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BRIGHTON RAILWAY BILL.

for invalids and others who travel on the Continent; you recommend a journey to the Swiss mountains as good for invalids ?-Yes.

Considerable changes of temperature take place in the valley of Martigny and on the mountain of the Great Saint Bernard !Yes; but by that time they (invalids) have been inured to travelling.

Have you been through the Grotto Pausilipa at Naples ?—Yes, I have.

The air is very warm at Naples at times ?Yes.

And this grotto is pretty nearly the temperature of the earth, and a quarter of a mile long !--Yes.

And have you heard of any serious effeets occurring there from persons passing through that tunnel ?-No; they do not go through it with rapidity; the rapidity of transit makes a great difference.

My learned friend doubts it being a quar• ter of a mile long; is it not rather more ?I am not sure of the length.

A good deal of rattling of carriages takes place there ?-Yes; not so much as a train going through a tunnel.

Would you recommend persons with affections of the heart and head to travel at all, except by easy carriages ? — Passive exercise, passing rapidly, would not injure them.

It would not be desirable for them even to go in a stage-coach, would it?-I consider all that passive exercise in which the muscles are not brought into action.

You think that such a person would not mind getting into a coach with four spirited horses, where they might be run away with ?

- They might mind it, but it would not hurt them unless they were run away with.

Do you know the Leicester and Swannington Railway ?-No; I have never been on it.

Or the Leeds and Selby?-No.

Do you know whether the medical men have been more numerous in Liverpool and Manchester in consequence of the accidents in passing through the tunnel there?-No.

There have been no serious effects in passing through that tunnel!-No; I do not think that there is any danger in passing through it, because the engine goes slowly.

The change of temperature is the same! No, I do not think that; it is eighty feet below the surface of the earth; I think it is a very superficial tunnel (the one next Liverpool), therefore it would be nearly the temperature of the surface of the earth.

How deep is it under the surface of the earth; I am told it is a considerable depth ? - It did not strike me to be so either at the entrance or exit; it did not appear to me to be very cold.

What is the number of degrees you have given of the variation in the temperature? Î'he temperature of a tunnel eighty feet be

low the surface of the earth must be the tem. perature of that part of the earth, and in this climate it is fifty-two; supposing that it is thirty-two at the freezing point in winter and seventy-two summer heat, there would be a variation of twenty degrees in each case.

In the instance I gave of the valley of St. Martigny the variation would be more than twenty degrees ?--It would be forty or fifty.

Re-examined by Mr. Waddington. Do persons go from the valley of Martigny directly up the mountain of Saint Bernard ? No, they go very slowly.

Of course, the temperature decreases as you ascend ?-Yes; the rapid transit through the air on a railroad carries off the heat of the body.

Then your ground of distinguishing those tunnels from that which my learned friend has asked you of the grotto of Pausilipa at Naples, is principally owing to the sudden transition and the rapidity with which they pass through them ?-Yes.

The grotto at Naples is very lofty, is it not!-Yes.

As to those inconveniences being obviated by coats and cloaks, and so on, that is no reason why you would expose parties to the inconvenience which might be avoided by having an open railroad ?-I think that those are the great objections which I have stated.

Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson, examined by Mr.

Hill. I am a physician in extensive practice in London, and professor of materia medica in the London University. Thirty-five years I have practised medicine. I have turned my attention to the subject of tunnels in rail. ways that are intended for passengers, only theoretically. The difference of temperature between the interior of the tunnel and the outward air very much depends upon the depth of the tunnel or the space of earth which is above the tunnel; if that should be from sixty to eighty feet, it would make a considerable difference in the temperature, both in summer and in winter; more in winter than in summer : in winter in the interior the temperature will be higher than than that of the outward air, and in summer considerably lower. I think being suddenly plunged in this temperature by passing through a tunnel, would be extremely in. jurious to persons of susceptible habits, to dyspeptics, to convalescents from disease,' and to persons affected with pulmonary complaints. I would certainly not permit, as far as my influence extended, my patients to go to Brighton by a tunnel railroad; I would prefer their going on the turnpike-road in the

THE EVIDENCE AGAINST TUNNELS.

