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TIE EVIDENCE AGAINST TUNNELS.

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pen from sudden transitions from heat to cold. Rheumatism, in its various forms, lumbago, both acute and chronic; that is, active or long continued. I would not permit one of my patients to go to Brighton by a railway that had a tunnel in it; I should endeavour to dissuade any patient of mine from subjecting himself to such perils. I should prefer that the patient should go by an open carriage on the open road in preference to going through a tunnel, for the reasons I have assigned; I would not hesitate about it. I have no expe. rience about the length of tunnels; I know something from experience of the difficulty of changing masses of atmosphere either in tunnels or in a large room ; it is impossible to change the atmosphere in a large room, and I apprehend it would be impossible to change the atmosphere of a tunnel 600 yards long, The observations I have made apply to a tun. nel of five or six hundred yards. I have understood the tunnel in question is to that extent. I think a patient might safely go by an open railway; rapidity of motion to a delicate person would be an objection, since there would be an extraordinary change in the blanket of air belonging to the person in going along. The air in the interior of the tunnel is not precisely the same as that without; it is stationary air, having a different temperature; and it has also a commixture with other gaseous substances; it is also a damp air; if it was a warmer air than the ambient atmosphere, I think in that case speed would make it less dangerous. The majority of cases in which persons catch cold have been from going out of heat into cold; there is, however, danger on being exposed from cold to heat; many persons catching cold from sitting over a fire, or from going into warm rooms; I do not speak conjecturally. Cross-examined by Mr. Serjeant Merewether.

I have no experience beyond the rationale I have endeavoured to give upon the subject, which is, that the change of atmosphere surrounding the individual produces the effect of chill or cold to the surface of the body; but that can be remedied by warm clothing or a close carriage. I have not arrived at the conclusion, that a slower conveyance is better, inasmuch as it may be an object that a weak person should be suddenly transferred from London to Brighton. I have stated that the atmosphere in the tunnels I assume to be nearly stationary. I do not know what length of tunnel would ventilate itself practically ; but I know something about the matter with regard to wells and borings of other kinds, and I have had some experience upon the subject ; a well would be in different circumstances from a tunnel, which would be open at both ends, whereas in

a well there would be only an opening at the top operating upon the well. I know froin experiments that a tube filled with air of considerable dimensions does not easily discharge its air by any external force employed upon the coufined air, but the contrary, because of the elasticity of the air,-its propensity, if I may use such an expression respecting a passive thing,-is to avoid pressure, and to get behind any compressing force,-as in the case of pressure from a piston or any thing of that kind; I know from experiments it is difficult to discharge a tunnel or a large room of any stagnant or quiescent mass of air; and I believe a 600 yards tunnel of the dimensions given would neither discharge itself nor could it be discharged by any ordinary known means. If there should be a difference in the atmosphere in the tunnel, and at the two ends of it, there would be a natural tendency in the air to equalise the difference; that is to say, if the air is colder on the inside it would have a tendency at the ends of the tunnel to mix with the atmospheric air; and, vice versa, if the air in the tunnel was warmer than the air outside, it would have a tendency to equalise itself with the external air; but this only to a limited extent; the two atmospheres, the atmosphere within and the atmosphere without, being on a different balance, would soon strike the balance in the length of a tunnel of 600 yards, and I think long before they arrived at midway; so that you could not expect from any change of temperature a current of air to pass through the whole of the tunnel. Shafts let down in the middle of the tunnel, or in other places, would have but a very limited tendency to create a draught in the tunnel ; for in the attempts to ventilate, with submission, the late House of Peers and the House of Commons, the most scientific persons were consulted, and every means were devised; but I believe the means were not effectual to discharge the air confined in those rooms, although not very large, and to have pure and refreshing air introduced in its stead. I am not practically acquainted with the effect produced in cases where such shasts have been introduced into tunnels. I know that in rooms a shaft in the roof has not had any good effect. I have seen two tunnels near Lone don, the one near the Harrow-road, and the other near Islington. I have attended to that as to my own feeling. I have walked part of the way through them, and bave ascertained that the feeling corresponds with my theoretical view, and what I have read on the subject, and what I have said corresponds with my own feelings. The tunnel I refer to near Islington Hill is completed ; it is for a barge-way ; but there is another also near the burying-ground at Kensal Green. I

