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inclamat Curiatiis uti opem ferant fratrı, 1am Horatius, caeso hoste victor, secundam pugnam petebat.

Tunc clamore, qualis ex insperato faventium solet, Romani adiuvant militem suum et ille defungi proelio 10 festinat. Prius itaque quam alter, qui nec procul aberat, II consequi posset, et alterum Curiatium conficit. Iamque aequato Marte singuli supererant, sed nec spe nec viribus pares. Alterum intactum ferro corpus et geminata victoria ferocem in certamen tertium dabat; alter, fessum vulnere, fessum cursu trahens corpus victusque 12 fratrum ante se strage, victori obicitur hosti. Nec illud proelium fuit. Romanus exsultans 'Duos' inquit 'fratrum manibus dedi; tertium causae belli huiusce, ut Romanus Albano imperet, dabo.' Male sustinenti arma gladium superne iugulo defigit, iacentem spoliat.

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Romani ovantes ac gratulantes Horatium accipiunt 13 eo maiore cum gaudio, quo prope metum res fuerat. Ad sepulturam inde suorum nequaquam paribus animis vertuntur, quippe imperio alteri aucti, alteri dicionis alienae facti. Sepulcra exstant quo quisque loco cecidit, duo 14 Romana uno loco propius Albam, tria Albana Romam versus, sed distantia locis, ut et pugnatum est.

Priusquam inde digrederentur, roganti Mettio, ex 26 foedere icto quid imperaret, imperat Tullus uti iuventutem in armis habeat; usurum se eorum opera, si bellum cum Veientibus foret, Ita exercitus inde domos abducti. Princeps Horatius ibat trigemina spolia prae se gerens. 2 Cui soror virgo, quae desponsa uni ex Curiatiis fuerat, obvia ante portam Capenam fuit, cognitoque super umeros fratris paludamento sponsi, quod ipsa confecerat, solvit crines et flebiliter nomine sponsum mortuum appellat. Movet feroci iuveni animum comploratio sororis 3 in victoria sua tantoque gaudio publico. Stricto itaque gladio simul verbis increpans transfigit puellam. ‘Abi 4 hinc cum immaturo amore ad sponsum,' inquit 'oblita

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THE KILLING OF HORATIA, AND

THE TRIAL OF HORATIUS. 26. ita, thereupon, with that command.

2. princeps, in advance; i.e. of the Roman army, the Alban being passed over in silence. soror virgo, maiden sister. paludamento: usually of the general's mantle, but doubtless here used on account of the theatrical conception of the scene.- solvit crines: as a sign of mourning.

3. movet, etc.: the order is rhetorical to enforce the important facts: first, the sudden anger (movet); second, the explanation of the violence from his natural disposition and youth (feroci iuveni);

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fratrum mortuorum vivique, oblitą patriae. Sic eat quaecumque Romana lugebit hostem.'

Atrox visum id facinus patribus plebique, sed recens meritum facto obstabat. Tamen raptus in ius ad regem. Rex, ne ipse tam tristis ingratique ad vulgus iudicii ac secundum judicium supplicii auctor esset, concilio populi advocato, Duumviros,' inquit qui Horatio perduellionem iudicent secundum legem, facio.

6 Lex horrendi carminis erat; 'Duumviri perduellionem iudicent. Si a duumviris provocarit, provocatione certato. Si vincent, caput obnubito, infelici arbori reste suspendito, verberato vel intrą pomerium vel extra po7 merium.' Hac lege duumviri creati, qui se absolvere

then the exciting cause (comploratio); then the circumstances that made such mourning unseemly. The details are still more brought out by antithesis of the various members.

4. sic eat, etc.: cf. 7. 2.

5. patribus plebique: i.e. all of every rank and station; a standing expression in later times. - obstabat, palliated; stood in the way of its having its full effect. — tamen : i.e. notwithstanding the palliation.

- ad regem: naturally, as the supreme judge. -ne ipse, etc.: i.e. to avoid the unpopular action which would be necessary. auctor, responsible for. concilio: to announce his decision. — duumviros, a council of two; the regular way of expressing all boards and commissions in Latin. - Horatio (dativus commodi): as appears by the formula with tibi in 7, the officers were to establish formally the obvious guilt of the accused. - perduellionem, treason against the state, apparently because it was a usurpation of judicial powers to take the law

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non rebantur ea lege ne innoxium quidem posse, cum condemnassent, tum alter ex his 'Publi Horati, tibi perduellionem iudico' inquit. 'Lictor, conliga manus.' Accesserat lictor iniciebatque laqueum. Tum Horatius 8 auctore Tullo, clemente legis interprete, 'Provoco' inquit. Ita de provocatione certatum ad populum est.

