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WEBSTER'S OTAPHONE, OR INVENTION FOR ASSISTING THE HEARING. 347 and well-coloured drawings and prints on to consider, whether the assistance this botany and zoology.

practice afforded, might not be obtained «« The best of our own and foreign manu

by means less troublesome and unsightly. factured articles should also find a place in

With this view, the instrument he has the Institution, but their Lordships conceive

termed av utaphone was first constructed; that with respect to the former, it will not be necessary to incur any considerable expense,

and its efficiency having exceeded his as the interest wbich our manufacturers are

expectations, and led to the discovery of likely to feel in the progress of a school

further benefits resulting from its use, be which promises to have important influence

hopes that a narration of the principles on their pursuits, will induce them to contri- on which it acts, will induce those who bute specimens of their works.

are subject to the depressing sensation of By these combined means, with the aid partial deafness, to avail themselves of it. of an annual exhibition, and probably of The shape of the outward ear genepremiums and nominal rewards to successful

rally escapes observation, but if once the scholars, their Lordships are of opinion that

attention is directed to it, it will be found the experiment will have sufficient trial, and that the ultimate results upon art may safely

to vary in a greater degree than any be left to the operation of those influences

other organ; and as it is the outwork to which have hitherto governed the progress of

the sense of hearing, the recipient from all kinds of enterprise in this country.

which all the subsequent changes sound I am directed, therefore, in continuance,

undergoes, proceeds, its figure becomes to request that you will move the Lords Com- a matter of important consideration, and missioners of his Majesty's Treasury to apply it is also deserving of remark, whether it to Parliament for the use of 15001. as a grant always presented the same external apfor a school of design; and I am also to ex- pearance. press their Lordships' hope that apartments

On inspection of that splendid collecmay be assigned them in some public build

tion of statuary, forming the gallery of ing in which the school may be conducted.

Egyptian antiquities in the British Mu. (Signed) “DENIS LE MARCRANT."

seum, it will be seen that, in almost

every specimen, the ear is represented to Copy Treasury Minute, dated July 15. bave borne, in that remote age, a larger My Lords concur in opinion upon this

proportion to the head than at present; subject with the Lords of the Committee of while in the Grecian and Roman sculpPrivy Council for Trade, and will submit an ture, produced, probably, at an interval estimate for the grant of 15001. on this ąc- of 1000 years, it in no instance essentially count to the House of Commons.

differs from the most elegant proportions Let an estimate be prepared and laid upon amongst ourselves, except in its greater the table of the House of Commons accord

proininence. The angle formed by the ingly.

helix, or outer margin of the ear, and Acquaint Mr. Hume, for the information of the Lords of the Committee of Privy

the temporal bone, varies in these statues Council for Trade with the directions given;

from twenty to thirty degrees; and in and state that my Lords will hereafter have

the female heads, where it is more deli, under their consideration that part of the re

cately constructed, a similar projection commendation which relates to the propriety

is observable. of providing accommodation for the proposed

This difference in its development is school in some public building, upon which the more important, if we consider the my Lords can offer no opinion at present. very peculiar nature of its structure. Be

ing formed of a substance harder than

flesh, which would absorb the sound, and WEBSTER'S OTAPHONE ; OR, PATENT IN

softer than bone, from which it would VENTION FOR ASSISTING THE HEAR

reverberate; having also such irregulari

ties on its surface as collect the vibrations The inventor was first led to a consi- of air in every direction, and convey

them deration of this subject by a sensible to one general receptacle, it becomes ap. diminution of the powers of hearing in parent that any diminution of its natural himself; and observing the general pre- expansion must be greatly prejudicial to valence of this calamity, and also a mode the purpose for which it seems so wonderas generally adopted, of applying the fully constructed; a deduction further hollow of the hand to the back of the confirmed by the fact, that those who posear to increase the sound, he was iuduced sess the most perfect and shell-like form

