining the cylinder or shoot, F; and an exit pipe,
interior of the retort; it is secured in its G. The same letters indicate correspond
place by a cross bar and screw. ing parts throughout.
Fig. 5 represents a front view of three* The lid or cover f of the feeder A
retorts in one bed. No. 1 is furnished being raised, a certain portion of coal is
with a slide-valve L, the seat of which, introduced, and falls on a plate of iron
K, being a fixture and secured by cement, or diaphragm n, and the lid closed, the
obviates the necessity of frequently changlip of which falls into a narrow trough, ing the luting in the trough bb. No. 2 bb, filled with fine sand, loam, or any
shows the lid f open, and thereby exhibits compost, which will render it secure.
the hinges upon which it works. No. 3 The hollow piston or plunger a a in the
is closed. case B is then propelled forward, either
Fig 6 is an end view of the same reby a screw turned by a handle outside,
torts with the exit pipes G, boxes I, and as in fig. 1, or by a rack and pinion, as
lids H. The lid of No. 3 is off for the in figs. 3 and 4. By this mode a quantity of coals is forced from the space
purpose of inspection.
The superiority of this retort above immediately before the piston and under
those in common use, consists in the the feeder into the retort, and the whole
facility with which it may be charged bulk moved forward, while that which
and discharged; the almost total absence has been carbonised and lies at the further end is discharged into the end-piece D
of that suffocating and enervating heat
and smoke necessarily attending the preand through the shoot F into a cistern of water E, from whence it may be removed
sent system ; the economy in the cost of
wear and tear, as the middle of the reby a rake or basket; the piston is then drawn back into the case, and the dia
tort only is exposed to the action of the phragm n let down by slacking the spring
fire, and iron barrows, rakes, &c. are catch i which confines the handle h (see
entirely dispensed with ; the saving of figs. 2, 3, 4), so that the coal just intro
labour, and consequently wages, as any duced may drop into the space between
man or even stout boy, whatever his prethe retort and piston, thereby shielding
vious occupation may have been, may the apparatus from the heat, and being
after a day or two's practice take the ready to be moved forward when a fresh
whole management of from fifteen to
twenty-five of these retorts; the charge may be required; the quantity
preventand frequency of each charge must de
ing that immense loss of gas which takes pend upon the quality of the coal used
place when the retorts are charged; the and the size of the retort. The gas passes
more equal carbonisation of the coal, through the exit pipe G, on the flange
arising from the frequent agitation of it of which is a circular box I, furnished
in its progress through the retort; and with a small cone or taper pipe, which is
the whole process being uninterrupted by placed immediately over the aperture of
the admission of atmospheric air. the exit pipe, so that all the condensible
* One, two, three, four, or more retorts may matter may be prevented from falling on
put in one bed.
ON THE LAW OF PATENTS, BY JUNIUS
(From the True Sun.) After all the long disputes between the respective representatives of capital and labour, the question seems to have settled into a mutual conviction that they are necessary to each other, and must each be affected by the prosperity or adversity of the other. Yet notwithstanding this the existing laws are alike inefficient for the protection of either capital or labour. It is no uncommon thing for a partnership business to be carried on for a series of years, whereby a large capital is accumulated, and which by some absurd dispute between the parties is thrown into the Court of Chancery, there to be dispersed amongst the professors of the law and their various retainers. And all this might be prevented by the simple and efficient tribunal known in France as the Chamber of Commerce. A summary and cheap mode of reference is needed for those suffering under injustice. But great as this evil is on the capitalists who have accumulated property, there is an evil pressing yet more heavily on the workers who seek to accumulate property. There is no eficient protection for the mental labour on which all that is valuable in society depends. The capitalist is protected from direct encroachment on his property ; the labourer and the working mechanic are
protected from any direct encroachment on their wages, or on their bargains for remuneration; but the originators of every class are so imperfectly protected, that they are expused to both the direct and indirect plunder of all classes alike. This is a most unwise national policy, inasmuch as national progression must ever depend upon originators. Take away the originators from amongst us, and we shall become a stagnant nation like the Chinese. If, therefore, the nation desires to make progress, its wisest policy is to foster the originators, and hold out to them all possible inducements to follow the bent of their genius. It is quite true, that even if left to themselves, and exposed to hardships and injustice, they cannot quite répress the fire that is in them; but it is also true that the produce will be lessened. The field which is left uncultivated will in time be choked with weeds, though straggling plants may at intervals appear amongst them.
The principle on which the nation professes to protect the mental labour of originators in the case of books, is national advantage. Few persons would produce valuable works if the copyright were not secured to them ; yet even in this case a heavy tax is exacted from the authors in the shape of a considerable number of gratuitous copies. And alter all, if the work be popular, an unprincipled