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THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION :
provided with pegs around its circum-
BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCE
MENT OF SCIENCE.
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION.
“ Ne sus Minervam!” Sir,— Accounts are going the rounds of the public papers laudatory of several most " important and astonishing discoveries” that have just been made by members and friends of the “ Scientific Association !"
Amongst others, we are called upon to stare our eyes out at the idea of crystallisation and other chemical aggregations being promoted, modified, and varied by galvanic, magnetic, or electric action! Another novelty is, by the journalists, attributed, some to Dr. Lardner; by others, to a Petersburgh engineer ;-this consists in placing scrapers, brushes, or · watering-pots in advance of the locumo. tive-engines on railways.
A third novelty is the traction of a barge on a canal, by means of a chain under water, passing over a drum moved by a steam-engine in the said barge, &c.; and there are many other similar“ novelties” not worth naming. It is a pity that inventors do not make a point of looking well over the pages of your compenduous periodical, and so save themselves much trouble. With regard to the firsi-mentioned discovery, I beg to refer your readers to my letter in the Mech. Mag. for Mareh, 1831 (Nos. 400, 401), wherein I not only print out the agency of the galvanie, eleciric, or magnetic fluids all" aliases"-in the formation of chrystals, chemical assimilations, inetallic aggregations, &c., but in the excitation and production of organic life, both “ vegeta. able” and “ animal.” But more of this on another occasion. With regard to the scraping, cleansing, and preparing the rails for The wheels of locomotive-carriages, you will find in one of your Numhers (435), just about three years ago, a suggestion of mine similar to this new novelty of to-day, with the addition, that I propose a slight sprinkling of powdered rosin on the cleaned rail, just before the wheels of the locomotive, by which the adhesion will be so increased, as to enable a much steeper ascent to be vanquished without the slipping of the wheels. The great power of locomotive-engines is of no avail, if their wheels do not hold on the rails; and I think that with the use of a little rosin on the ascents, soine expense might be saved in leveling.
The drawing of barges along canals by means of a fixed chain and a drum
The following is a list of the various grants of money for the advancement of particular branches and objects of science which were awarded by this Association. Section A.-Mathematical and Physical
Science. 2501. for the discussion of observations on the tides ; at the disposal of J. W. Lubbock, Esq.
1501. for observations on the tide in the port of Bristol : to the Rev. W. Whewell.
701. for the deduction of the constants of lunar mitation, under the direction of Sir T. Brisbane; Dr. Robison and Mr. Bailey.
301. for hourly observations of the baro. meler and rock-salt hydrometer; Mr. Shaw Harris.
1001. for the establishment of meteorological observations on a uniform plan, and ex. periments on subterranean temperature ; under the direction of the Committee of last year, reduced to the Rev. Professor Powell, W. S. Harris, Colonel Sykes, and Professor Phillips--Sec., J. Phillips.
5001. for the procurement of data depending on very accurate measurement of points situate in two straight lines at right angles to each other, for the exact determination of the question of the permanence or variability of the relative level of land and sea ; Committee, Messrs. Greenhough, Lubbock, Mackenzie, Whewell, Sedgwick, Stevenson, Robison, Bayley, Griffith, Colly, Cubitt, Porstock, and De la Beche-Sec., Mr. Whewell.
1001. for experimental observations on form of waves as influenced by the effect of winds, and the effect of the form of a canal, and the manner in which the wave is produced - John Robison, Sec., R.S., Edin., and J. J. Russel.
5001. for the reduction of the observations in the Histoire Celeste-and vol, ix. Academie des Sciences, 1789 and 1790 ; Messrs. Lubbock, Airy, Bailey, and Dr. RubisonSec., Mr. Batley.
1001. for experiments on vitrificationDrs. Turner, Faraday, and the Rev. 0. Harcourt.
801. for the construction of a rock-salt lens -Sir D, Brewster.
RECENT AMERICAN PATENTS.
Section B.-Chemical and Mineralogical
Science. 501. for researches on the specific gravity of gases-Drs. Henry, C. Henry, and Dalton.
151. for researches on the components of atmospheric air-Dr. Dalton.
301. for researches on the quantity of beat developed in combustion and other chemical combinations.
241. 13s. for the publication of tables of chemical constants - Professor Johnston.
