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IMPROVED MODES OF PREPARING CHARCOAL.
IMPROVED MODES OF PREPARING That used at the West Point Foun.
dry is twelve feet in diameter and nine
feet deep: (From the American Railroad Journal.)
In order to condense the volatile In consequence of the great waste of charcoal, in the usual mode of prepara
matter, one opening is made in the lin
ing near the top of the kiln, to which a tion, and the entire loss of the volatile
tube of cast iron or earthenware is apmatter, two modes have been contrived, plied. This tube communicates with a in either of which the quantity of char
small chamber built of brick, about coal obtained may be almost as large
eighteen inches long, a foot in width, as in iron cylinders, and the volatile inat
and fifteen inches high, entering about ters may be collected.
the middle of its height. From the top The first of these is best suited to the of this chamber proceeds a pipe of bard woods which contain but little sesi
sheet iron, which after risiug vertically nous matter. This operation is per- four or ive feet, assumes a horizontal formed in a kiln of the shape of a cy- direction for about fifteen feel ingre; at linder, or rather a
truncated cone, at this distance there is no fear of fire, whose larger base is upperinost. It and the rest of the pipe may be of may be built of sods or tenacious earth wood. The extension of the pipe comabove the natural surface of the soil, municates with a condensing apparatus, but may be more convenienıly exca. on the principle of Woolf, but which Vated to such a depth that the earth may be formed of cuminon barrels. thrown out iniy serve
to form the
In charging the kiln with wood, a upper part of the enclosure. In the
post whose height is equal to the depth only instance in which we have seen it of the excavation is set up in the midemployed in this_country, namely, dle, and supported in iis place by a at ihe West Point Foundry, the exca- heap of fragments of charcoal. A num. vation is lined with brick.
ber of the larger logs are chosen and In order to admit air to the kiln, laid on the bottom of the kiln in such when made by excavation, for the pur- a inanner as to form rudiating ilues, terpose of maintaining the combustion, minating at the places when the air tnbes of earthenware or cast iron are tubes pass through the lining. Across carried down from the surface of the these a horizontal layer of logs is laid. ground to the bottom of the excava- The radiating logs must neither touch tion; these lie behind the lining, and the post or the lining of the kiln ; the are either passed through it near the secondary layers extend from the one bottom, or enter sınall brick vaults, to the other. Layers are then placed in which communicate with the interior of succession in such a manner as to leave the kiln. The kiln may be closed at as little empty space as possible, par. top by a cover made of sheet iron, to ticularly near the circumference, until support which, when the living is not the kiln is filled. The kiln having been of brick, a ring of bricks must be charged, the post is drawn out of the placed around the top of the excavation. middle, the cover set in its place, and The cover inust extend on all sides coated to the depth of not less than two three or four inches beyond the opening inches with dry earth. of the kiln, in order to have a sufficient The stoppers being withdrawn from support. In this cover there are several the flues in the cover, lighted charcoal openings, one at the centre, the others is poured down through the middle near the circumference. Through each tube; this falls through the space left of ihese a short tube or flue of sheet by the post, to the heap of cbarcoal by iron passes, and the several tubes are which it was steadied, and sets it on fire. furnished with stoppers of iron.
The central fue is then lightly closed, The size described by Duinas is ten in order that the draught may be difeet (French) in diameter, and nine feet rected towards outside of the mass deep. The central tube is nine inches of wood. In order to make the joint in diameter. The number of these at of the stopper tight, it is luted with the circumference is four, each four plastic clay. The other fues begin to inches in diameter.
discharge 'smoke, which is surrounded
IMPROVED MODES OF PREPARING CHARCOAL.