ING,

66

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348 WEBSTER'S OTAPHONE, OR INVENTION POR ASSISTING THE PEARING. of ear, have the sense of hearing in the and being self supported, they occasion greatest perfection.

no inconvenience to the wearer. By thus This original shape is still preserved by concentrating all the powers that nature eastern nations; but the cliina te we in- has provided, a considerable addition to habit requiring some covering for the the ordinary force of sound is obtained; head, both by day and night, has greatly dissipating dulness of hearing, when not tended to alter its form, and certain no- arising from internal injury, and enabling tions of taste have induced parents to those in whom this sense is perfect, to press it to the head as closely as possible. preserve the same advantage at a much

This organ seems also to have suffered greater distance. They will, therefore, in another respect, having no longer any be found particularly useful in places of voluntary power of motion ; a faculty public worship, courts of law, the Houses possessed by the Arabs and other nation's of Parliament, theatres, and wherever ihe approaching nearest to the primitive state ordinary powers are insufficient; and by of existence, but which long civilisation bringing the focus of sound into a more has rendered of less importance to us, direct line with the face, the expression and time has nearly obliterated. This of the speaker is better preserved than by adaptation of the ears to the direction the unassisted ear. whence sounds proceed, must greatly in- It is, however, on the advantages they crease our auditory perception, and ac- permanently confer, when their use is counts for the wonderful acuteness of discontinued, or very rarely resurted to, hearing possessed by savages. Instances that the inventor places his greatest reof its existence occasionally occur among liance for their general adoption. Though ourselves; a most eminent anatomist hav. obtuseness of hearing a rises froin many ing favoured the inventor with references causes, one of the most frequent is the to two individuals, who, within the last insufficient quantity of sound the external twelve months, have consulted him, hav- ear collects. When this is the case, the

a voluntary power over the muscles membrane of the tympanum, or drum of of the external ear;" and every practi- the ear, and the internal organs which tioner of long standing must have wit. depend on its vibration for their active nessed similar cases.

employment, become relaxed, and conSir Charles Bell, in the following ex- tract the same degree of feebleness as tract from his work on the Anatomy would attach to'any other part deprived and Physiology of the Human Body," of its natural action; and this inertness, thus speaks of il:" In most men the or stagnation of their powers, renders motion of the ear is lost, but some still them unable to surmount those occasional retain it; and this is very remarkable,- injurious that blows, colds, fever, &c. that when the more internal mechanism create ; and thus, from the most common of the ear is injured, and ceases to accidents, a permanent injury to the strengthen the sound before it

conveys it

sense is induced, which a more active inwards to the lahyrinth, the external state of the parls would frequently reear resumes the office to which it was

Ear-trumpets, which are geneoriginally adapted, and by a degree of rally employed to remedy this defect, motion and erection assists the hearing.” often convey a sound painfully acute;

Having thus established both an altera- and iustead of bringing this organ, by tion in the form, and a loss of power in gentle changes, to a degree of tension to the use of this important organ, it seemed which it might become equal, they comdesirable that the projected instrument mence with a force, derived from metallic should not only accomplish the occasional surfaces, which impairs its elasticity, and service at first contemplated, but also requires the continuance of the same, or attempt some remedy to counteract these

a greater power, to preserve any sensation permanent disadvantages. For this dou- whatever. ble purpose the otaphones are now con- The ear therefore seems to require a structed. They are formed from a correct degree of exercise proportioned to its model of the back of the ear, and by capacity, but not exceeding it; and the fitting all the irregularities of that very prevalence of defective hearing leads to uneven and elastic surface, gently press The presumption, that a greater nicety is forward the parts so as to produce a inore requisite to attain this end, than any perfect orbit, and fuller recipient of sound; artificial means hitherto discovered have

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afforded. The otaphones are based upon the principle, of proportioning their assistance within ihe liinits apparently assigned by nature. The alteration they occasion when worn, is but a restoration of the ear to its original and most useful shape; and for all their subsequent ad.. vaniages, they depend on that peculiar fabric before described, and which is su hiappily adapted to the purpose, that no other substance can supply its place. They will, therefore, be found equal to the perfect restoration of the hearing, if any increase of sound, however trifing, is perceptible on their first application, and generally the use for an hour each morning, for a short time, is sufficient; hut if the impediment has been of long continuance, and no advantage on trial is experienced, their employment, withiout previous preparation, will not be recommended.

