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Mechanics' Magazine, MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE,

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nutchison's PATENT RETORT-BED.. HUTCHISON'S PATENT RETORT-BED. immediately into the main shaft, without Sir,—There is no part of the extensive

having rendered any service whatever. machinery employed in the manufacture Surely this is a circumstance which deof cual-gas that has undergone so many

mands the serious consideration of enchanges and alterations as the retort;

gineers who are interested in the prosevery variety of shape that could possi

perity of gas-works. A knowledge of bly be adopied has been tried—and large

ihe fact, that a body of heat which may sums have at various times, duriug the

safely be valued at some thousands of last twenty years, been thrown away in

pounds annually, is unappropriated and securing patent rights for retorts of differ- completely lost in nearly all gas-works, ent forins—under the idea that their

is sufficient to create much anxiety in thç make or proportion facilitated and econo- minds of proprietors. So great a sacri. mised the process of carbonisation. The fice of property, I am persuaded, will names of individuals, greatly and de

not be permitted to exist any longer, servedly esteemed for their scientific ac- now that the remedy has been discovered. quirements, could be mentioned, who

Another advantage which arises from the have wasted their talents and their money

use of Mr. Hutchison's plan, is the pro in this way. Had the same labour been

servation of the retorts themselves. Thi bestowed in ascertaining the most pro.

iron of which they are made when in a per method of placing retoris, instead of

state of perfect ignition, is exposed to devising new shapes for the relorts them- the most rapid decay from the destructive selves, science, in its connexion with the effects of the currenis of heated air, which manufacture of gas, would have been

are continually rushing from the nostrils further advanced than it is at present.

of the furnace; and this is an evil which Il fad occurred 10 Mr. Hutchison,

it is impossible to obviate, while the comprevious iu the erection of the exien.

mon system of constructing the flues is sive works at Vauxhall, that the field persisted in for improvement lay not in the retort The durability of retorts set upon the itself, but in the mode of placing or improved principle, is in the proportion arraging them over the furnace. Fola of four to one, in comparison to the old lowing up this opinion, he al once ha- method :-hence, a vast saving in the zarded a bold, and, what was considered article of iron alone is effected by this at the time, a rash imovation upon a

excellent contrivance. principle which had been in operation for The large establishments of the metromore than twenty years; this was the polis expend from 20001. to 30001. each, placing of eleven retorts (each capable of anwaliv, in replacing retorts. A dimiholding four bushels of coals) over one mution of at least half the above suins furnace. The experiment succeeded, would ensue from the adoption of Mr. and thereby was estalilished the expecta. Hutchison's plan of setting retorts upon tion he had formed, of being able to car- arches, surrounded by perfect reverberatbouise double the quantity of coal, with ing draughts. the same liulk of fuel consumed by the It is after an experiment of some years, usual principle in the production of half acquired solely from being practically the amount.

engaged in the manufacture of coal-gas, It was chiefs, and, I may say, en- that I have presumed to state my opinion tirelt; through this valuable improvement so un reservedly against that principle of that the London Company at Vauxhall, building retort beds, which far berter, and at its commencement, was enabled to certainly much superior, men to myself supply the public with a stiperior quality have pro'essionally recommended and of gas, at 40 per cent. less than any of in favour of Hutchison's plan. My the old establishments. By the adoption only motive in soliciting the insertion of the resort-bed which Mr. Hutchison of this article in your scientific Jourhas introduced, not an atom of the hot nal, is to benefit Gas Companies in air which issues than the furnace is al- general, ly communicating through the lowed to pass into the atmosphere; every medium of a wideli-circuiated Magazine particle is eilesively used in the process a knowledge of an improvement which, of carboniging; whereas, on the contrary, if universally adopted, inust undoubtedly one-limit of the heat generated in retori. enhance to an important extent the value beds, tonstructed on the usual plan, passes of gas property

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GUTZL'AFF'S CHINESE MAGAZINE, vol. i.

179 Description of the Engraving. retort, also, being completely surrounded

The retorts c, shown in the accom- by flues, is protected from that damage ce whick panying sketch, are so arranged that their to the irou which result from the action

tion of relative positions with respect to the fur- of cutting draughts. The heat, after 2 the pote

nace b, subject all of them to one uni- having circulated through the longitudi. wledge form and undeviating degree of heat. nal semi-cylindrical cases of brick-work bich me

The hot-air flues or nostrils, which pro- which enclose the lower tiers, is conveyed sauds ceed vertically and horizontally from the through lateral openings, at uniform disied and furnace, communicate with revolving tances on each side of the extremities of --works draught-channels which surround the re- the bed; from whence the two draughts

torts. These fues, from the circular di.' ascend, and unite immediately under the a sacri: rection in which they are conveyed to crown of the fire-arch, which is built

every part of each retort, transmit. with over the upper range of retorts. The longer perfect uniformity all the heat which heat coming into immediate contact with

rushes from the various openings in the this arch, reverberates to the horizontal
furnace. The temperature is by this flues; and instead of escaping into the
Errangement preserved in a continual shaft (according to the old principle), it
state of perfect equability; and in con, exhausts itself throughout the interior
sequence the heated metal is not exposed ramifications of the bed.
to the destructive action of the heated air

Clovis. which passes through the furnace. The London, April 22, 1836.