403 by flame. As soon as the flame ceases At the Bennington furnace, a kiln of to bave a blue colour, and becomes similar form was constructed of brick, white and clouded, the flues have their above the level of the ground, and co. stoppers loosely applied to them, and vered by a permanent dome of brick. the openings of the descending air In the wall a door was left for the in. tubes are diminished. The draught will troduction of the wood, and this was thus be directed to the condensing ap- subsequently bricked up. Vents were paratus. But if the collection of the formed by leaving bricks loose in the acid be not intended, the tubes in the wall, and when the process was comcover are but partially closed. The plete, the fire was extinguished by combustion may be regulated within means of water. An unexpected bethe kiln by the air tubes and those in nefit was found to arise from the latter the cover. Thus, too rapid an action operation; for the coal becoming charged in any one part may be checked by coin. with aqueous vapour, was as fit for impletely closing the several air tubes and mediate use, as that which had been the opposite ilue ; and if it be too slow, prepared for several months. these must be opened as far as possible li is estimated that the product of until the action be restored.
kilns of this kind in France, is about For a kiln ten by nine, the operation 25 per cent. more than in a coal-pit, occupies from sixty to eighty hours, The experiment at the West Point and is known to be complete when the Foundry was more advantageous, the upper layer of wood appears to be in. product having 50 per cent. more than candescent; when this has taken place, was obtained in the usual method. In the stoppers of all the openings except France the main object was the pyroligthat of the central fue are reinoved for nous acid; which at West Point was a short time, and a quantity of hydro- neglected; and this difference in the gen will be expelled, which, if it does object will account for the differənce in not injure the quantity of charcoal, the results. The mode of placing the would render it less saleable. As soon Wood was also different; the French as the peculiar flame of hydrogen ceases, using that which has been described all the openings, both of the air tubes above, while at the West Point it was and Tues, must be closed by shutting placed vertically. their stoppers with clay, and covering In the pine forests of Sweden, an apthem with caps of sheet iron containing paratus better suited to the collection clay. The dry earth is removed from of the turpentine that kind of wood the cover, and it is plastered with earth furnishes, has been invented by Schwartz. mixed with water. The charcoal thus This kiln is composed of a vault, built shut up will take sixty to eighty hours of brick or siliceous stone laid in a to cool.
mixture of clay and sand. Common A plan and section of this description mortar must not be used, as it would of kiln is represented in fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, not only be effected by the heat, but and 5.
would be completely destroyed by the Fig. 1, and 2, being plan and section pyrolignuus acid. The vault is closed of one formed in an excavation, and
at each end by a vertical wall of the
same kind of masonry. The floor of Fig. 3, and 4, of one built above
the kiln is of earth, and has the figure ground.
of two planes slightly inclined, and Fig. 5, cover of sheet iron applicable meeting in a gutter in the middle of the to either.
longer sides of the vault. In each end A. Interior of kiln.
wall are two fire places, and in one of B. Wall, or lining of earth.
them are four openings for introducing C. Chamber in which the tar may be the wood and withdrawing the charcoal. condensed,
The sinoke and vapour are carried off d. Pipe leading to the condenser for by fues of cast iron at the level of the pyrolignous acids.
ground, and proceeding from the middle e, e, e. Air-Vaults.
of the larger sides of the vault; these fif, f. Openings by which the exter. minate in channels where the vapour is nal air is admitted.
condensed, and which convey the sinoke 404
PROPOSALS FOR INTRODUCING SALMON INTO TIE RIVERS OF FRANCE. to two vertical chimneys. A section of tional charcoal shall be at least equivathis kilo is represented in fig. 6.
lent to the cost of transporting the The advantage of this arrangement
wood to the kiln. It is also to be rea is, that no air can enter the kiln with- marked, that charcoal prepared on the out passing through the fire-places spot where it is to be used is better which are kept full of burning fuel ; than that which has here been handled and that the fuel which is best suited and carried over rough roads, and that for this purpose (small branches and all waste is avoided. twigs), is useless in making charcoal. In placing the wood, the pieces are laid parallel to the largest sides of the
BRITISH SALMON FIHERIES, WITH vault, and in such manner as to leave
THE INTRODUCTION as little space as possible except in the neighbourhood of the flues, which must be kept free for the escape of smoke Sir,--Although the following commuand vapour. Two days are sufficient nication does not immediately apply to to convert the wood into charcoal, and
the extension of any merely British source the end of the process is known by the of industry and utility, yet, as it may conappearance of the blue flame of carbu.
