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out the cold more perfectly. The sensation of a current of air is felt going in any open steam-carriage; the sensation of the current of air is felt when you put your hand into the open air beyond the line of the carriage that is conveying you. This is the whole of my experience of tunnels. I did not hear whether any other passengers suffered severe illness; several complained of the cold for a few minutes.
Re-examined by Mr. Waddington.
My brother was with me upon this occasion; he felt very cold, as I did, but it did not produce catarrh. It was about this time last year, on an intensely hot day.
DEFEAT OF THE STEAM-CARRIAGES'
We are glad to find that this Bill-to the iniquitous partiality of which we were the first to draw the attention of the public (see Mech. Mag. p. 199)-has, after passing the Commons, been thrown out by the Lords. On its being presented to the Upper House, it was, on the motion of the Marquis of Salisbury (who has done himself much honour by his spirited conduct in the matter) referred to a Select Committee, who, after a full investigation into the merits of the case, made the following Report:
Report from the Lords' Committee appointed to consider the Bill entitled "An Act to Repeal such portions of all acts as impose prohibitory Tolls on Steam-Carriages, and to substitute other Tolls on an equitable footing with Horse Carriages;" and to report to the House.
Ordered to report,
That the Committee have proceeded to the examination of witnesses on the Bill referred to them, and have to report to the house, that the evidence of the principal engineers who have turned their attention to the construction of carriages propelled by steam upon the highways proves that very considerable progress has been made towards their perfection, and that they can travel with great rapidity.
The noise and smoke attendant upon their use have been very materially diminished; but it has been shown in evidence that they still have the effect of terrifying horses, and that accidents have occurred in consequence.
Much conflicting evidence has been tendered to the Committee as to the safest shape and the proper limitation of the size of vessels for generating steam to be used in these carriages. All the witnesses, however, agree that in whatever shape the boilers may be made, their size should be such as would in
case of explosion not endanger the safety of the public; and the Committee do not feel themselves at present competent to come to such a conclusion on these two important points as would enable them to recommend the necessary enactments, if it was found expedient to proceed further with the Bill.
No adequate means have yet been provided effectually to guard against the emission of sparks from the chimneys of the engines which would guard effectually against the danger arising from them, although, with proper care in the selection and preparation of fuel, it does not appear that the danger is very imminent.
It also appears by the evidence of some of the witnesses examined, that although the management of the carriages is by no means difficult when under the superintendence of an experienced conductor, yet that they require much greater skill than is necessary in the management of locomotive-engines upon railways and to find persons properly qualified might be a matter of considerable difficulty.
It is essential that the weight and size of the carriages to be employed should be regulated, so as to prevent their being made of that weight and size which might prove destructive of the roads and a serious nuisance to the public.
It appears also that the tolls intended to be imposed by the Bill are calculated upon an erroneous view of the powers of a horse. The rate of toll is calculated upon the supposition that each horse is able to draw a ton weight; whereas it is shown that a horse cannot, at a rapid pace, upon ordinary roads, draw more than half that weight.
The Committee entertain serious objections to the Bill referred to them; and they are not of opinion that these objections are counterbalanced by the prospect of any public advantage. The evidence, on the contrary, proves that the proposed mode of conveyance can only be applied to passengers; and it appears that some experienced engineers, after a careful examination of the expenses attendant upon it, have been induced to abandon all hopes of its success as a profitable undertaking.
It is probable, therefore, that any encouragement on the part of the Legislature would only give rise to wild speculations, ruinous to those engaging in them, and to experiments dangerous to the public. The Committee, therefore, recommend that this Bill should not at present be proceeded with; at the same time, they have no doubt that the further imposition of prohibitory tolls in local acts is not a desirable mode of legislating upon such a subject.
And the Committee have directed the evidence taken before them to be reported to the House, together with the index thereto.
NOTES AND NOTICES.
NOTES AND NOTICES.
The new Statue of George III.-Mr. Cotes Wyatt's statue of George III. was on Wednesday (Aug. 3) erected in Pall Mall East, on the site chosen by the Commissioners, and opposed by Messrs. Ransom and Co., the bankers, opposite whose house it now stands. Sir F. Trench entered at some length into a detail of the circumstances connected with the statue. He stated that the Committee had guaranteed the artist 4,000, although their subscriptions, with interest, amounted to no more than 3,1007. Chantry received 8,000l. for the sta tue of Sir T. Monro, a work of the same size; the equestrian statue of George IV. cost 9,000l.; the statue of the Duke of York on his column, 7,000l. ; the equestrian statue at the end of the Long Walk at Windsor, 30,000l.; and the bronze figure of Achilles in Hyde Park about the same sum.
