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idem prodigium nuntiaretur, feriae per novem dies age

rentur.

Haud ita multo post pestilentia laboratum est. Vnde 5 cum pigritia militandi oreretur, nulla tamen ab armis quies dabatur a bellicoso rege, salubriora etiam credente militiae quam domi iuvenum corpora esse, donec ipse quoque longinquo morbo est implicatus. Tunc adeo 6

fracti simul cum corpore sunt spiritus illi feroces, ut, qui nihil ante ratus esset minus regium quam sacris dedere animum, repente omnibus magnis parvisque superstitionibus obnoxius degeret religionibusque etiam populum impleret. Vulgo iam homines, eum statum rerum 7 qui sub Numa rege fuerat requirentes, unam opem aegris corporibus relictam si pax veniaque ab diis impetrata esset credebant. Ipsum regem tradunt volventem 8 commentarios Numae, cum ibi quaedam occulta sollem

reason was, the holiday was established and continued. quandoque as in early Latin for quandocumque.

5. laboratum est, they suffered; literally, there was trouble. This is the point to which the account thus far has been leading up, for this was the calamity to which the prodigies pointed.-pigritia: the condition of their health made them little disposed for the hardships of war.-longinquo, lingering; here of time.

6. tunc adeo, then at last; used like tum vero (29. 4 n.), as is seen by the emphasis on fracti. - illi: nom. - feroces, proud, as despising, from overweening confidence in himself, the warnings of the gods. — qui ratus esset, the man who, etc.; characteristic subj.-obnoxius, subject to.-degeret: sc. vitam.

religionibus: including the practical worship as well as the state of mind.

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7. requirentes, missing. unam, one only; i.e. on one condition only. They compared the religious devotion of Numa's reign, and its prosperity, with the present godlessness. — si . . . esset: a free rendering in indirect discourse of the thought of the people, i.e. salus redibit, si pax... impetrata erit. The apodosis implied in opem (see above) is future (cf. Gr. 307. d.), and the protasis has the plup. subj. to represent the future perfect of the direct dis

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nia sacrificia Iovi Elicio facta invenisset, operatum iis sacris se abdidisse, sed non rite initum aut curatum id sacrum esse, nec solum nullam ei oblatam caelestium speciem, sed ira Iovis sollicitati prava religione fulmine ictum cum domo conflagrasse. Tullus magna gloria belli regnavit annos duos et triginta.

Mortuo Tullo, res, ut institutum iam inde ab initio erat, ad patres redierat, hique interregem nominaverant ; quo comitia habente Ancum Marcium regem populus creavit; patres fuere auctores.

Numae Pompili regis nepos filia ortus Ancus Marcius 2 erat. Qui ut regnare coepit, et avitae gloriae memor et quia proximum regnum, cetera egregium, ab una parte haud satis prosperum fuerat aut neglectis religionibus aut prave cultis, longeque antiquissimum ratus sacra publica ut a Numa instituta erant facere, omnia ea ex

from the gods the secrets of their worship, making them show what sacrifices would appease them; cf. 20. 7. sacrificia: the word may be retained, though doubted by some, as forming one idea with sollemnia. - operatum, engaged; a technical word for religious proceedings; see Gr. 291. b. — sacris: dative; cf. dare operam. - initum aut cura

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tum: i.e. some error occurred at
the beginning or in the progress of
the rite, which consequently did not
have the desired effect, and no vis-
ion was vouchsafed him. spe-
ciem, etc. this shows that the rite
was a sort of incantation to force
the gods (like ghosts) to appear,
a curious phase of religion. - ira,
on account of the wrath; cf. ful-
mine, below. sollicitati: refer-
ring to the endeavor to call out the
apparition. prava: i.e. the rite
being wrongly performed only irri-
tated the god, without having

power to force him. - fulmine, by means of, etc. Notice the two ablatives in different relations with the same verb.

CHOICE OF ANCUS MARCIUS. 32. ut institutum, etc.: cf. 17. I and 5, and 22. 1. auctores: cf. 17. 9.

2. memor et quia: notice the two different constructions with the same general meaning, a common usage in later Latin; cf. 15. I n. — cetera: adverbial acc.; Gr. 240. b.— ab una parte: cf. a parte dextra, a sinistro cornu. religionibus, rites of religion. — prave, wrongly, in reference to forms; cf. prava religione, 31. 8. — antiquissimum, most important, better than any. thing else. commentariis: see 31. 8 n. pontificem: see 20. 5. album: a whitewashed board, one of the earliest materials for

commentariis regis pontificem in album relata proponere in publico iubet.