vey a useful hint to onr neighbours, I retted hydrogen at the chimneys. The think you will afford it a place in your whole of the openings are then closed, widely-circulating miscellany, in deferand with luted clay.
ence io the maxims so well and philosoAt the end of two days, two holes, phically expressed in the lines of Pope:left for the purpose in the arch of the vault, but which have during the pro
“Self-love but serves the virtuous mind to wake,
As the small pebble stirs the peaceful lake; cess been carefully closed, are opened, The centre moved, a circle tirst succeeds, and water thrown in to cool the char- Another still, and still another breeds;
Parent, friend, neighbour, first it does embrace, coal; these holes are then closed again.
Our country next, and next all human race," At the end of three or four days more, one of the doors in the end wall is open
This is the maxim and rule of action. ed, and more water thrown in ; but the
But it is not impossible that some Enge charcoal will not be ready to be removed,
lishman, or Englishmen, might take aduntil all the external parts of the ap- vantage of my suggestion, and turu it to paratus have become as cold as the sur
good industrial account, by application rounding air.
to the French Government. This kind of furnace has been much
“ Translation of a Letter addressed to Count used in Europe, and the quantity of Martignac, Minister of the Interior to the charcoal obtained is one-third more King of France, dated 24th of March, 1828, than is obtained from coal-pits. The and Duplicate sent 20th of January, 1829.* turpentinc and arcetic acid are also
"" Excellence,-I have often contemplated saved, which in other cases
with satisfaction, the great advantages which There can be no doubt that it might be would result to that part of France situated introduced to advantage in those parts at the mouth and along the course of the of our country where iron is manu- Rhone, if salmon were introduced into that factured by means of charcoal prepared beautiful river, which possesses advantages from pine wood.
above any other in Europe for the propagaIn using kilns of either description, tion and supply of that valuable fish. it becomes a matter of calculation whe
“ Salmon do not frequent the seas or ther it be cheaper to manuafacture
rivers of warm latitudes: they delight in a the charcoal in the woods in the usual
rather cold climate. In Europe, the most
southern limits of their visits are the rivers manner, or to carry the wood to the
of the north of Spain, in the 44th degree of kiln. The weight of the charcoal to
latitude. No salmon are found in the Medibe transported will be only seventeen
terranean, because, as they do not exist in parts of that of the wood; while the
the Black Sea, they can only come from the charcoal obtained by the kilns will be Atlantic Ocean; and in order to get admit. certainly one-third more than that pro- tance by the only inlet on that side, they cured from the pits. It must therefore appear that the value of the addi,
No answer returned:
PROPOSALS FOR INTRODUCING SALMON INTO TIE RIVERS OF FRANCE.
would have to descend southward to the Straits of Gibraltar, which, being in latitude 36°, is beyond the limits of their southern migrations. The mouth of the Rhone is in the same degree of latitude as the river of St. Andre, where I have found salmon to abound, that is, in 440; and the waters of the Lake of Geneva, and of the little rivers that flow into it, which may be called, as regards the salmon, the terminus of the Rhone, are pretty nearly of a similar temperature with the Scotch and Irish rivers, which they so much frequent.
“ Several of the salmon fisheries established on the Tweed, the Tyne, the Shannon, and the Eden, produce an annual revenue of 50001., 70001., 10,0001., and 12,0001. a year to the proprietors. Near the mouth of the river Eden, as many as 882,000 large salmon hare been taken in 72 days.