In conclusion, it is to be remarked, tbat as the defect these instruments profess to remedy, arises from insufficient action, and not from over exertion, they are applicable at every period of life; while those whose hearing is unimpaired, but desire to hear as well at a greater distance, will at once perceive the advantages they are capable of affording, by the louder sound of their own voices.

W. 102, New Bond-street,

and into which any such railway is intended to he made, varied, extended, or enlarged, and if an alteration in any existing tolls, rates, or duties, is intended to be proposed, the intention of proposing such alteration be expressed therein. But in case any such Bill shall be for the purpose only of altering any existing tolls, rates, or duties, or of continuing or amending any former Act, solely for the purpose of tolls, it shall not be necessary to insert in such notices the names of the several parishes and townships.

3. That such notices be inserted three times in the months of August, September, October, and November of this year, or either of them, in some one and the same newspaper of every county in or through which any such railway is intended to be made, or in which such railway, already authorised to be made, is intended to be varied, extended, or enlarged, or if there is no such paper printed therein respectively, then in the newspaper of some county adjoining thereto.

4. That a map or plan and section of the whole of such intended railway, and also of any intended variation, extension, or enlargement of any railway authorised to be made, upon a scale of not less than four inches to a mile, shall be deposited for public inspection at the office of the Clerk of the Peace of every county, riding, or division, in or through which such railway, or such variation, extension, or enlargement, is intended to be made, on or before the 30th day of November next, which map or plan shall describe the line of such intended rail. way, or of such intended variation, extension, or enlargement, and the lands in or through which the same is intended to be made, to. gether with a book of reference, containing a list of the names of the owners or reputed owners, lessees or reputed lessees and occupiers of such lands respectively; and where such railway or such variation, extension, or enlargement, is intended to pass through any buildings, yards, or court-yards, or land within the curtilage of any building, or through any ground cultivated as gardens, an additional plan of such buildings, yards, land and ground, and of the said railway, shall be laid down upon a scale of not less than a quarter of an inch to every 100 feet.

5. That such section shall be drawn to the same horizontal scale as the plan, and to a vertical scale of not less than one inch to every 100 feet, and shall show the surface of the ground in the line of railway marked on the plan, and shall also have marked on it a line showing the railway line when finished (which line shall correspond with the upper surface of the rails), and a datum horizontal line, which datum line shall be the same tbroughout the whole length of the railway, and shall be referred to some fixed point

NEW RESOLUTIONS ON RAILWAY BILLS.

The House of Lords having on Wednesday last adopted these resolutions as sent up from the House of Commons, without amendment or alteration, we lose no time in publishing the following authentic copy of them. They will be found of a very stringent and, on the whole, salutary uature: Amended Standing Orders for next Session.

1. That when any application is intended to be made to the House for leave to bring in a Bill for making any railway, or for varying, extending, or enlarging any railway already authorised to be made, or for continuing or amending any Act passed for any of those purposes, or for alteration of the existing tolls, rates, or duties upon any such railway, notices of such intended application be given.