333

common way, rather than encountering tun- that it is proposed to make the cuttings of nels. A railway without a tunnel, inasmuch the railway without a tunnel at what is as the transit, does not produce much agita- called two to one; that is to say, it slopes tion of body, and is a better transit in point twice as fast as it rises; I did not refer to of speed, I think would be advantageous. that sort of cutting, but to a well or a shaft. Where persons are exhausted by illness, the The cutting in the railway without a tunnel shorter time you can have them upon the will not produce the ill effects of tunnels, or journey the better, other things being equal. any thing like them. It is of very frequent

occurrence with me to have patients who Cross-examined by Mr. Talbot. want to go to Brighton for the recovery of

their health. There is a considerable vicissitude of tem

As far as my experience goes, perature in the tunnel, which depends upon

of late years more patients are sent from the depth below the surface of the earth; the

London to Brighton than to all the watering. lower the tunnel, or the greater the space

places together almost; I therefore conceive above any tunnel of moderate length (not a

a railway from London to Brighton, especially very short tunnel), the more will it alter the for persons going there for health, would be temperature. Supposing that in the middle

useful, and that it is of very great importof the tunnel it is only eighty feet below the

ance that there should be nothing upon this surface, but at the two entrances of the tun

railway prejudicial to them. nel it is near the surface of the ground, that

Dr. Augustus Sayer, examined by Mr. Wadwill alter the temperature at the extremities,

dington. but not at the centre of the tunnel. T'here is a considerable vicissitude in the temperature of

I am a physician; I have practised in a good cellar in summer; I do not think the

London about fifteen years, and am in the better the cellar the greater the vicissitude; habit of sending patients to Brighton for the it is questionable whether the cooler the cellar recovery of their health. Tuunel-travelling the better; it is sometimes an object; but

to Brighton being an innovation, can only the great advantage of a cellar is to have it speak to it theoretically ; for invalids it of an equal temperature in winter and sum- would be decidedly prejudicial. It would mer, and therefore those cellars which are in depend upon the nature of the illness or the the centre of houses are the best. It would

state of the patient, whether I should advise materially affect the London and Birming

him to travel that way; but, generally speakham Railway if there were tunnels upon it,

ing, I would advise them to avoid it. The if invalids were intending to travel upon it, prejudicial effect arises from the transition but not as that railroad is chiefly intended

from one state of temperature to another, for mercantile people and goods. They would

and vice versa. I have some doubt whether be healthy passengers. I think the prejudice the rapidity of transition would be prejudiis much smaller on account of the tunnel in cial; but I have not sufficient experience their case. If a man is in very good health,

upon that subject to form an opinion. It I do not think that there is much risk from would be likely to produce colds and rheupassing through a tunnel of 600 yards; but, matic complaints; I have never had an optaking the average of human health, I think portunity of travelling through a tunnel that there is some risk. The length of pas

myself. sage in a tunnel of 600 yards would be about Cross-examined by Mr. Serjeant Merewether. a minute; it depends upon the rate of transit. The longer the tunnel and the deeper in

The only tunnel which I have visited is

the one at Kensal Green; that is not in use, the ground the worse it would be. I think that a cutting so long and narrow that the

John Proport, Esq., Surgeon, examined by rays of the sun never penetrated to the bot

Mr. Hill. tom of it, would be prejudicial; nearly as bad as a tunnel.

I have been a practical man in London

twenty-five years; I have been practising Re-examined by Mr. Hill.

myself twenty. I have thought a good deal

upon the question of tunnels upon railroads. A cutting, however deep, would be open The result of my inquiry and reflection has to the sky, but the change of air would de- been certainly not favourable with regard to pend entirely upon whether there was an passengers. I think the change of temperaopening below to that cutting; if there was ture which must be incurred by going through an entrance from the side of the hill, and a tunnel will be unfavourable to the health of that upon an inclined plane, and then an a person of delicate constitution, or suffering opening rising to the top of the hill, that under disease; it would be trying to all. My would produce a current of air. My mind attention has been directed to the passage of was not turned to the nature of the openings the steam-engine from Paddington to the and cuttings upon a railway. I am aware City. From living in that part of the town, BRIGHTON RAILWAY BILL-THE EVIDENCE AGAINST TUNNELS.

