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SUBSTITUTE FOR LIGHTHOUSES ON TAE SIIORES OF THE BLACK SEA. 357

pear, the Directors are satisfied that so long as the works proceed with energy proportioned to that expense, the Proprietors will hail the increase as an additional evidence of the approach of their great undertaking to completion.

SUBSTITUTE FOR LIGHTHOUSES ON THE

SHORES OF THE BLACK SEA.

able and experienced builder of locomotiveengines, for the conveyance of passengers and goods, on the railway, by locomotive-power, to whatever extent may be required, at a fixed rate of remuneration ; the Company providing engines of Mr. Bury's specification, and Mr. Bury, on his part, maintaining and keeping them in repair; the contract to be in force for three years from the opening of the railway. The Company have thus assured to themselves the advantage of locomotive-power at a uniform and moderate rate, and under a system of management which it is the interest of the contractor to render mutually beneficial to the Company and himself. The Directors have also contracted for such locomotive-engines as will be first wanted, and for a portion of the carriages.

The Directors in referring to the Bills for railways, connected with the London and Birmingham, which have received the Royal Assent in the present Session, feel themselves called upon to congratulate the Proprietors on the great accession of traffic which they may anticipate from the direct communication opened with the northern and eastern parts of the kingdom, by means of the Midland Counties, North Midland, and Birmingham and Derby Railways, not to mention the connexion between Birmingham and Gloucester, by the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway, nor minor lines, which will all contribute to swell the revenue of the Company. Acting upon the suggestion of the Proprietors at the last General Meeting, and considering it desirable that a connexion should be secured with Leamington and Warwick, the Directors have instructed the Company's engineer to ascertain the levels for a branchline to those places, to join the London and Birmingham Railway near Coventry; and they have also set on foot the usual investiga. tion into the traffic, so as to be prepared to follow up the object with such measures as may, in the opinion of the Proprietors, be deemed expedient.

By the statement of accounts now to be laid before the Proprietors, it will appear that

£. d.
The receipts to the 30th
June were......

1,955,608 0
The disbursements........ 1,492,100 16 8
That the balance in favour

of the Company was, at
that date....

463,507 3 9

Translation of a Note addressed to the

British and other Foreign Ambassadors at Constantinople, in December, 1829. By Colonel MACERONI.

From the bighest antiquity, the Black Sea has had the melancholy celebrity of being the most dangerous of all those which have been, or are at present, frequenred' by navigalors ! Thus it was named by the Romans, “ AXENUS" sive inhospitalis. The nature and the direction of the winds which predominatethe formation of its coasts and shallows of its very ports and its atmospherepresent innumerable dangers, even in summer; in the winter these perils are augmented a hundred-fold! Since the 1st of last November, no less than eleven out of twenty-three vessels, which have sailed between this port and Odessa, have been miserably lost !

By the aid of lighthouses placed on dangerous places, or at the entrances of harbours, the navigation of ships in the vicinity of shores is greatly aided during the darkness of the nighi. But unless such lights he sufficienıly refulgent and elevated, and unless the atmosphere besufficiently clear to permit of the lights being seen at a sufficient distance, it often happens that the unhappy sailor does not discover them in time to avoid the dangers which they indicate, or to enter the harbour of which they announce the entrance !

The dangers of the Black Sea arsgreatly enhanced, and indeed mainly consist, in the dense and sudden fog's which cover its surface. It would be very easy to account for the formation of these fogs by referring to the currents of cold air, which, suddenly rushing from the north-east, meet the warm and moist atmosphere confined within the mounlainous margins of the Black Sea. But this disquisition is not to niy purpose, because no remedy can be offered for an exhibition of the laws of nature depending on geographical features of locality. The fact is, that whenever a nurth wind

8.

And that the amount received on loan, pursuant to the powers given by the last General Meeting, was 443,8001.

