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437 difference of opinion and much positive surface, would only weigh 1 lb.; whereas ignorance prevails: sini.

lie ought to bave said, that 3600 lbs, re. moved to a distance from the earth equal

to the distances of the moon's sucface, Yours respectfully, 19:19 Si W. BADDELEY.

would only weigh I Abog 06. be attracted 20, 1836.

towards the earth, with a force equal Pi10QC! 1911197***, to llb. which is elearly his meaning.

However, it did not asui Kinclaven to THEORY OF TAB TIDSREPLYJOBLURSA take the obvious meaning the literal MAIOR1001 KINCLAVENO 191,

better suited to his purpose. Sir,--My old acquaintance (according to his own Sir, Mystement) Kitigraven is very

This is att too bad, Kinclaven; the

Doctor's demonstration, as he styles it, ahousing, and might be indulged in the was suffoiently absurd without this si. ludicrous display which he makes of his nistér mode of dealiog with it. Howmisapprehensions for misrepresentations, every Kindlaven has added one more exfor it is difficult to say which they really ample to support the position of Ursa are; were it absurdities materially interferes with our of demonstrations so called, and that the more serious engagements. In my last, various" Doctors." and "great matheI stated in as pláin a manner as language maticians " who have favoured the world could speak, that I set no value whatever with the aforesaid demonstrations, conupon any of the demonstrations, 60 tradict each other; and, ergo, they cannot called (Dr. Wilkinson's included) re. be all right. Ursa Major presents his specting the tides, always saving and compliments to Kinclaven, and begs to excepting Kinclaveits, of course. Plav. assure-him that he will ever retain a ing remarked, that'the absurdvies to which lively, sense of the -great service which Mr. Clarke's ocular deinonstration” the cause of truth has on this memorable (which' is the same in principle as Dr. occasion derived from the pen of the Wilkinson Phan those that were alienpted | would lead, were, if possi

"great Kipclayen.” ble, worse

Having thus acquitted myself as handto be removed, it appeared to me that somely and politely as can be reasonably no misapprehension enuld arise upon the expecied- of a “great bear," I think I subject. But I supposé Kinclaven is niay be allowed to offer a suggestion to raiher dill' of apprehensiun, notwith- Kinclaven which may be of great service standing the very intense study which he to him in his profound studies. To give has bestörred upon the multiplication it the more weight, I shall derive it froin table. From whatever cause his dulness his own observations, he being, in his may proceed, it is very plain that he own estimation, no doubt, a very great either cannot' or will not receive the

authority. Amongst other profound obanimadversions of Ursa Major in the servations, which he makes upon Dr. proper and obvious acceptation, but must Wilkinson's " demonstration,” he says, twist and distort them to suit his' own HIS DATA ARE FAR FROM BEING CORends and purposes.

RECT.' Kinclaven, the whole argument Well

, tue us see what he gains' by this turns upon this point; if we had a full perverseness. He has favoured us with assurance in every case of the correctness a long list of figures which shows very of the data from which our conclusions clearly that he has studied the multipli. are deduced, any difficulty respecting cation-table 10'soine purpose, in which he vtbe conclusions themselves mighi be obproves

out the Doctor's viated without any very serious embar.. plan, 'Illallinn tollonilating force of the rassment. But, unfortunately, we are moor will only raise the sea at part notiin every case, well assured of the of an inch.":2 "Now, gentle reader, sin correctness of the data: I would rea what way doʻyout supposer Kinclaveň ob- commend you, Kinclaven, before you tains this result? By a quibble-Dr. place full confidence in any conclusion Wilkinson How-traving the fear of the which'may kappen to be honoured with great Kinclaven

before his eyes, is the name of a demonstration, la examine rather loose and careless in his enuncia- * the data rigiddy. Place no confidence in tion.'' He says, that 3600lbs. on the sur. the authority, whether it may bappen to face of the earth removed to the moon's be Laplace, Lagrange, Dr. Wilkinson, or

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TERORY OF THE TIDES any other profound mathematician. If claven, great men have been “sometimes you will be advised to follow this method, sadly in the wrong. you may take the word of Ursa Major, However, the controversy between Kin. that although your trust in the miraculous claven and Ursa Major relates to the de. potency of algebraical symbols in bring- monstrations connected with the tides as ing dark things to light, may be a little deduced from the laws of universal gram shaken, you will be all the better philo- vitation. Well, Ursa Major will suppress sopher for that course of study. It is his own observations till he has taken a the characteristic of an undisciplined spell at the Tutor's Assistant; and for the mind, to speak positively and dogmati- present we will let the“ learned Doctors" cally ; experience teaches us to speak great mathematicians” speak for with reservation. By way of introduc- themselves. tion to the course of study here recom- Kinclaven says, “ Laplace, and every mended, I would offer a quotation from writer of eminence in physical astronomy, the writings of an eminent mathemati- have demonstrated that all the phenomena cian of the present day, who differs from connected with the tides are strictly in the greater part of those “great men;". accordance with the principles of univerhowever, in one very essential particular, sal gravitation. that is, although he has attained to some Professor Whewell