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GUTZLAFE'S CHINESE MAGAZINE, vol. 1. 東西洋考每月统記 1

统傳 Our readers will recollect that a short under its especial protection, and guanotice of the first Number of this interest- rantee its further continuance. Under ing miscellany appeared in the Mecha- such auspices it may, in due time, benics' Magazine of May 17, 1834 (No. come as great a nuisance to the Govern562, vol. xxi.) A complete volume of it ment of China, as the “great unstamped" has since come under our inspection ; have been to the Government at home. and we perceive that a second has ap- On thus learning what a sensation this peared in China, the country of its pub- apparently harmless miscellany had prolication. In our opinion, the work is one duced in an emperor, at least, if not in which, although not quite on a par with his subjects, we turned over its pages the hest periodicals of London and Edin. with some interest, tu ascertain what it burgh, deserves to be a favourite with the could possibly be that had given so much lovers of light reading in Pekin and offence. The ordinary contents of the Canton; but we regret to observe, that a Nuinbers seem, at first sight, not very native critic of some authority has ex- alarming. Several pages in each are pressed an opposite opinion. As the gen. occupied with fragments of a long artitleman we allude to, Taou Kwang by cle on the “ Comparative History of the name, holds the highly respectable and East and West,” in which a parallel is lucrative situation of Emperor of China, drawn between Fo-Hi and Noah, the and has thought fit to publish his un- Chinese deluge and that recorded in favourable opinion of the work in a pro- Genesis, &c. Another invariable article claination adılressed to the Viceroy of is the news of the month; chiefly the Canton, comınanding him to show vo news from Western Asia and Europe. mercy to the villains who are accelerating The Chinese may perhaps take some in. the march of mind in his dominions by terest in the short account which is given printing and publishing this abominable of the struggle between Don Miguel and

Maga," we were somewhat apprehen. Donna Maria, since its results produced sive that it might become and remain a changes in Macao which passed under ' stuck.work;" but the Branch Society their own eyes; but the nutices we find for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge here of the separation of Holland and established at Canton has since, we ub- Belgium, the war herween the Pacha of serve, resolved, with the usual attention, Egypt and Sultan Malimoud, and divers of bis English visitors to the wishes of his other events of the first importance to Celestial Majesty, to take the Magazine European readers, will, we suppose, 1

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180

GUTZLAFF'S CHINESE MAGAZINE, VOL. I. read by the sons of Ham with supreme to our own satisfaction. The thinly-peo. indifference, or a smile of contempt at the pled provinces and unsettled wilds of thought that there are people in this Canada present a goodly appearance on world of their's who care about such pal- a map of the world as

Country belong : try matters-much in the same manner, ing to the Great English Nation;" and that is, that we enlightened Europeans as there is nothing to intimate that the

account of the rebellion of United States close to them ever did the Chang-ki-url, or the exploits of the pre- same, the unpleasant suspicion is not sent Chinese Premier, the

“ hero of awakened, that what has belonged to it Cashgar.” There is, however, one arti. once may not belong to it always. Lower cle of intelligence which must attract the down on the map the engraver has been attention of every intelligent Asiatic. so anxious to show that Jamaica and This is a brief exposition of the project of some of the other West India islands are the East India Company to establish a in the possessio is of the English, and has steam communication between Iudia and executed the hieroglyphics which convey England; in llie course of which occurs that information on so large a scale, that a description of that wonder-working in. as there is nothing to intimate that Cuba

or any of the other islands are in the

posvention, the 7 % 2 as ro session of any body else, the yngevgra“ Smoke-using Ship,” which the Chinese

phical Chinese examiner may possibly have since had an opportunity of verify

form an exaggerated notion of the extent ing by the arrival of the Jardine at Cail

of our dominions in that quarter. But ton. This presumptuous account of an

the greatest hit of all is with Australia. invention which his subjects had not dis

This huge island, which is close to China, covered a thousand years ago, is, we

and almost of equal extent with it, likewise suppose, one of the articles that wave figures in all its dimensions-north, south, drawn down the wrath of the Emperor.

east, and west-as“ Country belonging But the most provoking thing of all, to

to the English.” What ideas mrust the one who has hitherto made a boast of

Chinese not have of the greatness of its ruling the “ Miildle Empire," the centre

population and the extent of its resources ! of the world, must undoubtedly be the

While all this pains is taken to swell out brief Introduction to Geography,"

the other dominions of England as much which, running from Number to Num

as possible, we observe 110 intimation on ber, forms one of the principal features of

the map that India happens to be governed the Magazine, and is illustrated with

from Leadenhall-street. Perhaps it is maps, in which, in consonance to Eu

thought not quite so well just at present to

remind the worshippers of ro, of the disropean ideas, the $ Ed, as its natives

tant possibility that some day or other delight calling the land of tea and hiero

they may be inade to “knock head” be. glyphics, is placed “ all on one side".