601. for researches on the strength of iron made with hot and cold blasts-Messrs. Fairbairn and Hodgkinson,
Section C.-Geology and Geography. 201. for experiments on the quantity of mud suspended in waters of rivers - Rev. James Yates, Messrs. De la Beche and G. Rennie.
301. for special researches on subterranean temperature and electricity-R. W. Fox.
501. for researehes on the nature and origin of peat mosses in Ireland - Colonel Coleby.
Section D.-Zoology and Botany. 251. for experimental observations on the growth of plants under glass, and excluded from the air, according to the plans of Mr. Ward-Professor Henslow.
Section E.-Medicine. 501. Renewed grant to the Committees appointed to investigate the subject of the anatomical relations of veins and absorbents.
501. Renewal of a grant to the Committees appointed to investigate the subject of the motions and sounds of the heart.
251. for researches into the chemical constitution of the secreting organs-Drs. Roget, Hodgkin, and Turner, and G. O. Rees, Esq.
251. for investigations on the physiological influence of cold on man and animals in the Arctic Regions--Mr. Richard King.
251. Renewed grant for the investigation of the effects of poisons on the animal economy -Drs. Roupell and Hodgkins.
251. Renewed grant for the investigation of the pathology of the brain and nervous sys. tem-Drs. 0. Beirne, Green, Macdonald; Messrs. R. Carmichael, Adams, and 0. Smith.
251, for the investigation of the physiology of the spinal nerves - Drs. Harpey and Broughton, and E. Cock, Esq.
Section F.- Statistics. 1501, for inquiries into the actual state of schools in England, considered merely as to numerical analysis -- Colonel Sykes, and Messrs. Hallam and Porter.
Section G.-Mechanical Science. 501. for an analysis of the reports of the duty of steam-engipes in Cornwall-Messrs. J. Taylor, G, Rennie, and Cubitt.
In the construction of that part of the wheel which is made of cast-iron, the flanch AB, in the accompanying section, is ehilled and hardened in the mould as it is cast, in the ordinary way of chill hardening cast iron. A small rim or Aanch C D is formed and cast on the inner side, or face of the wheel; thiş rim is intended and used to confine the wrought. iron band which is afterwards to be put around the wheel. The wrought-iron band E F is first welded together in the form of a hoop, and then heated until it has expanded sufficiently to pass over the small rim, of flanch, above referred to, when it is allowed to become cool, and to contract upon the wheel as exhibited in the drawing. This wheel possesses all the advantages of a chilled cast-iron flanch, with a wrought-iron band or tread, and is therefore deemed to be decidedly preferable to the cast iron wheels with wrought-iron flanches, inasmuch as the wrought-iron flanches soon wear out, especially on roads that have frequent curves in them. This wheel is also exempt from one of the greatest objections to the common, chilled cast-iron wheels, in being free from slits in the hub; the small quantity of metal which requires to be chilled in this wheel allows the wheel to be cast solid in the hub, and renders the precautionary operation of
REGENT AMERICAN PATENTS.
399 slitting the hub entirely unnecessary. The valves, through which they can be filled with shape of the band is that of a flat or oblong air, after being sunk and properly secured to square, and hence it may be formed by the a vessel, or any other article intended to be ordinary rolls; and consequently, when worn raised from the bottom to the surface of any out, may be replaced at a small expense. water; or when first distended and afterwards IMPROVEMENT IN RAISING SUNKEN VES
suuk, as herein described. Also their use or SELS, William Atkinson and Ebenezer Hale,
employment for preventing the sinking of New York. We prepare (say the patentees)
vessels or other articles." bags which are impervious to air and water,
GENTLEMAN'S TRAVELLING DRESS HAT, and to them we attach hose, or tubes, pro- Victor De Braine, New York. This is to be perly prepared, and of such length as may be a kind of hat, the crown of which may be necessary for the intended purpose. The
Aattened down, its sides folding in like the most effectual way of preparing such bags
leather of a pair of bellows. A thin metallic and hose, is by coating canvas, or other cloth
hoop is to surround the interior of the crown of sufficient strength, with caoutchouc, or at its upper, and another at its lower part, India-rubber, in a manner now well known. and these are to be connected together by The form of the bags may be varied, but the
hinges, of thin steel, having a joint in the best is that of a globe, as when they are dis
middle, and at its attachment to each hoop. tended by filling them with air, more will be
These hinges fold inwards when the crown is contained under the same bulk than in any
depressed. An intermediate hoop is also emother form.