It is estimated that the liabilities of the Company, for the next six months, will be sufficiently met by the cash at their disposal, and by loans which have been tendered and agreed for, with the addition of calls. Great as the present scale of expenditure will ap

358

THE ELECTRICAL THEORY OF TIE UNIVERSE.

blows, especially in the autumn and in manner of its combustion, can never al. winter, the Black Sea is covered with an low of its being mistaken for some fire almost impenetrable mist. The course of on a mountain; and the same suddenness a vessel steering from Odessa to Con- strikes more attention than any fixed light stantinople is from north to south. If a whatever. By means of a little parastrong wind prevails, and the mouth of chute, invented by Sir W. Congrere, the the Bosphorus be missed, owing to mist cage containing the refulgent light is or darkness, the rounding of the southern suspended in the air so as to fall a very coast causes the unhappy vessel to find few yards during the period of its comitself almost immediately with a lee- bustion. I have discovered a composition shore a-head, upon which it rarely escapes which gives much more light than any being driven and totally lost!

hitherto used.* It is absolutely necessary that the en- Depôts of such rockets should be trance of the Bosphorus should be re- formed at the necessary points, only to cognised at a very considerable distance, be sent up on the occasion of a storm by because if it is overshot, with a strong night. One may be fired every five or north wind blowing. perdition is sure to ten minutes; and as the number of follow. The amount of lives and of pro-. stormy nights in the year does not average perty annually lost in this way is truly more than thirty, and that not during the appalling! Twenty-seven vessels, and whole night, the consumption of rockets their crews, have thus perished since I would not be an expense of national imhave resided in this capital! It seems portance. When rockets are projected that, when in a gale of wind from the from more points than one, the locality north (always accompanied by a mist) may be indicated by a difference in the if the entrance of the Bosphorus be once colour of the light. Some may give a overshot, there is no further hope. The red, a green, a white, or a blue light. low, shelving southern coasts of the To cover the expense, a small tax or toll Black Sea offer no other refuge, or none might be exacted from all vessels navi. can be discerned.

gating the Bosphorus and the Black Sea ; To the evils above sketched out I pro- which I suppose they, or their respective pose to apply a palliative. Lighthouses Guvernmenis, would gladly submit to, in are admirable constructions; but they are consideration of the great advantage reexpensive, and require time to erect. ceived. I am ready to give directions Moreover, on a low coast it is not easy to and exhibit experiments, to prove the give them that degree of elevation which merits of my plan, quite gratuitously. will ensure their being descried at a

(Signed) MACERONI, sufficient distance. Besides which, the case is urgent, and a remedy is called for at this very moment, while we daily and ELECTRICAL THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE. hourly receive the afflicting accounts of

Sir,-Your correspondent Kinclaven loss of life and property to an enormous labours under a mistake with regard to amount. The expedient which I propose is the

the “Electrical Theory of the Universe.”

It is no where stated to be in accordance use of rockets, projected vertically in the

with the laws of Kepler, nor, indeed, air during a storm, from such points as it

with any other; it would have been quite is essential to designate to the bewildered

premature to have made such a statement, navigator. A 6-pounder rocket, properly made, will rise above 1000 yards per

İf he will examine it more attentively, he

will perceive, that so far from the mo. pendicularly in the air. At that elevation the head or pot is made to burst, and

mentum of the planets being extinguished, about half a pound of combustible con

they are supposed to be accelerated, be.

cause it is assumed that they move in position, of a must refulgent brightness, spiral orbits, which (the orbits being is detached from the rocket, and burns

elliptic) is the same in effect as if they suspended in the air for about one mi. nule. This light is far more intense than

were rolled down an undulatory inclined any of the lamps of the best lighthouses;

plane. This assumption derives support and its very superior elevation (being

• His Excellency General Count Guilleminot, thirty times higher) causes it to be per- the French Ambassador here, has seen me set fire ceived at a much greater distance. More. to and consume a cypress tree with one of my comTHE ELECTRICAL THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE.

pound naval rockets, at 1000 yards distance, horiover, its sudden appearance, and the

zontal range.

359 from several considerations, as well as ELECTRICAL THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE. from the established fact of the moon's URSA MAJOR'S REPLY TO) KINCLAVEN. secular acceleration.