2. That such notices (except as hereinafter mentioned) do contain the names of the parishes and townships from, in, through,

350

NEW RESOLUTIONS ON RAILWAY BILLS.

stated on the section. That a vertical mea- sent to their usual place of abode in the sure from such datum line to the line of the United Kingdom, or, in their absence, to railway shall be marked in feet and inches at their agents respectively, and to the occupiers each change of the gradient or inclination, of the lands through which any such railway and that the proportion or rate of inclination is intended to be made, varied, extended or between each such change shall also be enlarged, and that such applications shall be marked. That the height of the railway made on or before the 31st day of December over or under the surface of the ground shall next, and that separate lists be made of the be marked in figures at least twice in every names of such owners, lessees, and occupiers, mile, and also at every crossing of a turnpike. distinguishing which of them upon such ap road, and public carriage road, navigable plication have assented to, or dissented from, river, canal, or railway, or junction with a such intended railway, or such variation, exrailway, and that it shall be stated on the tension, or enlargement, or are neuter in resection whether any and what alteration in spect thereof. the present level of such turnpike-road, car- 10. That before any petition shall be preriage-road, river, canal, or railway, is in- sented to the House for making any railway, tended to be made. That where tunnelling or for varying, extending, or enlarging any or arching is intended, the same shall be such railway already made, the lists menmarked both on the plan and the section. tioned in the preceding resolution, and an

6. That the clerks of the peace, or their estimate of the expense, signed by the person respective deputies, do make a memorial in making the same, and a copy of the subscripwriting upon the map or plan, section and tion contract after mentioned, be deposited book of reference so deposited with them, in the Private Bill-office of this House, and denoting the time at which the same were de- that the receipt thereof be acknowledged acposited in their respective offices, and do at cordingly by one of the clerks of the said all seasonable hours of the day permit any office upon such petition. person to view and examine the same, and 11. That before any petition is presented to make copies or extracts therefrom, such to the House for a Bill for making any railperson paying for the same the sum of ls. for way, a subscription to the amount of oneevery such inspection, and the further sum of half at least of the estimated expense shall Is. for every hour during which inspection be entered into by persons under a contract, shall continue after the first bour.

binding themselves, their heirs, executors, 7. That within one calendar month from administrators, or assigns, for the payment the time when the map or plan and section of the money so subscribed. shall have been deposited with the clerk of 12. That no such Bill shall be reported to the peace, a copy of so much of the said the House until it has been proved to the map or plan and section as relates to each satisfaction of the Committee, that threeparish, through which any railway is in- fourths at least of the proposed capital of tended to be made, varied, extended, or en- the Company has been subscribed under a larged, together with a book of reference like contract. thereto, shall be deposited with the parish 13. That no such Bill shall be reported to clerk of each such parish in England, the the House unless provision be made: 1. That schoolmaster of each such parish in Scotland, no such Company shall be authorised to raise, and the postmaster of the post-town in or by loan or mortgage, a larger sum than onenearest to such parish in Ireland, for the third of their capital, and that, until 50 per inspection of all persons concerned, at all cent. on the whole of the capital shall have reasonable hours of the day, such person been paid up, it shall not be in the power of paying for each inspection the sum of ls. the Company to raise any money by loan or

8. That within one calendar month from mortgage. 2. That, where the level of any the time when the map or plan and section road shall be altered in making any railway, shall have been deposited with the clerk of the ascent of any turnpike-road shall not be the peace, a copy of the said map or plan, more than one foot in thirty feet; and of any section and book of reference, shall be de- other public carriage road not more than one posited in the Private Bill-office of this foot in twenty feet; and that a good and House, and that a memorial in writing of sufficient fence, of four feet high at the least, the receipt thereof be indorsed by one of the shall be made on each side of every bridge clerks of the said office upon such map or which shall be erected. 3. That no railway, plan, section and book of reference.

whereon carriages are propelled by steam, 9. That before any application is made to shall be made across any turnpike-road or the House for a Bill for making any railway, other highway on the level, unless the Com. or for varying, extending, or enlarging any mittee on the Bill report that such a restricrailway already made, previous application tion ought not to be enforced, with the in writing be made to the owners or reputed reasons and facts upon which their opinion is owners, lessees or reputed lessees, by being founded.

NEW RESOLUTIONS ON RAILWAY BILL8.