334

I have frequently come into contact with it, and had to follow it; the burning of coke or coal, whichever they have, was, I should say, very prejudicial to health generally ; but more so when that is confined within the walls of a tunnel of a certain length. I apprehend that it would be very difficult, or impossible, to ventilate tunnels properly. I can only speak theoretically; it has been found extremely difficult, and to a certain extent all experiments of the kind have failed; a tunnel never could be made perfectly clear of noxious air, arising from the passage of the steam-carriage. If my patients asked my opinion, I should decidedly object to their travelling through a tunnel to Brighton. I think that the time is immaterial, or that it does not make any great difference; at all events, I should say the impression that might be made by half a minute or a minute might be equal in a debilitated constitution to the effect produced in half an hour; but I should think that that was enough for a debilitated constitution to receive an unfavourable impression, so far as a debilitated constitution was concerned. I have known individuals who have attended funerals, going down into the vault under the church, which is tolerably well ventilated—I have known instances in which persons have caught so severe a cold that they have lost their lives; not from the fetid atmosphere, but I should say from the change of temperature. A railroad constructed from Lo to Brighton without a tunnel, from the shortness of transit, the freedom from dust and from the shaking motion which it would have on the turnpike-roads, however well made, would render such a mode of conveyance very valuable for invalids and persons in an infirm state of body. I would consider a railway without a tunnel much better than the present mode of conveyance, but a railroad with a tunnel much worse. The quickness of travelling is very desirable to persons in a state of convalescence; when that can be done without the injurious effects of tunnels, in my opinion, it is desirable, but I would rather prefer any way to that by tunnels.

Cross-examined by Mr. Wood. I do not say that the duration of time is of no consequence, but I think that a minute is certainly long enough to receive an unfavourable impression. To say that immersion, when coming out immediately from the water, will be found beneficial, when remaining in the water, will be injurious—is not a parallel case. I differ from Dr. Johnson, who said that he did not at all look to the smoke of an engine; I think that it is of sufficient importance to be considered; [ speak from experience. I do not know whether the steam-carriage from Paddington

runs with coal or coke; one is equally prejudicial as the other. I have not been upon a railroad. I have never had a tunnel case.

By Mr. Taylor.— I would not recommend patients to go through a tunnel to Brighton; it would not be beneficial for the health ef delicate persons to go a considerable distance through a swampy and marshy country very liable to fogs and floods—but I should not consider that equally injurious to a tunnel. I think the smoke would produce the effluvia in a tunnel, and the damp atmosphere. I cannot say whether the most solid and dry material will produce less of that damp and unpleasant effluvia. Richard Clewin Griffiths, Esq., examined by

Mr. Waddington. I have practised in this metropolis about twenty-four years. I frequently send invalids to Brighton for the recovery of their health ; I would certainly not send them if they had to travel by a railroad in which there were tunnels. Last year at this time I went through a tunnel between Whitstable and Canterbury, and the conductor told us to put all the blinds up, as we should experience great cold; that is worked by a stationary engine. The whole distance, which is six miles, was performed in half an hour. I was in the tunnel, I should think, three mi. nutes; the distance is about 900 and odd yards; perhaps a few more or less. I put on my great coat, but did not button it; and we did not pull up all the blinds, and we entered the tunnel not feeling it, so that there was apparently no current of air of any consequence by which we could form a judgment that we should be inconvenienced; but when we had entered the tunnel I was obliged to button my coat and put my handkerchief round my neck, and we put up all the blinds but one; there was a tremendous current of air. The moment I got into the tunnel I felt the strongest wind that I witnessed in my life; it produced a catarrh, and the glands in the neck swelled; this inconvenience lasted about two hours. Had I been subject to any inflammatory disease in the eye, or any part exposed, it would have recurred I suppose. I should not recommend any of my patients to go through a similar tunnel, unless they were closely covered up.

Cross-examined by Mr. Goldsmid. I did not experience a serious illness after passing through this tunnel; I cannot form an opinion as to whether the same effect would have been produced if you had been but one minute in it. We felt it to a greater extent, all the blinds not having been drawn up, but it felt also very cold with the win. dows up ; the blind put up was either a cotton or linen blind; glass would have kept 335

DEPEAT OF THE STEAM-CARRIAGES' BILL.

out the cold more perfectly. The sensation of a current of air is felt going in any open steam-carriage; the sensation of the current of air is felt when you put your hand into the open air beyond the line of the carriage that is conveying you. This is the whole of my experience of tunnels. I did not hear whether any other passengers suffered severe illness; several complained of the cold for a few minutes.

Re-examined by Mr. Waddington. My brother was with me upon this occasion; he felt very cold, as I did, but it did not produce catarrh. It was about this time last year, on an intensely hot day.

DEFEAT OF THE STEAM-CARRIAGES'

BILL. We are glad to find that this Bill—to the iniquitous partiality of which we were the first to draw the attention of the public (see Mech. Mag. p. 199)-has, after passing the Commons, been thrown out by the Lords. On its being presented to the Upper House, it was, on the motion of the Marquis of Salisbury (who has done himself much honour by his spirited conduct in the matter) referred to a Select Committee, who, after a full investigation into the merits of the case, made the following Report:Report from the Lords' Committee appointed

to consider the Bill entitled An Act to Repeal such portions of all acts as impose prohibitory Tolls on Steam-Carriages, and to substitute other Tolls on an equitable footing with Horse Carriages ;and to report to the House.