Though eminence as a mathematician, he has not there can be no doubt (which always on that account discarded the rules of means we are not quite certain,) that the common sense, but shows that mathema. tides are to be reckoned among the retical reasoning is the same as all other sults of the great law of universal grareasoning, differing only in this respect ;' vitation, they differ from all the other the conclusions are deduced from the results of that law in this respect, that premises by following certain fixed prin-' the facts have not in their details been ciples that may at all times be relied reduced to an accordance with the theory.” upon, provided always that we are certain Kinclaven says, “ Laplace has demonof the correctness of the data from which strated that gravity darts its influence those conclusions are deduced. His ob. fifty millions of times faster than light.” servations are these—" There is a mis- Mr. Lubbock says, “ If the moun were take into which several have fallen, and to be annihilated, we should have tivo, have deceived others, and perhaps them: three, or more tides, notwithstanding, selves, by clothing some false reasoning because it was the moon, as she existed in what they called a mathematical dress, fifty or sixty hours before, or five lunar imagining, that by the application of half days, which caused the disturbance mathematical symbols to their subject, of the ocean.” they secured mathematical argument.

Kinclaven says,

“ Bernoulli has given This could not have happened if they a deinonstration.” Mr. Lubbock says, had possessed a knowledge of the bounds “ No reliance can be placed upon Berwithin which the empire of mathematics noulli." is contained ; that empire is sufficiently' Damoseau has given formula deduced wide, and might have been better known from theory. Mr. Lubbock says, “ They had the time which has been wasted in are totally unintelligible.”' aggressions upon the domains of others It is needless to multiply instances, been spent in exploring the vast tracks they are endless ; these few relate enwhich are yet untrodden."

tirely to the question as it stands at the Time and reflection will teach Kin. present time. How any individual can claven that we are not to place implicit' talk of the phenomena relating to the confidence in great names, however high tides having been rigidly demonstrated to those names may stand in the world of be in accordance with certain unerring science. He will also recollect, that the laws, seeing all these conflicting statesystem of Des Cartes was defended by ments, and many more besides these, some of the most eminent mathematicians Ursa Major is at a loss to conceive. of Europe, to the latest hour of their Professor Whewell seems to be inclined existence, in defiance of all the demon. to give up the theory altogether until it strations which were presented to their can be brought to coincide more nearly notice by the illustrious founder of the with the facts. “ With regard to obsera. Newtonian system. So you see, Kin- vation," lie remarks," the Port of Brisiol.




offers peculiar advantages, for in conse- instance the establishment of steam navi. quence of the great magnitude of the gation would produce beneficial results tides, there, about fifty feet, almost all both to the establishers and to their cusu the peculiarities of the phenomena are tomers, it will, I presume, be enough to magnified, and may be studied as if point out certain required conditions of uuder a microscope." This is a good locality. These I iake to be:That idea; I would advise you, Kinclaven, to there should be convenient means of con. take a trip to Bristol, and get a peep into structing the vessels and apparatus on the Professor Whewell's microscope. This site itself, or of conveying them thither will enlighten your mind much better from elsewhere; that there should be upon the subject than poring over the sufficient extent and depth of water;' multiplication table and thumbing the sufficient merchandise and passengers' Tutor's Assistant;—when you return you to form freight; and abundance of fuel, will, perhaps, be able to give us a de- at certain proportionate prices. monstration of the tides as incontroverti. The line of steam navigation which I ble as the 47th proposition of the First propose to establish admits of the foreBook of Euclid.

going conditions in a most eminent deUrsa Major wishes you a pleasant jour- gree. I

propose lo navigate the river Po ney for the sake of “old acquaintance.” -as high as Turin towards its source, Good-bye,“ Grear KinclaVEN!" and beyond its mouth; on the north, to Yours, &c.

Venice; and south, to Ravenna, Rimini, URSA MAJOR. Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, and Ancona.

The Lakes Maggiore and Como, which PROPOSAL FOR NAVIGATING THE

communicate with the Po by the rivers PO BY STEAM.