351

Amended Standing Orders for subsequent

Sessions. No. 1 and 2 same as No. 1 and 2 for next Session.

3. That such notices be inserted twice in the month of February, and twice in the month of March, of the year immediately preceding that in which such application is intended to be made, in some one and the same newspaper of every county, in or through which any such railway is intended to be made, or in which such railway, already authorised to be made, is intended to be varied, extended, or enlarged, or if there is no such paper printed therein respectively, then in the newspaper of some county adjoining thereto. But in case any such Bill shall be for the purpose only of altering any existing tolls, rates, or duties, or of continuing or amending any former Act, such notices shall be inserted three times in the months of August, September, October, and November, or either of them, immediately preceding the Session of Parliament in which such application is intended to be made, in some one and the same newspaper of every county in or through which any such railway is authorised to be made; or if there is no such paper printed therein, then in the newspaper of some county adjoining thereto.

4. Same as No. 4 for next Session, except that the plan must be deposited “ on or before the 1st day of March, in the year immediately preceding that in which such application is intended to be made."

5. Same as No. 5 for next Session.

6. That parties desiring to make any alteration in the line of any railway, the plans for which shall have been deposited, and the notices for which shall have been given as before-mentioned, shall be permitted so to do, provided no one deviation shall exceed one mile in length, and provided a plan and sec. tion of such alteration, together with a book uf reference thereto, shall be deposited with the clerk of the peace, and a plan and section so far as relates to each parish, together with a book of reference thereto, with the parish clerks of the several parishes in which such alteration is intended to be made, on or before the 30th day of November, in the year immediately preceding that in which such application is intended to be made, and that the intention to make such alteration shall be advertised in manner before directed, twice in the month of September, twice in the month of October, and twice in the month of November, and that personal application shall be made to the owners or reputed owners, lessees or reputed lessees, or in their absence from the United Kingdom to their agents respectively, and to the occupiers of lands through which any such alteration is proposed to be made.

7. That parties desiring to make an appli

cation for a Bill to vary, extend or enlarge, any line of railway, for making which an Act of Parliament shall have been passed, shall be permitted so to do, provided that no one deviation shall exceed one mile in length, and provided a plan and section of such variation, extension, or enlargement, together with a book of reference thereto, shall be deposited with the clerk of the peace; and a plan and section, so far as relates to each parish, together with a book of reference thereto, with the parish clerks of the several parishes in which such variation, extension, or enlargement, is intended to be made, on or before the 30th day of November, in the year immediately preceding that in which such application is intended to be made, and that the intention to make the application for such variation, extension, or enlargement, shall be advertised in manner next before directed, in September, October, and November; and that personal application shall be made to the owners or reputed owners, lessees or reputed lessees, or, in their absence from the United Kingdom, to their agents respectively, and to the occupiers of the lands through which any such variation, extension, or en. largement, is proposed to be made.

8. That parties desiring to renew (in the then next ensuing Session) any application to Parliament in respect of any railway, the plans for which shall have been deposited, and the notices for which shall have been given, as before directed, shall be permitted so to do, provided that no one deviation shall exceed one mile in length, and provided a plan and section of such railway, together with a book of reference thereto, shall be deposited with the clerk of the peace; and a plan and section, so far as relates to each parish, together with a book of reference thereto, with the parish clerks of the several parishes through which such railway is proposed to be made, on or before the 30th day of November, in the year immediately preceding that in which such application is intended to be made, and that the intention to make such application shall be advertised in manner next before directed, in September, October, and November; and that personal application shall be made to the owners or reputed owners, lessees or reputed lessees, or, in their absence from the United Kingdom, to their agents respectively, and to the occupiers of the lands through which any such railway is proposed to be made.

Nos. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, same as Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13, of standing orders for next Session.

13. That before any petition shall be presented to the House for making any railway, or for varying, extending, or enlarging any such railway already made, the lists mentioned in the preceding Resolution, and an estimate of the expense, signed by the person

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