Inde et civibus otii cupidis et finitimis civitatibus facta spes in avi mores atque instituta regem abiturum. Igitur Latini, cum quibus Tullo regnante ictum foedus 3 erat, sustulerant animos et, cum incursionem in agrum Romanum fecissent, repetentibus res Romanis superbe responsum reddunt, desidem Romanum regem inter sacella et aras acturum esse regnum rati.

Medium erat in Anco ingenium, et Numae et Romuli 4 memor; et praeterquam quod avi regno magis necessariam fuisse pacem credebat cum in novo tum feroci populo, etiam quod illi contigisset otium, sine iniuria id se haud facile habiturum: temptari patientiam et temptatam contemni, temporaque esse Tullo regi aptiora quam

inscriptions. - relata, set forth.
proponere, publish, by hanging
them up so that all could read
them (in publico), whereas before
they had been the secret learning
of the Pontifex. — inde: i.e. from
this act of Ancus. otii cupidis:
explaining why they should be
pleased with the hope.
character; instituta, methods of
government.

mores,

3. foedus: not mentioned by Livy.- sustulerant: the pluperfect only represents that they had come to this state of mind before the time of reddunt. This use of the tense is very common, to avoid the monotony of a catalogue of events in the perfect, with imperfects for description. A new point of departure is taken, and the intervening time is suggested by the pluperfect; cf. consalutaverat, 7. I n. - superbe i.e. arrogantly refusing satisfaction. desidem: not a mere attributive, but a pred

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icative adj., taking the place of an adverbial phrase.

4. medium: i.e. but the Roman king was not what the Latins thought him: though not a Romulus, he was by no means a Numa. memor, reminding one of. - novo: i.e. unused to the restraints of law as yet.

- etiam: sc. credebat; the two reasons given are, first, the undesirableness of peace in his time compared with the reign of Numa; and second, the impossibility of having it in his own case without suffering outrage from without. quod: relative.

temptari patientiam: i.e. that the neighboring peoples had been trying the Romans' patience, seeing how much they would stand, and finding they would bear much, they regarded this long-suffering with contempt; an explanation of haud.. habiturum. temporaque, and any way, etc.; a generalizing of the particulars preceding. Tullo, a Tullus.

5 Numae. Vt tamen, quoniam Numa in pace religiones instituisset, a se bellicae caerimoniae proderentur, nec gererentur solum, sed etiam indicerentur bella aliquo ritu, ius ab antiqua gente Aequiculis, quod nunc fetiales habent, descripsit, quo res repetuntur.

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Legatus ubi ad fines eorum venit unde res repetuntur, capite velato filo-lanae velamen est-‘Audi, Iuppiter' inquit, audite, fines'— cuiuscumque gentis sunt, nominat audiat fas! Ego sum publicus nuntius populi Romani, iuste pieque legatus venio, verbisque meis 7 fides sit.' Peragit deinde postulata. Inde Iovem testem facit: 'Si ego iniuste impieque illos homines illasque

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cuiuscumque, etc.: i.e. he adds Latini or Latinorum, for instance, to fill out the blank here left. fas: divine justice personified. iuste in accordance with recognized precedent; pie: with due reverence to the gods. The whole expression indicates that all the proceedings are regular. - legatus: in its proper original sense. fides: i.e. that he rightly represents his nation, who sent him, and is not an unauthorized person.

7. peragit, etc.: this has already been done in the rerum repetitio, but is now formally done again, as it were, to give a last chance to the enemy to comply, and formally to record the cause of war. The whole proceeding is called clarigatio, apparently the making plain the cause, so that there should be no room for question afterwards. — iniuste impieque apparently referring to his authority, as iuste pieque, above. homines: the individuals charged with wrong-doing. According to ancient notions, if these were given up, the state was not responsible; otherwise the state made their action its own. res: usually the cause of war was some predatory in

res dedier mihi exposco, tum patriae compotem me numquam siris esse.' Haec cum fines suprascandit, haec 8 quicumque ei primus vir obvius fuerit, haec portam ingrediens, haec forum ingressus paucis verbis carminis concipiendique iuris iurandi mutatis peragit. Si non 9 deduntur quos exposcit, diebus tribus et triginta — tot enim sollemnes sunt-peractis bellum ita indicit: 'Audi, 10 Iuppiter, et tu, Iuno, Quirine, diique omnes caelestes, vosque terrestres vosque inferni audite! Ego vos testor populum' - illum quicumque est nominat-'iniustum esse neque ius persolvere. Sed de istis rebus in patria maiores natu consulemus quo pacto ius nostrum adipiscamur.' Cum iis nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit. Confestim rex his ferme verbis patres consulebat: 'Qua- 11 rum rerum litium causarum condixit pater patratus populi Romani Quiritium patri patrato Priscorum Lati

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