Ticino and Adda, will, especially the

former, inake admirable additions to the Sir, — The same principle which prompt- plan, ed me to request admission in your pages The distance from Turin to the mouth to my paper on the introduction of sal

of the Po (Bocca Maestra) is, in a straight non into the river Rhone, prompts me to line, 200 ltalian miles, of 60 to the delay before you a plan for the steam navi.

gree, or 240 English. Along the course gation of the river Po, in Northern Italy. of the river it is about 300 Italian (360 Every extension of the use of steam must English) miles. tend to the advantage of England, which On the above extent of navigation are is the great workshop of the world in all situated the cities of Turin, Chivasso, that regards machinery, iron, steam- Casale, Valenza, Pavia (University), Piaengines, &c. Although I have not been

cenza, Cremona, Guastala, Governolo, so fortunate as to derive a benefit from and Ferrara, besides more than a hunthe suggestion contained in the enclosed

dred populous boroughs and villages; paper, others may. Any how, it is an

and in the immediate vicinity of the river exhibition of facts and useful truths. If

are the cities of Alessandria (the celethey are disregarded, it will be no more brated fortress), Milan, Lodi, Crema, my fault than in innumerable other occa

Brescia, Parma, Mantua, and Mirandola, sions, when one would suppose that "

all which, with the exception of Parma voice was heard in the wilderness."

and Mirandola, communicate with the I have the honour to be, Sir,

Po by navigable canals or rivers.
Your obedient servant,

With regard to the depth of the river

Po, I can aver to have crossed it in all Sept. 18, 1836

seasons, and at various points, from Turin

to Ferrara. At all these points I have In submitting to my friends, or to seen boats of 60 or 80 tons burthen, the public, a proposal of the present na- which from their clumsy construction, ture, it would be superfluous to dwell with high sterns and poops, must ceron the general advantages of steam navi- tainly draw much more water than necesgation, since these have been so triumph- sary. Those which go down the river antly established by the best of all with charcoal, wine, corn, oil, &c., are demonstrators-long and multiplied ex- constructed in a very coarse, rough manperience.

ner, and are never taken back against the In order to show that in any particular stream, but broken up at the end of the :


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PROPOSAL FOR NAVIGATING TRB RIVBR PO BY STEAN. voyage. There are no towing-paths along and meet with plenty of passengers and the Po, except in a few particular places goods. The supply, of colonial produce of very limited extent. Indeed, I de vot to the interior, and the coasting trade bethink it would be possible to form a con- tween Venice, Ancona, and Sinigaglia, tinuous one, as the deep navigable chan. during the great fairs and the returns of nel is often times amidst islands and agricultural produce, would be very great. sand-hanks, at a considerable distance An immense quantity of English goods from the actua) banks of the river. and colonial produce are, i transported by

The Lago Maggiore, extends from land from Genoa 1o Arona, on the southSesto Calende, in Piedmont, in a north- ern extremity of the Lago Maggioré, erly direction, to Locarno, in the capton where they are embarked for Locarno, at of Tessino, in Switzerland, being 40 [ta- the northem end, at which place, and at lian, or 48 English, miles in length, and Megadino, great depôts are constantly ou an average about 6 in breadth. It kept for the supply of Switzerland, Tyrol, communicates with the Po by the rirer Veltalina, and (by.contraband) the BerTicino, which from Sesto Calende to gamasco, and great partis of Austrian Pavia is about 60 English miles in Lombardy. Now, by the steam establish. length, and very deep throughout. The ment all these goods would only have to shores of the lake, and the banks of the be sent from Genoa to the river Be, and Ticino, are thickly lined with populous conveyed at once up the Tessino into the towns and villages. There are two navi. lake. The shores of the lake and its celegable canals from the Ticino to Milan, brated fairy island (Isola Boromei) are distant about 20 miles.

covered with yillages and country-seats, The Lago di Como is about 36 miles wbicb, particularly in the summer, would to the east of the Lago Maggiore, to produce numerous passengers to and fro which it bears a striking resemblance in in every direction. From the selongated figure and dimensions, only extending configurations of both of the lakes Magabout 10 miles further north to the giore and Como), embosomed in moun. borders of southern Tyrol. From the tains from north to south, it gederally southern extremity of the lake issues the happens that the winds blow for a

long river Adda, which, after a southern course periud either up or down the lake; during of about 70 miles, passing through Lodi, which time the vessels of the country can Pizzighittom, &c., joins the Po between proceed only but in one direction. This Piacenza and Cremona. I cannot speak circumstance alone, though comparatively from personal observation of the depilı of trivia), would suffice to give the steam the Adda, but from what I have heard, ones a decided advantage and from the fact of there being a navi. The country to the north of the Lake gable canal (Canal di Martisana) from Maggiore abounds with iron-works, from the town of Brembate on that river to which all the north of Italy is supplied Milan, distant 16 Italian miles, and both with bar and cast-iron, and some Brembate being only one-third of the steel. What a great diminution would distance from ihe lake to the Pamits the substitution of steam-boat instead of depth is to be presumed sufficient through- land-carriage effect in the price of such out for navigable purposes.

