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This wheel consists of four cylindri..

contrived that no compressed steam can cal iron vessels, marked A, with a exist in the three upper spokes and suitable opening at one end for the cylinders. I have also a plan for con. rectifying of the valves, &c., and capa- densing the remainder, and producing a ble of holding between one and two vacuum. hundred weight of mercury:

Four Mode of Action. In the prefixed fi. tabular spokes communicate from the gure, one of the spokes is now open to axle to the cylinders. The axle is hol- the hollow axle, and opposite the hole low and tixed, and the wheel revolves in the axle, which can only be the case around it. The axle has also a circular when one of the spokes reaches the true opening in it of the same diameter as perpendicular. The steam then rushes the spokes. It has also four other tubes, into the lower cylindrical vessel, and marked B, with a valve at the extremity drives the mercury 112 lbs. up the pipe, of each, furnished with a spring of just C, into the next cylinder, A; that cylinsufficient elasticity to keep the valve dér then descends, and when it has closed. The three groves marked in reached the perpendicular, the steam the axle communicate with the centre of descends, and the inercury is driven into the wheel and the atmosphere, and are so the next tube, and so forth. The waste MACKINTOSH'S ELECTRICAL THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE. 313 steam escapes by the plan before laid Major in thus lendering his services vodown.

luntarily and gratuitously to " pull the The Power of the Wheel — The dia- inote out of his brother's eye,” &c. He meter of the wheel is four feet, and the tells us, that “ Laplace has demonstrated diameter of the axle three inches. Se- (in the 1st and tih books of the Mechami-diameter of the wheel 24 inches, of the nique Celeste), that when the sun and axle 12 inch 24 = 1Ź 112 the weight moon cause the ocean to swell to places of mercury in the ball, e, = 1792 lbs. under them, there is also a high tide at minus 12 lbs. for friction, leaving a work- the same time in that part of the ocean ing power of 1780 lbs.

that is diametrically opposite; and all Quantity of Steam used.--As one foot this he has done in strict accordance with will fill each ball, 4 feet will make one the principles of universal gravitation." revolution, and nine revolutions will That Euler, Maclaurin, Daniel Ber. wind up seven feet of rope on the axle noulli, and '"

every writer of eminence (3 x 1.1416 x 9: 12=7). The num- in physical astronomy, has demonstrated ber of revolutions made and the quantity the same thing; and all their demonstraof steam used to draw up 1780 feet 112 tions are founded upon the unerring fathoms, or 672 feet, 112 x 6 x 7 =-9 principles of universal gravitation.” = 864 revolutions; 864 x 4 = 3456 Ursa Major begs to assure Kinclaven cubic feet of steam used, or 445 lbs. for that he is no stranger to the aforesaid every foot of steam,

demonstrations, and is of opinion that if Advantages.- In the present engine, he, Kinclaven, can any how manage to on Watt's principle, the steam has an translate them into the language of comabsolutely dead weight to lift from a mon sense, he will do more for the doc. dead point, accompanied with all its trine of universal gravitation than has massive machinery, and there is accu. been done by the whole phalanx of derately speaking no power gained ; for if monstrations put together. we wish to raise five tons at one end of It may be unnecessary for me to rethe bean, a corresponding pressure mark, that I am far from giving an must be made on the other end or pis- entire and full acquiescence to the electon; but in the present wheel we have trical theory of the universe, at least in only to raise 112 lbs. to increase its the form in which it presents itself to my power nearly sixteen times.

mind at present. I am, however, still of The only mercurial steam-wheel I opinion, notwithstanding what has been can get any account of was one erected advanced by Zeta and Kinclaven, that by Messrs. Bolton and Watt, on Car- some parts of this theory carry with them drew Downs, to drive a turning lathe ; a very strong air of probability. In fact, but the motion was not circular, but the objections of these gentlemen amount alternating, and was rendered circular to nothing. They have given authority by means of a crank and fly wheel. for their opinions, it is true, but no argu

I wish for some one who has got a ment; this will not do at the present spirit of inechanical inquiry and specu. day; one solid argument will go farther lation to give the wheel a fair trial, and with the present thinking, searching ge. shall be happy to give him all the in- neration of men than a thousand autho. formation that lies in my power. The

rities. wbeel is pro bono publico.