ployed to increase and regulate the fold. The The bags should be properly strengthened claim is to the particular arrangement deby bands of canvas or cordage, and be sunk scribed. in the water, and firmly attached to the ves- It is unfortunate for the American inventor sel, or other article to be raised, which may
of this hat, that precisely such hats were be done by means of a diving-bell, or in any
made and sold in Paris, at least as far back other way which the particular circumstances
as the year 1833, at which time a friend of of the case may render convenient.
ours bought one in the “Place des Victoires," The hose or tubes leading to each bag in that city. It is rather too late, therefore, must be of sufficient length to extend from it
to re-invent the thing in New York. to the apparatus by which the bag is to be inflated, which may be on board of a moored BRAKE FOR THE WHEELS OF CARS vessel, or otherwise. The distending apparatus AND OTHER CARRIAGES, John R. Smith, will consist of a common condensing or force- Pennsylvania. This patent is taken for a pump, by which the air may be forced through self-acting brake, and the subject is treated the hose or tube so as to distend the bag. as though such a contrivance had not pre
It may be found convenient, and we some- viously entered into the head of any one, So times intend, to fill the bags before sinking confident is the patentee of this, that he them, proper tackle and blocks being at. says “ I do not deem it necessary to describe tached to, or passed under the vessel or other very minutely any particular apparatus, as it article to be raised. The infiating of the must vary according to the construction of bags may in this case be rapidly effected by the car." It will be found, however, that the use of a large, common bellows. We in- the law requires such a minute description, tend, also, to use such bags, so inflated, although it does not compel the patentee to within the hold, cabin, or other parts of ves- abide literally, but only substantially, by it. sels, whieh, when not wanted, will occupy The claim is to “ the principle of acting upon but little space, and when required, may be brakes by the contact and motion of the cars, easily inflated by a pair of bellows adapted to by impeding, or stopping, the propelling that purpose. In all cases, suitable air-tight power.” Now the law does not grant patents valves or cocks should be employed, and for principles, but only for the means by such other appendages as may be found use- which principles are carried into effect, yet ful for coupling the inflating apparatus, or all the information derived from the specifi. otherwise, when securing the air within the cation, on this point, is that the apparatus bag.
by which the cars are coupled is to be con. It is not necessary for us to prescribe the nected by rods, bars, or other contrivances, size or number of the bags to be employed ; passing under the cars, and acting upon nor indeed would it be possible to do so, with- brakes, when brought into contact by the out assuming a particular case, but it is ma- impeding of the locomotives, or from any nifestly a thing of easy calculation, and one other cause. We are also informed as regards which must be made in every individual in- common road carriages, that "
any fixture stance,
on them to produce friction on the wheels, by The patentee's claim is “the employment the tendency carriages have to press forward of bags rendered impervious to air and water, on the horses, when descending hills, I should and furnished with hose or tubes, cock or deem an invasion of my rights." Were such
four companies would throw off 10,101,000 yards of cloth, which, at the average price of 4 d. per yard, is 189,3931. 15s. per annum. The power and hand-looms belonging to Glasgow in 1831 amounted to 47,127, viz. sieam-looms, 15,127 ; hand-looms, in the city and suburbs, 18,537 ; in other towns, for Glasgow manufactures, 13,463. Since that period power-looms have greatly increased.–Athenæum Report of Meeting of British Association.
Steam-Enyines.—There are in Glasgow and its suburbs 310 steam-engines, viz. 176 employed in manufactories; 59-in collieries: 7 in stone quarries; and 68 in steam-boats. Average power of engines, 20:46.100th ; total horses' power, 6406.-Ibid.
Iron. Works in Scotland in June, 1836. Erected in or
Furnaces. Tons: 1767, Carron Company 5
8,000 1786, Clyde......
12,000 1786, Wilsontown
3.000 1790, Muirkirk............ 3
6,000 1790, Cleland
2.500 1790, Devon ............ 3
7 000 1805, Calder..............
15,000 1805, Shorts
3,000 1825, Monkland
8,000) 1828, Gartsherrie..
15,000 1834, Dundyvan
12,000 Total........35 ........ 92,000 Exclusive of the above furnaces, there are eight additional ones in a state of forwariiness-viz. two at Gartsherrie, one at Calder, one al Monkland, two al Somerlie, and two at Govan. These eight furnaces will make about 20.000 tons anually. These works are all in the neighbourhvod of Glasgow excepting tive, and none of them are ibiriy miles riistant from that city:-Ibid.