Consumption of Opium in China.-" It is a curious circumstance," says the Quarterly Review, "that we grow the poppy in our Indian territories to poison the people of China, in return for a wholesome beverage which they prepare, almost exclusively, for us." From the following statement made by Mr. Davis, late Chief Superintendent at Canton, it appears that the money laid out by the Chinese on their favourite drug far exceeds what they receive for their tea :
The Chinese smuggle all this opium, and pay the difference between the price of it and that of the tea they export in silver.
New Locomotive-Power.--Mr. Mullins, M.P. for Kerry, has made a very important discovery in the scientific world, that of applying galvanism, instead of steam, for propelling vessels and carriages. He is now building a carriage upon his principle, and several of the first engineers, who have seen it, say there is every prospect of success, and that it will supersede steam.-Limerick Star. The Dublin Evening Post claims the merit of this invention for the Rev. J. W. M'Gawley, who, it will be remembered, brought forward something of this kind at the meeting of the British Association of Science in Dublin last August.
Nettles.-In Scotland I have eaten nettles, I have slept in nettle sheets, and I have dined off a nettle table-cloth. The young and tender nettle is an excellent pot-herb, and the stalks of the old nettle are as good as flax for making cloth. I have heard my mother say that she thought nettle-cloth more durable than any other species of linen.Campbell in the New Monthly.
On Monday se'nnight, Mr. Pocock, of Bristol, passed through the town of Chippenham in a carriage drawn by two air-kites, occasionally travelling at the rate of 25 miles per hour. In the vicinity of the town he was detained some time in consequence of the web getting entangled in a tree. -Salisbury Herald.
M. Gambart, the astronomer, Director of the Marseilles Observatory, and a correspondent of the Institute, died a few days ago at Paris. This gentleman is well known in the scientific world for his frequent discoveries of comets.
Aeronautic Observations.-Since Mr. Green's first attempt at ballooning he has travelled through the
air above 5000 miles, having made 218 ascents, and has had a bird's-eye view of every part of England. On the last occasion, when Lord Clanricarde went with him, he observed that surveyors and architects could with greater facility take plans of noblemen's estates by ascending in a balloon, as they could have a bird's-eye view of every locality, and if they only once adopted that method they would never relinquish it. Since the suggestion an artist named Burton called on Mr. Green to obtain him the plan of a balloon constructed so as to act in the above way, it being connected to the car by a swivel. The inventor proposes to build a waggon, for the purpose of fastening a balloon to it, which, when filled with gas, which can be done in various parts of the country at gas company's gasometers, may be conveyed to any place a surveyor requires, where, on a calm day, he can take plans, carrying with him the proper instruments. The balloon will then be fastened by ropes to the spot most favourable for observation, and raised to an elevation of 300 or 400 feet, as necessary. In this way a bird's-eye view can be taken of any town or city. Mr. Green is willing at any time that his balloon, by way of experiment, may be made use of in that way.Globe.
"A patent has been granted to a Mr. C. P. Devaux, of Fenchurch-street, for a new process of smelting iron ore, &c. I shall be much obliged to any of your correspondents who will inform me where this new process has been tried, and what are the results? You will not, I trust, refuse a conspicuous place in your valuable journal to these inquiries, in which so many of your friends in the North are interested.-PIG-IRON, July 7, 1836."
Brick-Making Machines."Sir, observing in your Magazine a description of a brick-making machine invented by Mr. Heaton, of Birmingham, I take the liberty of informing you that I have the plans of a machine for a similar purpose, with which I propose to make 100 bricks per minute. Should any one be desirous of obtaining further particulars, a note addressed to J. C., 2, Lower Brook street, Bond street, will be attended to by yours obediently, A LOVER OF MECHANICS."
Mr. Dickson's reply to the Cornish Engineers in our next; also, rejoinder by Kinclaven to Ursa Major, and reply by Mr. Symington to Mr. Howard.
The general title of the invention is all that is necessary in a caveat.