Ordered to report, That the Committee have proceeded to the examination of witnesses on the Bill referred to them, and have to report to the house, that the evidence of the principal engineers who have turned their attention to the construction of carriages propelled by steam upon the highways proves that very considerable progress has been made towards their perfection, and that they can travel with great rapidity.

The noise and smoke attendant upon their use have been very materially diminished ; but it has been shown in evidence that they still have the effect of terrifying horses, and that accidents have occurred in consequence.

Much conflicting evidence has been tendered to the Committee as to the safest shape and the proper limitation of the size of vessels for generating steam to be used in these carriages. All the witnesses, however, agree that in whatever shape the boilers may be made, their size should be such as would in

case of explosion not endanger the safety of the public ; and the Committee do not feel themselves at present competent to come to such a conclusion on these two important points as would enable them to recommend the necessary enactments, if it was found expedient to proceed further with the Bill.

No adequate means have yet been provided effectually to guard against the emission of sparks from the chimneys of the engines which would guard effectually against the danger arising from them, although, with proper care in the selection and preparation of fuel, it does not appear that the danger is very imminent.

It also appears by the evidence of some of the witnesses examined, that although the management of the carriages is by no means difficult when under the superintendence of an experienced conductor, yet that they require much greater skill than is necessary in the management of locomotive-engines upon railways : and to find persons properly qualified might be a matter of considerable difficulty.

It is essential that the weight and size of the carriages to be employed should be regu. lated, so as to prevent their being made of that weight and size which might prove destructive of the roads and a serious nuisance to the public.

It appears also that the tolls intended to be imposed by the Bill are calculated upon an erroneous view of the powers of a horse. The rate of toll is calculated upon the supposition that each horse is able to draw a ton weight; whereas it is shown that a horse cannot, at a rapid pace, upon ordinary roads, draw wore than half that weight.

The Committee entertain serious objections to the Bill referred to them; and they are not of opinion that these objections are counterbalanced by the prospect of any public advantage. The evidence, on the contrary, proves that the proposed mode of conveyance can only be applied to passengers; and it appears that some experienced engineers, after a careful examination of the expenses attendant upon it, have been induced to abandon all hopes of its success as a profitable undertaking.

It is probable, therefore, that any encouragement on the part of the Legislature would only give rise to wild speculations, ruinous to those engaging in them, and to experiments dangerous to the public. The Committee, therefore, recommend that this Bill should not at present be proceeded with; at the same time, they have no doubt that the further imposition of prohibitory tolls in local acts is not a desirable mode of legislating upon such a subject.

And the Committee have directed the evia dence taken before them to be reported to the House, together with the index thereto.

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NOTES AND NOTICES. The new Statue of George III.-Mr. Cotes Wyali's statue of George III. was on Wednesday (Aug. 3) erected in Pall Mall East, on the site chosen by the Commissioners, and opposed by Messrs. Ransom and Co., the bankers, opposite whose house it now stands. Sir F. Trench entered at some length into a detail of the circumstances connected with the statue. He stated that the Committee had guaranteed the artist 4,0001., although their subscriptions, with interest, amounted to no more than 3,1001. Chantry received 8,0001. for the sta.. tue of Sir T. Monro, a work of the same size; the equestrian statue of George IV, cost 9,0001.; the statue of the Duke of York on his column, 7.0001.; the equestrian statue at the end of the Long Walk at Windsor, 30,0001.; and the bronze figure of Achilles in Hyde Park about the same sum.

Consumption of Opium in China.-" It is a curious circumstance,” says the Quarterly Review, " that we grow the poppy in our Indian territories to poison the people of China, in return for a wholesome beverage which they prepare, almost exclusively, for us." From the following statement made by Mr. Davis, late Chief Superintendent at Canton, it appears that the money laid out by the Chinese on their favourite drug far exceeds what they receive for their tea:Imports in 1833.

Dollars.
Opium.....

11,618,167
Oiher Imports......