Moti homines sunt in eo iudicio, maxime Publio 9 Horatio patre proclamante se filiam iure caesam iudicare; ni ita esset, patrio iure in filium animadversurum fuisse. Orabat deinde ne se, quem paulo ante cum egregia stirpe conspexissent, orbum liberis facerent. Inter haec senex iuvenem amplexus, spolia Curiatiorum 10 fixa eo loco qui nunc pila Horatia appellatur ostentans, 'Huncine' aiebat, 'quem modo decoratum ovantemque victoria incedentem vidistis, Quirites, eum sub furca vinctum inter verbera et cruciatus videre potestis, quod vix Albanorum oculi tam deforme spectaculum ferre

7. non rebantur: cf. note to Horatio above.

8. iniciebat, began to, etc.; see Gr. 277. c. - auctore, by the advice of.-clemente, etc.: this remark seems to be added merely as an explanation of the advice or approval, inasmuch as the law expressly provided for the appeal. The accused might, however, be supposed to be ignorant of the privilege, or afraid to take advantage of it. de provocatione: i.e. whether it was justifiable or not; in other words, whether the condemned was really guilty or not (cf. note to Horatio above). The magistrate acts summarily ex parte, and only in case of appeal is the case tried. — ad populum apud populum, the

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9. moti, etc.: the emphasis may be rendered by a great effect was produced, etc., more than anything else

by, etc.—ni ita esset, if that were not the case. For tense see Gr. 308. a. patrio iure: the pater familias had the right of life and death over all who were in potestate sua. - · orabat deinde: as if it were, then (changing his tone) he began to entreat.

10. eo loco: a spot in the Forum. -pila: apparently a trophy. huncine: see Gr. 100 footn. decoratum: explaining his pointing to the spolia, which Horatius had just now worn.- eum: a repetition of huncine. sub furca: used inexactly for rhetorical effect, and referring to the usual punishment of slaves. The instrument consisted of two sticks coming to a sharp angle, bound over the neck of the culprit, to which his arms were bound. - videre: i.e. bear to see. — quod . spectaculum: see Gr. 201. d.

I possent? I, lictor, conliga manus quae paulo ante armatae imperium populo Romano pepererunt; i, caput obnube liberatoris urbis huius, arbori infelici suspende, verbera vel intra pomerium, modo inter illa pila et spolia hostium, vel extra pomerium, modo inter sepulcra Curiatiorum. Quo enim ducere hunc iuvenem potestis ubi non sua decora eum a tanta foeditate supplicii vindicent?'

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Non tulit populus nec patris lacrimas nec ipsius parem in omni periculo animum, absolveruntque admiratione magis virtutis quam iure causae. Itaque, ut caedes manifesta aliquo tamen piaculo lueretur, impera13 tum patri ut filium expiaret pecunia publica.

Is qui

busdam piacularibus sacrificiis factis, quae deinde genti Horatiae tradita sunt, transmisso per viam tigillo, capite adoperto velut sub iugum misit iuvenem. Id hodie quoque publice semper refectum manet; Sororium tigillum 14 vocant. Horatiae sepulcrum, quo loco corruerat icta, constructum est saxo quadrato.

II. armatae : to enhance the contrast with the hands bound to the stake. - modo, only; i.e. you may do it if you only do it amid these symbols of his prowess. - pila: the place referred to in 10, above.

12. non tulit, could not bear.nec... nec: for this use of two negatives subordinate to a preceding general negation, see Gr. 209. a. 2. parem: i.e. the same in this peril from his own citizens as it had been in the fight. animum: i.e. the spirit he displayed in his bearing, etc.-iure, the justice; in Latin less abstract, the rights or claims which his cause possessed.—tamen, still; i.e. notwithstanding the failure of just vengeance in his case. —

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lueretur: there was a stain of guilt upon the state which had not been cleansed by any punishment of the murder. This was to be removed by an expiatory sacrifice, performed by the father, but at the public expense.

13. genti: such private rites were not uncommon at Rome, obligatory upon a family or clan.capite, etc. this was a symbolical sacrifice of the young man to the gods below; cf. the usage with conquered armies. hodie, etc.: some beam across a short street near the vicus Cyprius, in the IVth Region of the city, was pointed out in Livy's time, either rightly or wrongly, as the venerable relic.

14. loco: without in, as is very common in Livy.

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