Communications received from J. K.-Mr. John Thomas-Mr. Clark-T. R. Croft-Mr. LandaleMr. V. W. Gardiner-E. V.-Mr. Douglas-Mr. Curtis-Mr. Pole-J. L.
The Supplement to Vol. XXIV., containing Title, Contents, Index, &c., and embellished with a Portrait of Mr. Walter Hancock, C. E., is now published, price 6d. Also the Volume complete in boards, price 98. 6d.
British and Foreign Patents taken out with economy and despatch; Specifications, Dis claimers, and Amendments, prepared or revised; Caveats entered; and generally every Branch of Patent Business promptly transacted.
LONDON: Published by J. CUNNINGHAM, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office, No. 6, Peterborough-court, between 135 and 136, Fleet-street. Agent for the American Edition, Mr. O. RICH, 12, Red Lion-square. Sold by G. W. M. REYNOLDS, Proprietor of the French, English, and American Library, 55, Rue Neuve, Saint Angustin, Paris.
CUNNINGHAM and SALMON, Printers,
338 CURTIS'S CHIMNEY-HOOD AND ASH-PAN FOR LOCOMOTIVE-ENGINES.
CURTIS'S CHIMNEY-HOOD AND ASH-PAN
Sir, I send you a drawing and description of my chimney-hood and ashpan for locomotive-engines, as used on the London and Greenwich Railway, and shall feel obliged by your insertion of the same in your valuable pages.
The Hood.-The chimney of the engine is covered with a dome, which projects the steam and heated air escaping into the atmosphere upon a surface of water contained in the receiver or outer vessel, so that any sparks or other matter ejected from the chimney must necessarily be received in the water, and consequently extinguished. The condensation of the steam, together with the priming of the boiler, supply sufficient water to keep the bottom of the receiver always covered; and for the purpose of carrying off any excess of water, a small tube is fixed to the bottom of the receiver, and this pipe stands up about 1 of an inch, so that a plate of water of 14 inch deep is always ensured. The pipe enters the chimney and forms an elbow, which elbow also is always full of water, so that no fire can possibly pass through it. It is my intention eventually to form the dome double, and to pump up the cold water, which will be thus heated by the waste steam, and then to pump this heated water into the boiler, thus converting the apparatus into a feed head. I find a space all round of about four inches sufficient for the passage of the steam, &c. I have put this invention to the most severe tests I could devise, but could never force a spark from the chimney. The engine runs freer and faster than with the gauge, the draught is unimpaired, the apparatus is cheap and simple, and absolutely safe.
Description of Engravings.
Fig. 1 is a section, and fig. 2 an elevation of the hood: a, chimney; b, receiver, containing water; c, dome or hood; d, bent tube; the curved arrows show the path of the steam, air, &c.
The ash-pan is a box of sheet-iron suspended under the fire, and water-tight, so that the water filtering through the fire-box a is received into it. The pan is about eight inches deep, and the sides rise above the fire-box about three inches all round, so that the dust in the act of falling is not blown away during the progress of the engine, or by the wind, and
being received into water is, of course, immediately extinguished, while the water is evaporised; and the vapour not only prevents the coke from clinkering on the bars, but materially assists the combustion. The box is open all round and behind about eight inches, thus providing abundant area for the passage of the air to the fire. It is suspended behind by a joint to the framing, and before by a chain which coils round the axle of the hand-wheelƒ, so that when the engineer wishes to discharge the ashes, or rake the fire-bars, he merely lets go the wheel, when the pan falls down, describing the curve shown by the dotted line.
Description of Engravings.
Fig. 3 is a section, and fig. 4 an elevation of ash-pan and part of the boiler: a, fire-box; b, boiler; c, fire-bars; d, ash-pan, containing water; e, hinge of ditto; f, hand-wheel; g, chain by which the pan is suspended. The curved arrows indicate the path of the air.
Your most obedient servant,
Deptford, August 6, 1836.
MR. SYMINGTON'S REPLY TO MR. HOWARD.
Sir, Mr. Howard's communication contained in your last Number betrays such evident marks of being got up in haste, that I am certain by this time even Mr. Howard himself will scarcely deem it worthy of serious refutation.
I shall, therefore, content myself with referring such parties as may take an interest in the question to the drawings accompanying Mr. Howard's specification and to those in my circulars, where it will be found the difference between the two inventions is any thing but “immaterial."