St. Rollox Chemical Works.-This manufactory, for the manufacliire vf sulphur c acid, chloride of lime, sodil, and soal, the most extensive o' any of the kind in Enrope, covers ten acres of ground, aud within its walls ibere are buildings which cover 27,310 square yards of ground. In the premises there are upwards of 100 furnaces, retoris, or fire. places, and in one apartinent there are platina vessels to the value of nipwards of 8 0001: In this great concern, upwards of 600 tons of cual are consuired weekly.-Ibid.
Erratum.-P. 382, line 11, col. 1, for “ precision of the equinoxes' read “ precession of the equihoxes.
De British and Foreign Patents taken out with éconoiny and despatch ; Specitications, Dia. claimers, and Aineudments, prepared or revised ; Caveats entered; and generally everg Branch of Patent Business promptly transacted.
A complete list of Patents from the earliest period (15 Car. II. 1675,) to the present time may be examined. Fee 2s. 611. ; Clients, gratis. Patent Agency Office,
NOTES AND NOTICES.
l'eally the case, the patent law, instead of “ promoting the useful arts," would become The means of putting a stop to all further improvement in the means of accomplishing any object which had been previously effected in any way.
NOTES AND NOTICES. Railway Perfurmunce Extraordinary. -The loco. inotive steam-rngine George Wa-hington, made for the State of Pennsylvania hy. Williaın Norris, of Philadelphia, was placed on the Columbia and Philadelphia Railroad on Saturday afternoon, the 9th insti On the following morning her powers were tested in ascending the inclined plane neer Poila elphia. This plane is 2800 feet in length, with an ascent in that istance of 196 feet, or at the rate of 369 feet to the mile, or 7 Ivet rise in 100 feet, or 1 foot in 13. The weight of the engine is 14,930 lbs only. The load attached weighed 19:200 ius., including the weight of 24 persons who were on the tender and burtben car. The engine startea inmediately at the base without a running start, and draggód up the said load of 19,200118. the above distance of 2800 fert in tlie spare of 2 minutes and 1 s'cond, or at the rate of 1443 inilos per hour'; pressure on the boiler a fraction under 60 lbs to the square inch. The engine then desceded th: plane with the sine load at various speed, frequently stopping to test the security. The valves being reverseil, or set for going a heal, and when it was desired to stop altogrth -1, the steam was let on verv slowly, which brought ber to a dead stand for a second or two, when she woull Timediately start up the grade. In this way, topping and starting at plrasure, the time occupied iil de scending the 2900 fert was from 12 to 15 ininutes, thus testing the perfect security.f her performance on the plane. She aga'n ascenilete planwith the same load, and took her lace on the rad, the same morn ng, ready for use.- .jmerican Railroad Journal, July 16.
Grand Junction Railway (connecting the Birmingham, and Manchester und Liverpool Railways). - On Wednesday last, ilie 31st ult, the annual meet. ing of the Proprietors of this Railway Company was held. A very able Report of the proceedings of the Cuinpany since their last meeting was read by their Secretary, Mr. Chorley, which gave general satis. faction. The whole of the line is in su forward a state, that it is expected it will be open for travelling early in the summer of 1837. Fourteen of the twenty arches of the splendid viaduct across the Weaver are finished ; it, as well as the viaduct near Birmingham, will be completed next spring. There are several parts of the line ready for the iron rails being laid down. All the carriages are in a forward state, and 25 locomotive-engines will be ready for action in March. The contracts for the rails and chairs were made at a fortunate period, being at 15 per cent. less than they could now be ob. tained for. The income derivable froin the War. rington and Newton Railway, now forming part of the general line, yields a surplus after paying the recent proprietors the sum of 4 per cent. per an. num, as agreed upon to be paid to them until the opening of the whole liye. The proprietors were unanimous in their desire to support the line be. tween Manchester and Crewe, and to assist the inhabitants of the Potteries to form a branch line to the Grand Junction Railway near Newcastle.
Power. Looms in Glasgow have increased greatly of late years-some idea may be obtained of the extent of their use when it is known that in 1831 four houses employed 3040 looms. These looms, on an average, weave 14 yards each per day. Allow. ing each loom to work 300 days in a year, these
LONDON: Published by J. CUNNINGHAM, at
the Mechanics' Magazine Office, No. 6, Peterbo.