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BRIGHTON RAILWAY BILL.

walked through part of the way; it is not circumstance within the last month, Mr. finished; the centres and other impediments Barry O'Meary. He was sitting near a winall in the way, but machines driven by steam dow, he felt himself cold from the air of the were going into the tunnel ; the tunnel was window, and he changed his place, and from carried quite out to the other extremity, I that exposure he went home and took to his believe ; there was a light visible at the bed and died. I say it is the same thing in other end. I do not think that a shaft in effect, whether the carriage draws the indithe middle of a 600 yards tunnel, or two or vidual at the rate of thirty miles in the hour, three shafts, would have any great and effi- or the wind travels at the rate of thirty miles cient effect in discharging the quiescent air, an hour, since they equally affect the person; or of moving it out at either end, or even it would be the same as to the person, wheupwards; that is my opinion. Supposing ther on the surface of the lungs or on the there were shafts, and there were carriages surface of the skin, with this difference, that propelled by steam passing frequently through in the open air the air would be uncontamithe tunnels, my opinion, founded on analogy, nated, while within the tunnel the air would and not from any personal observation, is, be mingled with deleterious matters. Under that the ventilation would not be efficient. the circumstances propounded, a person is I do not think that would be an effectual likely certainly either to catch cold on the check to the stationary temperature, or that surface of the skin, but preferably the catarrh a stationary air would be removed. I have of the lungs; I say that in a transit of only gone with scientific persons to visit mines. one minute he is in peril, and I would not so I was brought up in the county of Durham, expose myself. A hundred persons may pass and knew the coal-pits then. I had the through with impunity, and the next five charge of two or three coal-pits when I was may all be seized with some dangerous illyoung. The workmen insured medical at- ness, and for that reason I would not recom-' tendance by paying so much a week; we had mend a man to go through a tunnel. I do a good many patients. They were not more not mean to say it is 100 to 5, I only speak than twelve hours out of twenty-four in the hypothetically. Certainly many may pass pit; but it is so long since, I cannot charge through without any difficulty. Supposing my memory with the number of hours, but they went through in a carriage, pulling up they had a great deal of holiday abore the window for a time would operate as a ground. They are healthy men generally ; considerable preventative; but that would but asthmatic men, I believe, could not also come to a moral question, whether the work; and there was a singular thing hap- passengers choose to have the window up pened in regard to horses which were worked generally; for in-stage-coaches half the pasin the collieries-it was the prevailing opi- sengers wish the window up, and half wish to pion, that a horse brought up in the collieries have it down. The ratio of any bad consewhen he came above ground went blind. I quences would be much in proportion to the cannot say that he was generally very fat length of the tunnel. The pulling up the when he came up, but he went blind, and the windows would be a certain degree of protece pit-horse was not a saleable horse. If the tion, but I cannot say how much. engine goes at the rate of fifteen miles an hour, the half mile would, of course, engage two

Re-examined by Mr. Hill. minutes, and the time calculated for thirty I have heard that on railways persons tramiles per hour would be one minute for the vel in two classes of carriages, one open and transit through the tunnel, so that there the other close; but I have not seen it. Perwould be three changes operating upon the sons may go into crowded hospitals where individual, provided the air were different on they are in great risk of contagion, and yet the transit from the atmosphere to the tun- not take disease ; they may visit a house nel, and on the transit from the tunnel to the or a place having a patient affected with the atmosphere again, thus making three dips. plague, or they go and visit a person with the If a hale person, undergoing the exercise of cholera, and not take the contagion, and travelling upon a railroad, comes to a tunnel that produces a paradox in the medical world which he will be a minute, we will suppose, on which there is a division of opinion. A passing through in a carriage, still under

person escaping would not be a sufficient going the motion of the carriage, I do think ground for placing himself in those circumhe will be likely to catch either cold or ca- stances. The air of a tunnel is impregnated tarrh; and my opinion is founded on long ex- with other gases, which makes it very different perience; the transition would endanger a from the outward air. Sulphuretted, carperson even during the duration of one mi- buretted, and carbonic gases would be emitnute. I have known a person to become ery- ted from the burning of the coke, and the sipelatic from a minute's exposure to the air, vapour of the steam would be condensing and the change occasioned by it; a man of and would keep the atmosphere damp; and some celebrity lost his lise from that very you would have also the effluvia and respi.