fore an English governor in Canton, and at the very extremity of the great con

receive orders from some respectable tinent of the Eastern hemisphere. The

Committee of Directors in Crutched large map of the world which is given is

Friars or Blow-bladder Row. This not curious in more respects than one. We

over-candid map of the world then it is, were afraid that the English, who have

which, in all probability, has aronsed the shown such pertinacity in calling them

imperial wrath, by throwing rather too selves to the Chinese the time

great a light on the comparative import

ance of the “ Middle Empire" and the Great English Nation,” and who

rest of the globe-though, after all, it have been told, in reply, to change their

must be confessed, that if the enormous

empire of Australia were left out of the acGreat," into ' or Little,"

count, our scaltered and straggling patches would, on their own showiug, be con- of dominion would make no great figure victed of having as little reason to apply beside that mighty map of the earth's surthe epithet to the extent of their territory, face, the civilised 300,000,000 of which as to the line of conduct they have often bow to the sway of Mr. Gutzlaff's repursued to the Chinese authorities—but, viewer. The pride of Pekin, too, may by drawing the colonies into the question, have taken offence at the animated strains the difficulty is obviated in a masterly in which the glories of London are sung manner, and we “ show off” very much by a Chinese poet who visited that dis

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GUTZLApp's CHINESE MAGAZINE, VOL. I.

181 tant capital, the original of which verses inserted in the Journal Asiatique, of Paris, is given in Mr. Gutzlaff's miscellany, from the peụ of Mr. Edward Biot, the while a translation of them appeared of the eminent mathematiciail. some time ago in the Penny Magazine ; “ Printing, gunpowiler, and the compass, and both original and translation may be were,” he observes, “known in China found side by side in an article of Mr. long before the Europeans had any idea Davis's in the 1st vol. of the Transactions of them. From the same country we of the Royal Asiatic Society.

received in the 18th century the art of In addition to the Migazine, the inde. manufacturing porcelain; and its introfatigable missionary who is its editor has duction to Europe is in great part due to lately published in the same language a Father d'Entrecolles, who first had an “ History of England,” from the invasion opportunity of studying in Chica de of the Romans to the reign of George the details of the manufacture. At the same Fourth. This we lause as yet bad no period many other inventions of this opportunity of satisfactorily inspecting; singular nation were pointed out by the but, on a cursory glance, our risible mus- missionaries, and among them we find cles were strongly excited by a portrait of the practice of boring for water, the the late king, copier from an English employment of natural gas couiucted print by an artist of Canton. The repu- through pipes for the lighting of towns, lation of the workmen of Canton for and the application of iron to the conmaking accurate copies is great, but there struction of suspension bridges; biit at is a something so comically Chinese in. first little attention was paid to these sinuated into the well-known features hints. The employment of gas for the here, that the effect produced is as ludi. purpose of lighting was almost called in crous as caricature. We cannot but ad. question, and the invention of suspenvise all our readers who love a laughi to sion bridges was criticised as useless hy get a peep at it as speedily as possible. De Pauw: nearly a century afterwards

While Mr. Gutzlaff is thus so lauda. these inventions reappeared among us as bly active in endeavouring to introduce a new discoveries, and then the genius of knowledge of Europe into the literature Europeans, which has a natural tendency of China, we cannot help wishing that he to perfect, gave them a development in would devote a portion of his exertions to application far superior to what they liave improving the knowledge of Chinese ever obtained in China. But these inliterature in Europe. The greatest bene- dications are enough to lead to a prefit that could now be renılered to the study sumption that all the inventions of this of that interesting language would be ingenious nation are not even yet known produced, we are led to think, by a com- to us, and this presumption will be plete translation of one of the great changed to certainty, for whoever conChinese Encyclopædias, and this can siders the distrustful character of the hardly be undertaken any where with a Chinese, and the extreme difficul!y thus full confidence of its successful execution opposed to these Europeans who have but at Canton. The technical terms wished to take a near survey of their which are constantly occurring in works arts.' In a subsequent part of his essay, of this description, can hardly be satis. Mr. Biot observes, “ Sugar from starch, factorily explained without incessant re- which was not known in Europe till 1811, ference to intelligent natives. Ouce done, after the experiments of Kirkoff at St. the translation would, from this very Petersburgh, was known very long before abundance of technical terms, form a in China, and employed in almost all the supplement, and a necessary one, to the preparations of the pastry-cooks. It is dictionaries we already possess. Not only mentioned in the Japanese Encyclopedia, would the work be an invaluable assist. and in the Tëen-kang-kay-ur works, ance to every student of the language, which bear the dates of 1713 and 1637. but a large body of new ideas would be It is even mentioned in the Pun-tsaou. introduced to the European reader-he kang-mich, which dates from the year would learn to contemplate many old 1571. In China the starch-sugar is exobjects in a new light, anél not å few tracted from rice by means of germinated altogether new would be introduced to barley, but in Europe, froin the starch him. A very interesting article on of potatoes, which in our part of the branch of this subject bas recently been world are in general cheaper than rice.

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