Kinclaven says,

Sir,-Kinclaven seems to think that hundreds of reasons might be urged discretion is the better part of valour. against the electrical theory. This was He was requested to explain the paradox to be expected; it is in the nature of of the tides, but seeing that it might be things that it should be so. The plainest rather difficult to maintain the position truths in science have been at one time which it would be necessary to take, he or other opposed by hundreds of ob- shifts his position, and, in answer to jectors: indeed, some weighty objections Ursa Major, opens an attack upon a have been urged against the theory of point which Ursa Major has no inclinauniversal gravitation, which, it appears, tion to defend. However, I suppose we have not yet been answered in a manner shall be enabled to dispense with Kino to satisfy the objectors. The whole doc. claven's demonstration, as I perceive trine may he said to rest upon the follow- another correspondent has taken the field ing' propositions :- 1st. That a body in armed with a niachior, by the help of ñotion will continue to move úniformly which he proposes to give " ocular deforward in right line, if not disturbed by monstration," that the double diurnat tide the action of some external cause. 2nd. is in perfect accordance with the theory That there is no external resistance, that of universal gravitation. I congratulate is, that the planets move in vacuo.

3rd. Kinclaven

upon

tbe

very efficient assistThat by the sun's attraction (acting ance that he is likely to receive from this against the momentum), the planet is held able auxiliary with his new theory of the or drawn back, and retained in her orbit. tides, which is about 200 years old. Bem Now will this bear a close examination, före Mr. Clarke commences operation that the momentum of a body, a quantity with the machine, it might be worth his s'abject to diminution and utter extinc- while to consider more attentively the tion, shall remain for ever the same with nature of the demonstrations that are å constant unalterable force acting against likely to result from its aetiori. What it; by the momentum or diminishable would the machine demonstrate? Siinquantity the moving body continually ply this ; that one tide is an effect of endeavours to fly off from the centre, gravitation, and the other an effect not and by the action of gravity, an undimin- of gravitation, but of motion, produced ishable quantity, the moving body is by the earth revolving upon an eccentric continually drawn back towards the cen- axis. The absurdities to which this suptre, and yet the momentum, with a con position would lead, are, if possible, stant force acting against it, remains, and worse than those that are intended to be is to remain undiminished to the end of removed. Mr. Clarke places the comtime. This is past all human comprehen- mon centre of gravity of the earth and sion, Sir Isaac Newton seems to have moon somewhere about 200 miles beneuth felt the force of this objection, and a the surface of the former, whilst Dr. few others, which were urged during his Wilkinson finds that it is 2000 miles lifetime; in answer to which he put forth above ihe surface; but I suppose a thouthe following definition :-“ Aitraction sand miles or two one way or other makes is an indefinite principle, not implying a

very little difference. particular manner nor physical cause of I beg to thank Kinclaven for his adaction, but only a tendency of approach- vice, with regard to Professor Airy's work, ing ; whether it proceed from any ex- and to assure him that I am suffwciently ternal cause, or be inherent in bodies read in mathematical science to discern themselves, excluding the idea of im. that where there are half a dozen different pulse from its consideration."

deinonstrations contradicting each other, Whoever allows himself to refleet upon

they cannot be all true. I have subthe above definition, will probably be joined an extract from Dr. Wilkinson, come cautious and circumspect, and less

which appears to me to set the matter in dogmatical in his manner of asserting dispute in a fair point of view. the unerring laws of universal gravita

I remain, Sir, yours, &c. tion."

URSA MAJOR. I remain, Sir, yours obediently,

** Kepfer, wło first suggested the influence T. S. MACKINTOSH. of a gravitating principle in nature, with

360

THE ELECTRICAL THEORY OF THE UNIVERSK.