It appears, Mr. Editor, that this new The insertion of this in your valuable philosophy, is making its way somewhat publication will oblige a subscriber and rapidly. In passing a public lecturezealous promoter of your Magazine. room in the neighbourhood of the City

WILLIAM JONES. road, a few days ago, I observed an Cuacewater, near Tiuro.

announcement that a lecture would be delivered on the Electrical Theory of the

Universe, which I had the curiosity to MACKINTUSH'S ELECTRICAL THEORY OF

attend. The lecturer, a Mr. Thorne, I be

lieve, a young gentleman who appears Sir,-Your correspondent Kinclaven to possess taleni and attainments of an has undertaken “ to correct a mistake eminent order, treated the subject in a which," he says, " Ursa Major has fallen manner which at once reflected great into.” Kinclaven is very kind to Ursa great credit on his own capacity and the

THE UNIVERSE.

CASTING AND GRINDING SPECULA.

THE CHAFFINCH.

314

CASTING AND GRINDING SPECULA. theory he had undertaken to illustrate; metal, my experience teaches me to think and his expositions were received with little or nothing of the difficulties in evident marks of approbation, by what figuring and polishing in comparison appeared to me a highly intelligent with those of the casting free from deaudience.

fects, before enumerated. I remain, Sir, yours, &c.,

By drawing the attention of Mr. URSA MAJOR. Ettrick and your numerous readers to

this subject, I shall feel particularly obliged.

I am, Sir, Sir,—In February, 1830, being wishful to obtain information in the art of

Your obedient servant, casting and grinding specula for reflect

C. G. ing telescopes, I took the liberty of ad- Gateshead, July 14, 1836. dressing you, in the expectation of re

P.S.- Perhaps Mr. Ettrick would faceiving information on this subject from

vour your readers with a drawing and some of the practical correspondents to

description of his instrument mounted your excellent Magazine. However, in

for use, as there is a scarcity of such in this I was disappointed, but in a subse

mathematical works. quent volume it was promised, in answer to another correspondent (vide vol. xv. p. 271), to republish a curtailment of Edwards's treatise on that subject, as containing the best directions up to that time Sir,—To such of your numerous intelpublished, anıl which was generally fol- lectual readers who take pleasure in the Inwed by persons undertaking the con

study of nature in the fields and woods, struction of these instruments. I take the following fact may prove interesting. for granted this intention was laid aside This day week, I think it was, it blew in consequence of Mr. W. Ettrick (vol.

almost

a gale of wind.” A chaffinch's xv. p. 335,) promising to describe (by nest, placed near the top of a high horsewhat method, is left in doubt,) a new

chestnut tree in the front of the house, discovered process of his own, com

was damaged, and one of the young pletely superseding the old methods, and nearly able to fly, came to the ground, by which success was sure, and the whole and I caught it. It was old enough to processes of casting, &c. was completely eat of its own accord; and, until this freed from the uncertainty hitherto con- morning, I kept it perched on a hencoop nected with them.*

at the back of the house. This morning Now, sir, as five years have since it bad, somehow or other, contrived to elapsed, and no tidings of Mr. Ettrick's get into the roof of a barn, and while I discovery yet announced in your pages, I was attempting, by means of a clothes' trust the want of patience will not be pole, to get it down, and being surrounded laid to my charge by thus calling upon

at the time by four or five other persons him to fulfil his promise, if his subse- (children who were, of course, inaking a -quent trials and experiments have verified great outcry, for fear of the little orphan his theory.

inmate being lost—the mother flew down It is scarcely necessary to state, that I straight from the other side of the house, have spent the whole of my leisure time, and, without the least hesitation, seized during a period of ten years, in prose

her little one by the leg, and carried it off, cuting a series of experiments, and must over the house, to the top of the high confess, have theorised and practised in

tree from which it had fallen a week bevain, finding that I am not much nearer

fore! I look upon this as rather a cuperfection than at the commencement; rious circumstance of the kind; the in finding a certain method of casting power of wing in the old bird is not the free from surface defects and porosity of

least remarkable of its interesting fea

tures. I have the honour to be, Our correspondent conjectures rightly. If we do not ere long receive Mr. Ettrick's long-promised

Sir, yours, &c. communication, we shall still publish an abridg

F. MACERONI. ment of Edwards's treatise.-Ev. M.M.

June 16, 1836.