THE EVIDENCE AGAINST TUNNELS.

329 rating products of the passengers going son affected with disease of the lungs. In through, assuming hypothetically that the bleaching-grounds I have seen men at four in atmosphere is little, if at all, changed, the the morning with the dew on the grass, which mass of it in the middle of the tunnel ; so is very cold, working with bare feet; I bethat a quantity of stationary or stagnant air lieve they are a healthy class of persons ; but would remain impregnated with poisonous when I went fishing on the same grounds, I gases, or impregna with the effluvia of took care to have good elastic water-proof the passengers; it might be with scarlet boots. Railways, inasmuch as they furnish fever or the small-pox. It is my decided the means of rapid and easy transit, I con. opinion, from all the facts and all the con- sider to be very favourable to invalids. They sideration I have given to the subject, that would not be exposed to dust or rain, I apthe air in the interior of tunnels is in nearly prehend, and the transit would be rapid : a stagnant state. I think it is reasonable to and by proper clothing and proper attention conclude, as it is philosophically evident, that to the windows of the carriage, they may there must be a progressive accumulation of avoid any danger. I would not hesitate to unwholesome or unsafe atmosphere within the send a person with diseased lungs by railway tunnel, unless it can be wholly drawn or to Brighton; but I would not send him driven out in a mass, and I am not aware of through a tunnel. It would be a great public any method by which to discharge it; hence benefit to have railroad conveyances for invathere must be a progressive accumulation of lids without a tunnel. evil. I know that a minute is quite suffi- Mr. Serjeant Merewether. — There have cient to produce catarrh. It is just the rapid been means used for ventilating the House of transition from the outward air into the tun- Commons; cannot the same means be used nel, and then again into the outward air, for ventilating tunnels ?-I believe the same which creates the danger. It is like exposure means cannot be applied; I should think not. to the wind, and every body knows when wind is cold; in winter, although under a

Exumined by the Committee. hedge where cattle would seek shelter, you The same danger would occur to a perdo not feel it, notwithstanding the wind is son passing through those different temperablowing from the north. The three sudden tures of air, at the rate of thirty miles an transitions are not favourable to health ; get- hour, that would occur to him if the air ting into an atmosphere of sixty, and making through which he passed travelled the same an exit from the tunnel ayain at thirty, must rate; the cases would be analogous. expose a person to three vicissitudes within protection might be afforded by clothing. half a minute or a minute, as it may happen. Water-proof clothing would protect a person With respect to the comparison between per- against the vicissitudes; how far that would sons going through a tunnel to persons going operate in an open carriage on a railway, into a mine, very great care is taken, and very I cannot say. In a warm room there would be great expense incurred for the purpose of ven- a quiescent temperature; but in the alternate tilating mines ; those who go into mines for atmosphere affecting a man's body when passthe purpose of labour do not expose them- ing through a tunnel he would pass through selves to those very sudden variations. They a general change of atmosphere, which would are tolerably well clothed, and they all take wash off, if I may use the expression, the care of the inward man; they are all drinkers; local atmosphere around him. Going at but whether that does good or harm I will the rate of thirty miles an hour would not say. Even considering the horses do get increase the circulation very little. That fat down in the mines, I would not think of sort of agitation in a carriage is not con: sending invalids and timid and delicate per- sidered productive of a great deal of accesons down into mines. There have been va. lerated influence on the circulation of fluids, rious projects, and there is nothing, however to use a pedantic expression. Supposing that absurd, that has not been tried in medicine; to take place, it might or it might not prebut I believe it was never yet tried to send a vent the danger of that accelerated transition ; person into a coal-pit to cure him of any dis- if it increased the natural heat of the body, it ease of the lungs. Dr. Beddoes tried experi- would expose the body to the vicissitude of ments by artificial airs, and putting people cold much more than if it remained in a into cow-houses, and the Lord knows what; temperate medium. If, instead of going in but I do not believe that his schemes have a carriage drawn by steam through a tunnel, been followed by any of his brethren. I the individual were to run through it, there should not send my patients to a watering

would be the additional consequence of the place, if the way to it were to lie through a increased circulation of blood, for running coal-pit. Persons retain their health in coal- accelerates the circulation of blood very repits, so do some also who work up to their markably, but not the motion by travelling middle in water ; but that would be a very in a carriage at thirty miles an hour. The bad reason for recommending that to a per- chief difficulty found in ventilating the Houses BRIGHTON RAILWAY BILL.