“ The propagation of fresh-water fish, which is somewhat attended to in districts remote from the sea, can never become an object of national importance, or of extensive sustenance, because such fish, as trout, pike, perch, and eels, being fish of prey, can never be produced in a lake, or pond, or river, beyond the number that can be supported by the small fish on which they live, that are furnished by the same confined waters, for their sustenance. Carp and tench may be fed on grain, &c.;. but salmon are fed gratis on the vast stores of the extensive ocean. Alter the salmon has gained a rapid growth -through the inexhaustible store of food, which he knows where to find in the sea-he returns to our shores ; ascends the rivers; penetrates into the interior of nations; mounts up to the very sources of the streams on the highest table-lands, and gives himself up, well fattened at the expense of the ocean, to people who, perhaps, know little of the sea, but from the rich tribute which it thus annually sends them.
“ I do not here propose to address to your Excellency a regular treatise on the habits and natural history of the salmon; but it is : necessary that I should remind you of the fact, that this fish returns periodically, with entire constancy during the whole of its life, to the river which gave it birth; and that whenever any number of salmon were let free, in an appropriate river, during the season which precedes their spawning, there would not be one of them that would not hasten to mount against the stream until it - had found a fitting place to stop and deposit
which it has been long living on abundant and nourishing food, that the salmon is in perfection. Its flesh is then of a bright, deep red colour; but in proportion to its sojourn in the fresh water of the rivers, in which it, comparatively, eats nothing, and as the time of its spawning approaches-it deteriorates in quality from day to day, its beautiful colour fades by little and little into a dirty yellow, its delicious flavour is lost and becomes fat and disgusting, its firm and solid flesh becomes flaccid and almost gelatinous, and an hitherto wholesome and nourishing article of food has become pernicious and disagreeable.
" The ovarie of a female salmon, of the age of four or five years, contains generally rather more than 600.000 eggs. It appears that, at variance with the habits of many other fishes, one male only is attached to one female. About the month of December, the former aids the latter in digging with the nose a furrowed bed in the gravel, in which furrows the female deposits her eggs. The male then completes the work, and covers the eggs over with gravel, as a gardener would a drill of spinach. According to the season, but generally about the beginning of March, the eggs begin to hatch; the first appear. ance of which most closely resembles that of a bed of onions just beginning to grow. The shells of the eggs and the heads of the fry being still engaged in the gravel, the tails are seen standing up erect for several days before the detachment occurs.
“ I beg to assure your Excellency, that on this subject I can speak from some perience. I am much addicted to angling, have caught many salmon with the hook and line, and bave had many opportunities of personally observing their habits. To another point, also, I have paid much attention, and that is, to the best method of keeping fish alive, and transporting them to a distance. I furnished a curious instance of this knowledge, on behalf of the late King of Naples, when I had the honour to be one of the Captains of the Chase.' With the particulars of this procedure, which was much noticed by men of science at Naples, [ will not trouble your Excellency; but I will only state, that I can point out a sure and cheap method by which 50 male and 50 female salmon may be conveyed, either from a Scotch or French salmon fishery, and turned out alive, safe and sound, into the Rhone, somewhere about Avignon. As sure as that a stone thrown up into tire air will fall again to the earth, so surely will the salmon so turned out immediately betake themselves to ascend the stream, and in due time deposit their eggs in the Lake of Geneva, and its innumerable ingressing rivulets, localities pos
“ Salmon begin to enter the rivers of Scotland and Ireland, more or less, about the month of April; it is, however, in June and July that the greatest quantity arrive. It is immediately after its arrival from the sea, in
ELECTRICAL THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE.
sessing advantages and capacity for that pur- salmon shall become indigenous in the Rhone, pose greater than all the rivers of Scotland the surplus population of these colonists and Ireland put together!