RISE OF A CITY IN THE WILDS-AN

AMERICAN PICTURE.

RISE OF A CITY IN TgE WILDS-AN AMERICAN PICTURE, 315

the mode of whose operations the brightest philosophy has not even conceived ;

all resolvable into one simple and great (From the New York Journal.)

law, the law which pervades the whole A recent visit to Lowell, Mass., has material creation; hold fast the dust of affected me with much surprise, and the balance, the atoin floating in the sunafforded a high gratification. Extraor- beam, and the mightiest orb which dinary it may well be called, for here is

brightens in the firmament; all, where a city at its maturity at the age of twelve each part retains its place, performs its years ; here is a spot which seemed al

duty and supplies its contribution, movmost doomed to perpetual sterility, ing on in a beautiful harmony; proteeming with wealth ; and in that short

ducing results largely subservient to space the residence of a few straggling human comfort, improvement, and pleafarmers, gathering, by severe toil, a sure. On the other hand, all these rescanty snb istence for theriselves and

sults are defeated, when even the most their cattle, from an uncongenial and minute and the humblest part of the mapernicious soil, is transformed into a

chinery fail to perform their proper busy and buzzing hive, with a population office; determine to go wrong, or refuse approximating twenty thousand, active

to go at all ; when the wheels cease to with in petuous spirit of industry, sti- revolve, or the filaments become broken; mulated by rapid returns of profil, tax- or the combination of physical, intellec, ing to its utmost speed all the powers of tual and moral energy, felt in a thousand mechanical genius, and labour-saving art; hands, beaming from a thousand eyes, and with a thirst for knowledge and im- and operating in a thousand hearts, is provement, which seems to gather quick- broken up, withdrawn, relaxed or perness from syınpathy with the movements verted. Now, this is a striking analogy of the machinery around them, erecting of human society ; this is a world in halls, laboratories, libraries, and cabi

miniature. Laws bearing a strong renets, for the cultivation of science; and

semblance to each other prevail in both. thus laying a broad foundation for intel

They are universal laws; they are unlectual'improvement.

controllable and unalterable to human The moral spectacle here presented is

power or pleasure; they are ceaseless in itself beautiful and sublime. The

in their operation; and, like the great machinery of one of these great mills is Being who established them, they are not an unapt picture of society. Here 6 without variableness or even the shaare wheels within wheels; bands circling dow of change.” within bands ; threads crossing threads; Lowell is principally devoted to the numerous and almost infinitely varied manufacture of cotton ; but it embraces operations going on at the same time; several other important factories; very much that is seen, and much that is un- extensive woollen factories, for flannel, seen; mighty and concealed powers broadcloth, kerseymere, worsted, and working in their subterraneous abodes

carpeting ; extensive machine shops for with a tremendous agency, and sending the construction of various kinds of ma. out their influences to places far remote chinery, from that necessary to the fur. from their presence ; human ingenuity nishing of a cotton mill to railroad strained to its utmost power, and human cars and steam-engines ; together with care equally concerned in the constant a card and whip factory, planing masuperintendence of this complicated ap- chine, reed machine, grist and saw mills, paratus ; the powers of the physical glass works, iron furnace and powder world called into efficient action, mould- mills, and extensive bleacheries and ed, guided, and brightened under the print works; in all, employing a popusharpened activity of intellect; the moral sation of nearly eight thousand operaevery where interıningling in order to tives, to say nothing of the persons preserve harmony and secure the fidelity subsidiary to their support and accomof the intellectual and physical powers ; modation, and a capital of nearly nine and all, in all its parts and operations, all millions of dollars. resting upon an unseen agency, whose The mills in general are of a large activity is every where detected, but size; generally of brick, and seven or whose power is utterly unmeasured, and eight stories in height, well lighted, ven316