respect to the cause of the tides, entertained tity of matter compensating for its greater an extravagant supposition of the earth be- distance, produces an effect about one-third ing a living animal, and the flux and reflux of that of the moon; so that when combined, of the sea the results of the action of respi- as in new moon, their united effects would ration. Galileo supposed tides to be pro- under such circumstances produce an eleva. duced by the different velocities of the annual tion of eight feet. When the moon is in her and diurnal motions of the earth; if so, the quadratures, i. e. when she appears to us as tides should occur at the same periods, with- a half moon, then they counteract each out variation in their rise; but they are obe other, and the tide will be proportionate to served to move through the twenty-four hours, the difference, viz. by the above supposition, and vary daily in their elevation. The illus. four feet, constituting what is denominated trious Newton, in his Principia, has stated Neap Tides. his opinion that there is an attractive power “ These admeasurements are only assumed existing between all bodies in proportion to for the purpose of illustration. It is well their quantity of matter, and the inverse known that at the same period there is a duplicate ratio of their distance, and hence spring tide at new moon, at the Nadir, as has reduced to geometrical demonstration the well as at the Zenith, part of the earth; varied influence of the moon as she moves in this presents the greatest difficulty to the her orbit, how the tides are governed by her Newtonian theory. If, according to the nearest and most remote distance from the Newtonian hypothesis, an elevation of those earth, the changes observed from the dif- waters, which are in a direct line with the ferent inclinations of her orbit to the ecliptic, moon at or near her meridian, is to be reand from the irregular motion of her nodes. ferred to the cause afore mentioned, the same Whether such a force or power be hypotheti- hypothesis is extended to account for the tides cal or real, I presume that the geometrical on the opposite side of the globe, to the demonstration will not be affected. If gra- earth itself being attracted from the waters vitation be not admitted as a principle compe- situated at the Nadir. If we consider the tent to explain the phenomena, we must sub- elevation of the waters on each side of the stitute some other agent capable of producing globe to be eight feet, it is evident that the all the effects observed.

earth must, by the attractive power of the Supposing the mean distance of the luminaries, have been removed sixteen feet. moon from the earth to be sixty times the However incomprehensible this theory is, the radius of the earth, and if the law of gravi. difficulties are increased by the application of tation be assumed, according to Newton, as the same principle to the explanation of spring diminishing as the square of the distance in- tides at full moon, when the earth is placed creases, it will be evident that sixty multi- exactly in a line between the two luminaries, plied by sixty, being equal to 3600, will ex- “ In the year 1779, I published an · Anapress this proportion, viz. that 3600 lbs. on lysis of a Course of Lecture.' I therein ate the surface of the earth, removed to the tempted to explain the phenomena of the moon's surface, would only weigh one pound. tides, on the principle of the motion of the As the waters of the ocean are the only part earth round the centre of gravity of the earth of our planet susceptible of any change from

and moon.

A similar explanation had been such an influence, the tendency of the waters surmised by the learned Dr. Wallis in 1666. of the ocean towards the centre of the earth I am not aware that he attempted any dewill be in the same proportion diminished. monstrations of such an opinion. In the difLet us suppose the gravitating powers of the ferent courses of lectures I have delivered waters of the ocean, when under the direct during a period of near thirty years, when influence of the moon, to be diminished in upon the subject connected with the tides, I this proportion, viz. one-sixteen hundredth have invariably attributed them to the result part. From the law of pressure, with re. of this motion. The earth does not move in spect to liquids, the action is equal in every a regular elliptic orbit round the sun, but direction, and which action is attributed by describes a series of volutes round the centre Newton to the power of gravitation being of gravity between the earth and the moon. uniform; if this power be disturbed in any As the density of the moon is to the density part, there will be a determination of water of the earth as 11 to 9, which has been deto that part, till the equilibrium be restored ; duced from calculations of the space the and the elevation of waters in that part will moon falls below the tangent of her orbit in constitute the tide. Let us suppose the mean a given time; as the diameter of the moon is depth of the ocean four miles, thus one-six- 2161 miles, therefore is in proportion to the teen hundredth part of this being elevated mass of earth as 1 to 49.22, from these data will be about six feet. Newton does not con. it is evident that the distance of the moon's fine the diminution of gravitation in the centre from the common centre of gravity of water of the ocean merely to the influence of the earth and moon is as 39.788 to 1, or that luminary ; be supposes a co-operation of 5880 miles from the centre of the earth. the sun, which he concludes, from its quan. “ It will hence appear that the earth has

STEAM-BOILER EXPLOSIONS.

361 a triplicate motion-one round her axis, con- mon with the moon round the centre of grastituting day and night; one round the sun, vity." constituting the year; and a motion in com

STEAN-BOILER EXPLOSIONS.

A

B

А

Sir, I have read with some interest the American experiments on steamboiler explosions, concluded in your last month's Number. There yet remains much to be done on the subject, and I am surprised that a matter of such im. mense importance to this country

should

have so long remained unsifted by competent persons.

After the last explosion at Glasgow, a degree of anxiety and excitement prevailed as to the cause, and a reward of 1001., and various smaller prizes, were offered by the magistrates at Glasgow for

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