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of Parliament, was not so much in changing the body of air, but in doing it without introducing some kind of draft so as to inconvenience the Members of Parliament, many of them sitting without their hats, and therefore very likely to take cold, and that it could not be got over; it was a difficulty the medical profession always felt. Dr. James Johnson, examined by Mr. Wad

dington. Are you one of the physicians to his Majesty ? --Yes.

How long have you been in practice ? About eighteen years.

Have you turned your attention to the effect likely to be produced by passing through tunnels at the speed of thirty miles an hour? -I have thought upon the subject; and I have been often through the tunnel and along the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad.

I believe that the engines do not go through that tunnel with very great speed ?-No; the tunnel next to Liverpool they are drawn through,

In your opinion, as a physician, would you advise any person of delicate health to travel through a tunnel under those circumstances ? --No, I should not, if the tunnel was of any length.

Do you think that a tunnel of 600 yards in length would produce any injurious consequences ?-A tunnel of 600 yards, if it is eighty feet under the surface, must of course have a temperature constantly of about fifty. two or fifty-three degrees; consequently in summer, when the temperature of the atmosphere would be summer-heat, or seventy-six degrees, the vicissitude would be upwards of twenty degrees on immerging into the tunnel. On the contrary, if the temperature was at the freezing-point, thirty-two degrees, the rise of temperature on going into the tunnel would be twenty degrees, and the exit would be on one of equal extent and magnitude.

In your opinion the temperature of the tunnel would be pretty nearly stationary ?It would be always so, if it was eighty feet below the surface of the earth.

What, in your opinion, would be the source of the greatest inconvenience or danger in passing through these tunnels; would it be the change from the atmospheric temperature to the temperature of the tunnel ?-Both changes must take place.

Would that, in your opinion, be productive of serious evils?-I think the vicissitude of twenty degrees or fifteep degrees would very often be injurious, because we seldom have a vicissitude in this climate equal to that in a whole day; and we know that the vicissitudes of temperature and drought and moisture are the chief causes of pulmonary complaints and many other, such as rheus

matisms, in this climate; consequently, in winter and in summer, I consider that the transitions would be to that amount that would endanger health. When the temperature of the atmosphere was about the same temperature as the tunnel there would be very little danger or inconvenience.

To what complaints do you think that those changes would be peculiarly injurious ?-Pulmonary complaints, rheumatisms, &c. People who are susceptible to atmospheric impressions would be more injured than those who are much in the open air.

You are speaking generally of delicate persons, because of course persons of very strong health may stand it. Is erysipelas sometimes produced by sudden changes of air?-Yes, it is. I attended Barry O'Meara, who died of that complaint, as Sir Anthony Carlisle has mentioned and he got it by standing at an open window,

Do you think that the sudden change from light to darkness would be productive of any injury to persons in a nervous state! think reverberation of sound is of more consequence than the vicissitude of temperature.

That you speak to from your own experience?-Yes; because in going even under the arches on the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad it is like a peal of thunder, and consequently in a long and confined space I conceive that the reverberation would be tremendous with a locomotive-engine; if it was drawn slowly it would not have that effect. I think that the noise in going thirty miles an hour would give a very great shock to delicate people.

To persons liable to affections in the heart or head, would it be dangerous ?-Yes.

Would you send such persons through those tunnels ?—No, I would not. If you will give me leave I will read a few lines which were printed two years ago upon this subject, and consequently they could not be directed to this inquiry.

Had you turned your attention to this subject two years ago?-I wrote a tour, and included the railroad in that tour, and this was the expression that I made use of : “ The deafening peal of thunder, the sudden immersion in gloom, and the clash of reverberated sounds in a confined space, combined to produce a momentary shudder or idea of destruction, a thrill of annihilation,” &c.

Those were your sensations, were they? Yes.

And that, I. understand, was an engine that did not go at the rate of thirty miles an hour?-That was in going under the arches; in the tunnel they go at the usual rate, from twenty to thirty miles an hour.

