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inde sublimis abit. Accepisse id augurium laeta dicitur 9 Tanaquil, perita, ut vulgo Etrusci, caelestium prodigiorum mulier. Excelsa et alta sperare complexa virum iubet: eam alitem, ea regione caeli, et eius dei nuntiam venisse, circa summum culmen hominis auspicium fecisse, levasse humano superpositum capiti decus ut divinitus eidem redderet.

Has spes cogitationesque secum portantes urbem in- 10 gressi sunt, domicilioque ibi comparato L. Tarquinium Priscum edidere nomen. Romanis conspicuum eum 11 novitas divitiaeque faciebant et ipse fortunam benigno adloquio, comitate invitandi, beneficiisque quos poterat sibi conciliando adiuvabat, donec in regiam quoque de eo fama perlata est. Notitiamque eam brevi apud re- 12

9. accepisse: the acceptance of an omen was, in ancient times, an important part of the process. Cf. 7. II. augurium: in its general sense of omen. - Etrusci: this nation was much given to divination, and all the Roman forms of the art were supposed to have come from them. In cases of doubt they were consulted as experts. excelsa, etc. the emphatic position of these words represents a direct form like 'excelsa' inquit 'spera, complexa virum. complexa: see note on relicta, 2.

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35

gem liberaliter dextreque obeundo officia in familiaris amicitiae adduxerat iura, ut publicis pariter ac privatis consiliis bello domique interesset et per omnia expertus postremo tutor etiam liberis regis testamento institue

retur.

Regnavit Ancus annos quattuor et viginti, cuilibet superiorum regum belli pacisque et artibus et gloria par. Iam filii prope puberem aetatem erant. Eo magis Tarquinius instare, ut quam primum comitia regi creando 2 fierent. Quibus indictis sub tempus pueros venatum ablegavit. Isque primus et petisse ambitiose regnum et orationem dicitur habuisse ad conciliandos plebis ani3 mos compositam: cum se non rem novam petere, quippe qui non primus, quod quisquam indignari mirarive posset, sed tertius Romae peregrinus regnum adfectet; et Tatium non ex peregrino solum, sed etiam ex hoste regem factum, et Numam ignarum urbis non petentem in

12. officia: i.e. loyal services as a courtier.in ... iura: i.e. he raised the mere acquaintance to an intimate friendship. - expertus: passive; cf. Gr. 135. b.

ELECTION AND REIGN OF TAR-
QUIN.

35. iam, by this time. eo magis: because one of them might claim the right to be elected, if they were of age. -regi: see Gr. 299. b. fierent: of course through an interrex.

2. tempus: set for the comitia. - petisse ambitiose: to have canvassed (electioneered),as candidates in later times. The whole story, as it lies in Livy's mind, is derived from the later republic, when the commons were all-powerful. -- orationem in a contio, when candidates used to present their claims. — conciliandos: cf. Aen. VI. 816.

3. cum: Sc. memoraret, which is forgotten in the long account of the discourse, and picked up again in another form in 6. The whole passage is put in to explain compositam.rem novam: i.e. election to the throne as a stranger. — quisquam: the force of non continued through the whole occasions the use of quisquam rather than aliquis. The same idea excuses -ve also. posset: potential present thrown back into past time. The rest of the discourse retains its time (see Gr. 336. B, a), but this one verb, on account of its being contrary to fact, goes into the imperfect. The close connection of the potential subjunctive and the characteristic construction is seen in this clause (cf. Gr. 319, head note). The meaning is almost, 'So that anybody could feel indignant at it' (cf. quisquam and -ve). —igna.

regnum ultro accitum; se, ex quo sui potens fuerit, 4 Romam cum coniuge ac fortunis omnibus commigrasse, maiorem partem aetatis eius, qua civilibus officiis fungantur homines, Romae se quam in vetere patria vixisse; domi militiaeque sub haud paenitendo magistro, ipso 5 Anco rege, Romana se iura, Romanos ritus didicisse; obsequio et observantia in regem cum omnibus, benignitate erga alios cum rege ipso certasse. Haec eum haud 6 falsa memorantem ingenti consensu populus Romanus regnare iussit.

Ergo virum cetera egregium secuta, quam in petendo habuerat, etiam regnantem ambitio est, nec minus regni sui firmandi quam augendae rei publicae memor centum in patres legit, qui deinde minorum gentium sunt appellati, factio haud dubia regis, cuius beneficio in curiam venerant. Bellum primum cum Latinis gessit et oppi- 7 dum ibi Apiolas vi cepit, praedaque inde maiore quam

rum, a stranger to, etc.—petentem: sc. regnum. ultro accitum, had been actually called in. As Numa had not sought the throne, it was more than could be expected that he should have it.

sui

4. ex quo: sc. tempore. potens, his own master, freed from a guardian.