11,858,077

air above 5000 miles, having made 218 ascents, and has had a bird's-eye view of every part of England. On the last occasion, when Lord Clanricarde went with him, he observed that surveyors and architects could with greater facility take plans of noblemen's estates by ascending in a balloon, as they could have a bird's-eye view of every locality, and if they only once adopted that method they would never relinquish it.' Since the suggestion an artist named Burton called on Mr. Green to obtain him the plan of a balloon constructed so as to act in the above way, it being connected to the car by a swirel. The inventor proposes to build a waggon, for the porpose of fastening a balloon to it, which, when filled with gas, which can be done in various parts of the country at gas company's gasometers, may be conveyed to any place a surveyor requires, where, on a calm day, be can take plans, carrying with him the proper instruments. The balloon will then be fastened by ropes to the spot most favonrable for observation, and raised to an elevation of 300 or 400 feet, as necessary. In this way a bird's-eye view can be taken of any town or city. Mr. Green is willing at any time that his balloon, by way of experiment, may be made use of in that way.Globe.

“ A patent has been granted to a Mr. C. P. Devaus, of Fenchurch-street, for a new process of smelting iron ore, &c. I shall be much obliged to any of your correspondents who will inform me where this new process has been tried, and what are the results? You will not, I trust, refuse a conspicuous place in your valuable journal to these inquiries, in which so many of your friends in the North are interested.-Pig-IRON, July 7, 1836."

Brick- Making Machines. -"Sir, observing in your Magazine a description of a brick-making machine invented by Mr. Heaton, of Birmingham, I take the liberty of informing you that I have the plans of a machine for a similar purpose, with which I propose to make 100 bricks per minute. Should any one be desirous of obtaining further particulars, a note addressed in J. C., 2, Lower Brook street, Bond street, will be allended to by yours obediently, A LOVER OF MECHANICS."

Mr. Dickson's reply to the Cornish Engineers in our next; also, rejoinder by Kinclaven to Ursa Major, and reply by Mr. Symington to Mr. Howard.

The general title of the invention is all that is necessary in a caveat.

Communications received from J. K.-Mr. John Thomas-Mr. Clark-T. R, Croft--Mr. LandaleMr. V. W. Gardiner-E. V.-Mr. Douglas-Mr. Curtis-Mr. Pole--J. L.

The Supplement to Vol. XXIV., containing Ti. tle, Contents, Index, &c., and embellished with a Portrait Mr. Walter Hancock, C.E., is now published, price 6d. Also the Volume complete in boards, price 98.6d.

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20,443,270 The Chinese smuggle all this opium, and pay the difference between the price of it and that of the tea they export in silver.

New Locomotive-Power --Mr. Mullins, M.P. for Kerry, has made a very important discovery in the scientific world, that of applying galvanism, instead of steam, for propelling vessels and carriages. He is now building a carriage upon his principle, and several of the first engineers, who have seen it, say there is every prospect of suc. cess, and that it will supersede steam.- Limerick Star. The Dublin Evening Post claims the merit of this invention for the Rev. J. W. M'Gawley, who, it will be remembered, brought forward something of this kind at the meeting of the British Association of Science in Dublin last August.

Nettles.-In Scotland I have eaten nettles, I have slept in nettle sheets, and I have din off a nettle table-cloth. The young and tender nettle is an excellent pot-herb, and the stalks of the old nettle are as good as flax for making cloth. I have heard my mother say that she thought nettle-cloth more durable than any other species of linen.Campbell in the New Monthly.

On Monday se'nnight, Mr. Pocock, of Bristol, passed through the town of Chippenham in a carriage drawn by two air-kites, occasionally travelling at the rate of 25 miles per hour. In the vicinity of the town he was detained some time in consequence of the web getting entangled in a tree. -Salisbury Heruld.

M. Gambart, the astronomer, Director of the Marseilles Observatory, and a correspondent of the Institute, died a few days ago at Paris. This gen. tleman is well known in the scientific world for his frequent discoveries of comets.

Aeronautic Observations. Since Mr. Green's first attempt at ballooning he has travelled through the

British and Foreign Patents taken out with economy and despatch ; Specifications, Dis. claimers, and Ainendments, prepared or revised ; Caveats entered; and generally every Branch of Patent Business promptly transacted.

LONDON: Published by J. CUNNINGHAM, at

the Mechanics' Magazine Office, No. , Peterbo. rough-court, between 135 and 136, Fleet-street. Agent for the American Edition, Mr. O. RICK, 12, Red Lion-square. Sold by G. W.M. REY. NOLDS, Proprietor of the French, English, and American Library, 55, Rue Neuve, Saint Angustin, Paris. CUNNINGHAM and SALMON, Printers,

Fleet-street.

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