For if the articles ! upper part of its source, from the lake to Of the Lake of Como I cannot speak Brembate, which is the most rapid and from personal observation, but I have shallow, be actually navigable, it is not every reason to believe that a steamlikely to become otherwise after receiving vessel, even were it merely confined to below that town no less than eight con- ihe lake, would answer extremely well, siderable tributary streams.

with passengers alone. The mouth of the river Po is only 25 I am not aware of mineral coal being (30 English) miles distant from Venice, found in any situation or quantity so as on the north; and towards the south, to make it available for the steam nari. within 100 (120 Evglish) miles of coast, gation I propose. I have seen specimens are the ports of Comacchio (20), Ravenna from the Valtelina, but I believe there (35), Cervia (45), Rimini (60), Pesaro (77), are no mines actually worked. Wood, Fano (82), Sinigaglia (93), and Ancona and consequently charcoal, are cheap. (100), to which ports the steani naviga- Thic iron-founders of Bellinzona, Morobtion might be advantageously extended, bio, &c. pay for charcoal 1 franc, 25

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441 cents, the bissaccone of 15 rubbj, or June, 1786, “ M. Testu ascended from 282lbs. I have seen it quoted at 1 franc, Paris with a balloon 28 feet in diameter, 2 cents. 1?

on the motion of which he was able to 343 There are already two "sleam-boats on produce a very sensible effect by the

the Lake of Geneva, and one on that of maneuvring of wings. It was filled only Constance, which have made the fortunes fths with gas; but at 2900 feet high n of the establishers. These lakes are but became quite full. Dreading the bursthuge fish-ponds, without navigable out- ing of the balloon (he appears not to lets. How much more important would have used a valve) should be ascend be the results of such an undertaking on higher, he applied himself vigorously to the Lakes Maggiore and Como,' which maneuvring the wings, and after much are open to the river Po and the Adriatic difficulty and severe labour, descended in Sea Tos

the plains of Montmorency to take in Athvarious places on the river Po, as ballast." well as on the two lakes above-men- The valloon in the former instance tioned, there are many yards, or docks, ‘cited was also of the “ fish-like” form, for the construction of large flat vessels which Colonel Mačeroni thinks would or boats, where every material and con- not rise in the air in a proper position. It venience would be found for building the was an oblong spheroid, 46 by 27, the steam-vessels ; unless it should be pre- longer axis being parallel to the horizon ; ferred to send them in frames from Eug- the car 17 feet long. Yet it ascended, as landito Genoa.! I should hope that was expected, and Messrs. Roberts parsteamavessels for such a purpose would tially navigated it by wings, as abovebe made of iron. The machinery may be mentioned. imported both into Piedmont (Genoa), or The comparative danger of the fire and wo Austrian-Lombardy, duty free, all the gas balloou is another point on which kind of machinery being exempt from I would question the correctness of the

Colonel's opinion. On the one band, no 1.There is no manner fof doubt but that fatal accident has ever been consequent both the Sardinian and Austro-Italian upon the bursting of an air-balloon; or from Governments would readily grant a pa- one ever having been damaged by lighttent for a certain nuinber of years 10 ning; while, on the other hand, M. Pi. aby Company that would undertake the latre de Rozier (the very first aeronaut) business.

and M. Romaine lost their lives through

F. MACERONI. the burning of a fire-balloon. Besides London, July 1, 1824.

the fact, that silk is a non-conductor of electricity, as is also the gas itself when

dry-numerous instances have occurred AERONAUTICS--COMPARATIVE SAFETY OF

of' balloons passing through lightningMONTGOLFIER AND GAS BALLOONS

clouds and storms in safety. In the case PROPOSAL FOR AN AERONAUTIC CLUB.

quoted before of M. Testu's ascent," he Sir, --Although I agree with your very passed through clouds which emitted intelligent correspondent, Colúnel Ma. virid flashes of lightning. An iron point ceroni, as to the impracticability of guid- fixed to his car emitted a stream of light ing balloons so as to apply them to any from the positive electricity of the atmo. useful end, yet I think his assertion, that sphere ; and when negative it exhibited wings or oars have no effect whatever

a luininous spot. His flag sparkled with upon their motion, is contrary to past ex. fire during the darkness of the night, perience. I will cite iwo instances froin while the thunder rolled and the lightBrewster's Edinburgh Encyclopedia, arti- ning flashed around him. On his decle Aeronautics :- Ist. “In June, 1784, scent, bis clothes and balloon were imMessrs. Roberts ascended in a balloon, lo pregnated with a strong sulphurous smell, the car of which were attached five wings and his flag had been rent by the light

In the course of their royage ning.” Here, then, is an instance of a finding themselves becalmed, they had balloon enveloped in electricity, and yet, recourse lo their oars, by the exertion of evidently from its non-conducting nature, which their balloon in 35 inimules de- scathless. A correspondent of one of the scribed an elliptical segment whose short. daily papers lately suggested the attachest diameter was 6,000 feet. -2d. In ing of a dozen or twenty balloons to a

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