will spread far and wide, aud, by degrees, 66 At the rate of only 100,000 fry, pro- populate or salmonate all the rivers that fali duced by each female salmon introduced, we into the Gulf of Lyons, and of the Meditershould bave 5,000,000 of fry, without reckon. ranean in general. It has been said most ing that the original fish would return (bar- justly, that'eternal honour would be due to ring accidents) to the same river to lay their him who should cause two blades of grass to eggs the next year, and so on in succession to grow where only one had thriven before.' Not the end of their lives.
only posterity, but the present generation, " The young salmon hatched in March go will have cause to bless the name of your down to the sea in September. They return Excellency, if, by your instrumentality and next March, to stay only till July, when they patronage, a vast, gratuitous, and unlooked. weigh from 2 to 4lbs; next spring they re- for supply of delicious human food is wrested turn again, of the weight of from 6 to 10lbs.; from the bosom of the ocean for the daily and the third year, they weigh from 15 benefit of thousands of your countrymen. to 25lbs.
“ The expense of carrying into effect the “ Thus at the expiration of three years useful introduction I have suggested to your the produce of the first spawning, weighing Excellency, would not exceed 40,000 or from 15 to 25lbs., would begin to breed at 50,000 francs. Should it be undertaken by the rate of 500,000 each; and then a com- an individual or by a Company, it would be mencement might be allowed to the fishery, well worth while for the Government, on the which in such a river, and conducted under ground of national utility, to grant a special proper regulations, would in all probability privilege of the fishery within a certain disyield not less than 1,000,000 francs (40,0001.) tance from the mouth of the river, of ten or annually!
fifteen years, beginning from the third year “ The British salmon fisheries would un- after the introduction of the salmon. doubtedly produce more than ten times what
“ I have the honour to be, your they do, were the laws which are intended to “ Exeellency's humble and obedient servant, protect the propagation of the salmon better
« F. MACERONI, digested, and, above all, better enforced.
“ Officer of the Legion of Honour, &c. There are numerous Acts of Parliament on " London, March 23, 1828.” the subject, all pulling one against the other. A penalty is enforced against the taking of
ELECIRICAL THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE salmon, but none against its public exposure
---REALITY OF AN ELECTRIC FLUID. for sale during the prohibited periods. The sale of hares, partridges, &c. is punished; Sir, -I beg to forward to you the folbut a matter of national interest is neglected, Jowing remarks on “ Mr. Mackintosh's as beneath the notice of our hare-killing Theory of the Universe," more particulegislators! One river has one law; a second Jarly in reference to Kinclaven's comhas another; and so has a third ! It is un
munication in No. 682. I shall confine lawful to take salmon at the mouth of some
myself to one point of the controversy, rivers with what are called stake-nets (which,
viz. that respecting the materiality of by-the-bye, under due restrictions, is the best plan), and in others it is the only way pur
what is termed the electric fluid, which sued! In fine, there is no well-digested law
Kinclaven seems to call in question, in England on the subject. In some dis.
quoting as his authority, what he most tricts remote from the sea, almost every fe
appropriately terms some remarkable male salmon is speared by the peasantry when
observations of Sir John Leslie's. in the act of spawning; and no punishment
Before, however, I proceed fairly to is awarded to the wholesale destroyer, who discuss the point, I will candidly express obtains nothing but poisonous food for his my opinion,
-an opinion formed from a pains. Should your Excellency do me the perusal of Kinclaven's communications, honour to reply to this communication, and
that he is, himself, too much of a mathe. require my suggestions, I shall be able to lay
matician to entertain any doubt in his before you a well-reasoned and clear state
own inind upo! the subject, potwiihment of the laws and regulations which ought to be enacted on the subject of salmon
standing the ipse dixit of a philosopher, fisheries; and also on other fisheries in gene
whose opinion must claim the attention, ral, not forgetting that of oysters, which is
eren of those who differ from him; and sadly mismanaged, both in England and that, consequently, Kinclaven has made France,
use of these truly remarkable observa. 66. There is not a doubt but that when once tions of Sir John Leslie's, solely for the