RISE OF A CITY IN THE WILDE-AN AMERICAN PICTURE.

tilated, and warmed. The machinery superintendent of one of the establish. seemed of the most improved and per- ments informed me that he turned out fect kind; and in general, and as far as one piece of cotton cloth of thirty yards the nature of the occupation admitted, in about every minute and a half, while the neatness and order of the mills which his works were in full operation. I visited, most exemplary. The hours The standard of health among the of work, exclusive of meals, average operatives in the factories, as I learnt about twelve; and, as far as I could from the best medical sources, was conlearn, it was the determination of the sidered as good. Many persons on going overseers never to employ children un- into a new place, and into new and differder twelve or thirteen years of age; and ent employment from that to which they none such were employed, except where have been accustomed, generally suffer parents, as in the block printing, where at first, and pass through a kind of accli. they work by the piece, chose to avail mation ; but afterwards they enjoy as themselves of their children's aid in good health, and in some cases the health some of the subordinate operations. has been improved, as before entering The e cases were almost universally the mills. It is obvious, however, that those of foreigners. They were dis- some of the processes must be less favourcountenanced by the superintendents ; able to health than others; as there are, and in my opinion, where there are doubtless, predisposing causes to disease schools to which such children might be in some, which do not exist in other temsent, it ought to be made a penal offence peraments or constitutions. by the statute ; or in any event never Of the moral character of the present more than three hours' labour in the manufacturing population of Lowell, ! twenty-fourshould be exacted from them. feel authorised to speak in high terms. I

The cotton fabrics made here are of was permitted to look in some cases at various fqualities; the finest averaging the books, in which the names of the inabout 42 or 45 hanks to the pound. The dividuals employed are recorded; and if printing establishments, by means of en- they are discharged, the causes of that graved copper cylinders, where sometimes discharge are mentioned. The instances four impressions are given by a single of discharge for improprieties of conduct revolution of the machine, are well worth were comparatively very few. The reguvisiting ; and the machinery for engrav. lations for enforcing decorum and order ing these cylinders by the sinking of steel are strict; and the character of the predies is very curious, and capable of being sent superintendents of these establishgraduated to the thirty-six thousandth part ments, such as to afford an ample gua. of an inch. This is almost litterally split. rantee that all which can be done shall ting a hair. The invention and delineation be done to secure the good conduct and of the figures displayed great ingenuity and virtue, and to promote the comfort of the skill. The shearing of the woollen fabrics is young persons under their employ. These a delicate and heautiful operation; but gentlemen acting with such a powerful the singeing of the fine furze or nap of influence as they necessarily exert, it is the cotton cloth, by dragging the piece obvious, hold a highly responsible situaof cloth directly over, and in contact tion. The virtue and welfare of many with, a red hot iron cylinder without thousands of very susceptible beings rest burning the cloth itself, strikes an unac- upon what they do or what they fail to do: customed eye with extreme astonishment. and as long as they rate the value of moThe card and whip factories are exceed. ral character so highly, and insist upon ingly curious, and as automatic machines moral correctness, as indispensable to approach nearer to the actual operations their patronage, and encourage sentiof intellect and intelligence than any one ments of high self-respect among the opewho had never seen them could imagine ratives themselves, they certainly will do to be possible. Both these machines, we much towards securing the moral purity understand, were of domestic invention. and advancing the moral improvement of The rapidity of the operations in almost these interesting communities.

It was every depariment of manufacture which delightful on Sunday morning, at the I visited was a reinarkable circumstance. first sound of the bell, to see the multiA large whip was coinpletely braided tudes of well-dressed young people crowdwith cord in about five minutes; and the ing into the Sunday school, and into the

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