Of course those arches were very small in length; perhaps as much as thirty or forty or fifty yards?—Not so much.

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THE EVIDENCE AGAINST TUNNELS.

331 Have you the least doubt that in going nel of 600 yards will be traversed ?--I calcu, through a tunnel of 600 yards at this speed late about a minute. the effect upon the senses would be very great And, assuming it to be about a minute, indeed !--I think the shock from the rever- you think that those consequences will arise ? beration of sound would be very disagreeable, -I do not think the shortness is of any great to say the least of it, to sensitive people. consequence, because the sudden vicissitude

What would you think of sending a deli- of twenty or thirty degrees, for instance, in cate lady by a railroad of this sort !--I should a minute will produce very considerable efnot advise it.

fects. Would you ever think of such a thing? You do not think it possible that a tunnel No; not if there were other conveyances. of 600 yards could be so ventilated as to

Would any thing induce you to send a lady bring it to an approximation to the temperain a state of pregnancy by a locomotive-engine ture of the general atmosphere?-1 think it through one of these tunnels ?-I would never impossible to alter the temperature, because think of recommending it at all; on the con. it must take the temperature of the parts trary, I should advise her not to go by it. surrounding it; the air might be changed,

Would you advise a delicate person to go but whenever changed it would instantly by a railroad where there were no tunnels ; come to the temperature of the solid parts would you have the same objection to that? around. -No; the only objection is passing the The change would be something like that arches, and that is momentary.

of a gentleman going into a cellar for a bottle Would there be objection from the speed in of wine ?-Yes. I consider there would be going in the open air?-No, not at all; I something like ventilation by the rapid moveconsider it pleasant at various times. I have ment of the carriages, because the train travelled upon the Liverpool and Manchester must dislodge from one end or other a vo. Railroad, and I liked that mode of travelling lume of air equal to the train itself; and better, both inside and out, than by the com- therefore when the train went on there would mon carriage.

be that volume dislodged ; there would also Then all your objection applies to passing be a slight current produced by the rapid through those tunnels?-Yes.

transit of the train. On the contrary, it would be a great ad- For inside passengers there is no means of Fantage in sending down invalids that they obviating that matter by putting up the winshould perform the journey with great ra- dows ?-They might put up the windows. pidity ?-Of course.

By submitting to a circumambient blanket We have had it from a witness before ; round them in that tunnel they would escape but do not you know that a vast number of the danger of catching cold !--- They would invalids are sent from London to Brighton escape it much more than by not doing so; for their health ?-Yes; a great many are but it is impossible to obviate it wholly, besent, and a great number go voluntarily, for cause it is impossible to make the carriage their health.

wholly air-tight; and if the windows are put You have stated to us your objections, from up they will be obliged to put them down the state of the temperature and from the directly they get out of the tunnel again. sound, have you any other with respect to And when they get out of the tunnel they the gases which would be evolved from this will be in the same temperature as they were engine; you are aware that the engine is to before they entered it ?—Yes. burn coke?-Yes, I am. I think that there And they may have Macintoshes, and so would be very considerable inconvenience on, to protect them ?— They cannot cover from the heat of the engine, independently their lungs; they may, of course, protect the of any gas or any deleterious atmosphere. Í surface of the body, but not the lungs, think that there will be experienced in these Will you be kind enough to tell me where tunnels a very considerable inconvenience, it was yoų anticipated annihilation ?- I did from the heat being rolled rapidly over their not anticipate annihilation—it was a figuraheads, particularly to those who are in the tive expression, of course; in passing under open carriages, and where it cannot be ex- the arches on the different parts of the line. pended in the atmosphere as in open railroads. In going under the arcbes ?--Yes.

And from the vapour which is produced by All those evils will be considerably inthe coke !-Yes.

creased by the length of the tunnels? -Yes. What is the gas produced by this coke ?. The longer the tunnel the more forcible Principally carbonic acid gas; but I do not

all your objections ?-Yes. think that of so much consequence as the The principal objection is the change of temperature,

temperature ?-Yes; that and the reverberaCross-examined by Mr. Wood.

tion of sound I consider almost the only

objection, Are you aware of the time in which a tun. You have been kind enough to write a book

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