In one part of his letter Mr. Howard says, “I may add, that the process (his, I suppose) answers completely;" in reference to which I have merely to observe, that not being aware how far Mr. Howard's notions of completeness extend, I will not, for a moment, think of contradicting him, but briefly remind him, that the more simple any useful invention is, so much the nearer is it to perfection. Bearing this fact in mind, I fearlessly leave it to Mr. Howard's own judgment, whether he will venture to say that his invention is possessed of the greater simplicity.
One thing more, and I leave Mr. Howard calmly to reflect, whether it was fair to deal in assertions which he can neither substantiate, nor has taken due pains to ascertain to be wellfounded although such assertions might produce an unfavourable impression regarding the conduct of an individual to whom he was a stranger. He has ventured to assert, that I saw his process in operation at the King and Queen Iron-Works, Rotherhithe, upwards of two years ago; but this assertion is as erroneous as that he has anticipated me in my plan of condensation, for I can and do most positively affirm, that during the whole course of my life I never saw his principle, or method, or process, either at work or at rest; neither did I ever set foot within the walls of the King and Queen Iron-Works, Rotherhithe. much for hasty conjecture! Unless Mr. Howard can disprove my positive affirmation, surely he cannot but regret having so phrased his assertion, as that it might tend to create suspicions of my being unprincipled enough to visit him for the purpose of surreptitiously depriving him of his plan of condensation.
Trusting you will oblige me by giving this insertion,
I have the honour to remain, Sir, Your most obedient humble servant, WILLIAM SYMINGTON. 1, King William-street, London Bridge, Aug. 10, 1836.
THE ELECTRICAL THEORY OF THE
Sir, I am somewhat inclined to think that your correspondent, Ursa Major, and your humbler servant, Kinclaven, are old acquaintances; however, be that as it may. It appeared from his first article on the Electrical Theory of the Universe, that he was a waverer between the Newtonian and Mackintoshian theory; but, from his last, he appears to be about three-fourths charged with electrical fluid, and no doubt one lecture more will make him brim-full. He informs me that he is no stranger to the demonstrations that have been given on the general law of the tides by all the great mathematicians (La Place included) who have lived since the days of Newton; and he very modestly requires me
"translate their demonstrations into the language of common sense." That is,
in plain English, he (Ursa Major) having neglected to cultivate those talents with which Nature has gifted him, would wish me to show him some 66 royal road" to physical astronomy that would shorten his journey.*
Mr. Mackintosh informs us (No. 645) that his theory is in accordance with Kepler's laws. And again, in No. 655, he states that our earth must at one time have been attended by at least five moons. We shall see how this agrees with one of Kepler's laws, namely, that the squares of the periodic times are as the cubes of the mean distances from the sun.
Let t and T be the periodic times of two planets, d and D their mean distances, v and V their angular velocities. Then, by Kepler's law, t2: T:: d3: D3; also, from the laws of central forces, t2= D2 d2 D2 V2, V2
d2 and T2 v2
from which it follows, that dv2 = DV2. Again, Mr. Mackintosh informs us, that the paths of all the planets are becoming nearer and nearer into circular orbits, and -ultimately they will all be whirled into the body of the sun. Supposing this to be the case with the planet whose present mean distance from the sun we have designated by the symbol d; then when that event takes place, d=o.. dv2 = o, but when d ceases to exist so must v2 .*. v2o; also since dv2 DV2, therefore DV20, hence one of the factors D or V2, or both, must be o; if D= o, then the angular velocity V ceases.'. V2 = 0. Again, when Vo, it follows, either from the laws of gravitation or the electrical theory, that if D is not = o, it will quickly be so, for the planet then would be only acted upon by a centripetal force; and it would be contrary to either theory to suppose that the second planet (when Vo), like Mahomet's coffin, could be suspended in mid-heaven. therefore follows, that if Mr. Mackintosh's new theory is in accordance with the law of Kepler-when one planet is destroyed, all the rest will almost immediately share the same fate-the same reasoning may be applied to the case of the five supposed moons, but as we are
Ursa Major, I presume, has not read Professor Airy's little work entitled "Gravitation," which was noticed in the Mechanics' Magazine more than a year ago. I would recommend him to read it, as it is well adapted for those who are not deeply read in mathematical science.