5. paenitendo: the somewhat rare personal use of paenitet. iura: referring to politics; ritus: referring to religion. didicisse: whereby he was qualified to be king; obsequio, etc.: wherefore he was a worthy citizen. The whole is conceived in the style of a later electioneering address.

6. haec: with a change of the form of the sentence, as if memoraret had already been used. populus: with a confusion of ideas between the plebs (2) and the proper populus Romanus, the official body

of burghers. iussit: the technical term for a vote (cf. 22. 1). — ergo, accordingly, as he had been elected by the lower orders. cetera: see Gr. 240. b. — ambitio: alluding to his popular measures in favor of the lower orders. - nec minus, etc.: i.e. he had two motives, one to strengthen his party, and the other to strengthen the government by adding to its great council.-minorum, etc.: this distinction between senators remained, but it was only a nominal one, with no difference of privileges. The most various accounts are given of the precise change made by Tarquin, and apparently all authentic information on the early constitution had been lost long before Livy's time. — factio, a party, in opposition to the older families in the senate. haud dubia, sure to

be.

quanta belli fama fuerat revecta ludos opulentius in8 structiusque quam priores reges fecit. Tunc primum circo, qui nunc Maximus dicitur, designatus locus est. Loca divisa patribus equitibusque, ubi spectacula sibi 9 quisque facerent, fori appellati. Spectavere furcis duodenos ab terra spectacula alta sustinentibus pedes. Ludicrum fuit equi pugilesque, ex Etruria maxime acciti. Sollemnes deinde annui mansere ludi, Romani magnique 10 varie appellati. Ab eodem rege et circa forum privatis aedificanda divisa sunt loca, porticus tabernaeque factae. 36 Muro quoque lapideo circumdare urbem parabat, cum Sabinum bellum coeptis intervenit. Adeoque ea subita res fuit ut prius Anienem transirent hostes quam obviam ire ac prohibere exercitus Romanus posset. Itaque 2 trepidatum Romae est. Et primo dubia victoria magna utrimque caede pugnatum est; reductis deinde in castra hostium copiis datoque spatio Romanis ad comparandum de integro bellum, Tarquinius, equitem maxime suis

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10. et: i.e. as well as the arrangements of the Circus Maximus. aedificanda: see Gr. 294. d. porticus: these were arcades, in which the business and outdoor intercourse of the Romans regularly took place. They were always a favorite form of decoration for cities.

tabernae: simple booths or shops for retail wares, such as are still found in many cities of Europe. As the remains appear in Pompeii, they are little stalls not larger than a market-stall, with the front entirely open, having a counter flush with the street, accessible to persons on the sidewalks.

36. coeptis: a substantive, as often in poetry and late Latin; cf. orsis, Pref. 13.- intervenit: indic. with cum inversum'; see Gr. 325. b. posset: see Gr. 327.

deesse viribus ratus, ad Ramnes Titienses Luceres, quas centurias Romulus scripserat, addere alias constituit suoque insignes relinquere nomine.

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Id quia inaugurato Romulus fecerat, negare Attus 3 Navius, inclitus ea tempestate augur, neque mutari neque novum constitui, nisi aves addixissent, posse. Ex eo ira regi mota, eludensque artem, ut ferunt, ‘Age- 4 dum' inquit, 'divine tu, inaugura fierine possit quod nunc ego mente concipio.' Cum ille in augurio rem expertus profecto futuram dixisset, Atqui hoc animo. agitavi' inquit, 'te novacula cotem discissurum; cape haec et perage quod aves tuae fieri posse portendunt.' Tum illum haud cunctanter discidisse cotem ferunt. Statua Atti capite velato, quo in loco res acta est, in 5 comitio in gradibus ipsis ad laevam curiae fuit; cotem quoque eodem loco sitam fuisse memorant, ut esset ad posteros miraculi eius monumentum.

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sible. aniino: not different from mente, except that there is a slight idea of intention in agitavi, while the other expression only refers to the thing imagined, as a present idea. novacula: the first barbers are said by Varro (Plin. N. H. VII. 59) to have come to Rome from Sicily in 300 B.C., and this is the only mention of razors prior to that time; but they have been found in graves, and were no doubt known, though not generally used. -haec: the razor and whetstone, which he hands him. aves tuae: scornfully. haud cunctanter: i.e. without making any question or excuse, indicating his faith in his

art.

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