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cum id perpetuumque sacerdotium fuit, deductus in arcem, in lapide ad meridiem versus consedit. Augur 7 ad laevam eius capite velato sedem cepit, dextra manu baculum sine nodo aduncum tenens, quem lituum appellarunt. Inde ubi prospectu in urbem agrumque capto deos precatus regiones ab oriente ad occasum determinavit, dextras ad meridiem partes, laevas ad septemtrionem esse dixit, signum contra, quoad longissime 8 conspectum oculi ferebant, animo finivit; tum, lituo in laevam manum translato, dextra in caput Numae imposita, precatus ita est: 'Iuppiter pater, si est fas hunc 9 Numam Pompilium, cuius ego caput teneo, regem Romae esse, uti tu signa nobis certa adclarassis inter eos fines quos feci.'

Tum peregit verbis auspicia quae mitti vellet; quibus missis declaratus rex Numa de templo descendit.

inde, etc.: Livy thinks of the public institution of augury as only then established, and the earlier practice of it as a private proceeding, which, of course, could hardly have been true. honoris ergo: i.e. to give dignity to the function.

per

petuum, permanent; opposed to the occasional exercise of the functions. arcem: apparently the Capitoline Hill.

7. ad laevam: at his left, and probably so as to look towards the south.in urbem agrumque: if the augur faced south, as is likely, though not entirely clear from Livy's account, the city lay before him, a little to the left, and his view extended over it and the adjoining country (ager Romanus) beyond the hills.-determinavit: i.e. drawing a line through the heavens from east to west, he arbitrarily determined what sights should be dextra and what laeva.

8. signum, etc.: i.e. he had a field of view between himself and the horizon, divided by a circle passing through the zenith. Whatever flight of birds or other phenomenon appeared within this field was significant, and to be interpreted according to the side in which it appeared. Livy doesn't mention the meridian line distinctly, but he does not necessarily exclude it.

certa :

9. Romae: locative.. i.e. about which there may be no doubt.-adclarassis: an old form and a technical word. The construction is an old one of wishing (Gr. 267 b). For the tense see Gr. 267 a. peregit, etc.: i.e. he stated what phenomena, according to the established ritual, would be a sign of approval. - templo: Livy probably has in his mind a permanent auguraculum or auguratorium built later on the Capitoline; but the word equally applies to any spot

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19 Qui regno ita potitus urbem novam, conditam vi et armis, iure eam legibusque ac moribus de integro con2 dere parat. Quibus cum inter bella adsuescere videret non posse, quippe efferari militia animos, mitigandum ferocem populum armorum desuetudine ratus, Ianum ad infimum Argiletum indicem pacis bellique fecit, apertus ut in armis esse civitatem, clausus pacatos circa omnes 3 populos significaret. Bis deinde post Numae regnum clausus fuit, semel T. Manlio consule post Punicum primum perfectum bellum, iterum, quod nostrae aetati dii dederunt ut videremus, post bellum Actiacum ab imperatore Caesare Augusto pace terra marique parta.

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Clauso eo cum omnium circa finitimorum societate ac foederibus iunxisset animos, positis externorum periculorum curis ne luxuriarent otio animi, quos metus hostium disciplinaque militaris continuerat, omnium primum rem ad multitudinem imperitam et illis saeculis rudem efficacissimam, deorum metum iniciendum ratus 5 est. Qui cum descendere ad animos sine aliquo commento miraculi non posset, simulat sibi cum dea

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Egeria congressus nocturnos esse, eius se monitu, quae acceptissima diis essent, sacra instituere, sacerdotes suos cuique deorum praeficere.

Atque omnium primum ad cursus lunae in duodecim 6 menses discribit annum, quem, quia tricenos dies singulis mensibus luna non explet desuntque dies solido anno, qui solstitiali circumagitur orbe, intercalariis mensibus interponendis ita dispensavit ut vicesimo anno ad metam eandem solis, unde orsi essent, plenis omnium annorum spatiis dies congruerent. Idem nefastos dies fastosque 7 fecit, quia aliquando nihil cum populo agi utile futurum

erat.

Tum sacerdotibus creandis animum adiecit, quam-20

disbelief in the legends is expressly put forward or accidentally shows through; cf. 18. 2 n.— - Egeria: a nymph, one of the Camena.

6. omnium primum: the importance of this as a religious matter comes from the fact that the festivals depended on it. - ad cur

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sus lunae: i.e. the months were regulated by the moon, but the solar year is arranged by some other means.- tricenos: the mean lunar period is eleven hours fifty-six minutes short of thirty days, and a year of twelve such months lacks about eleven days of the solar year. Even thirty days to a month does not give quite a full year. - solstitiali, etc.: i.e. the year as it brings the sun back to the solstice. - intercalariis mensibus: the Romans inserted months instead of days to regulate the calendar. vicesimo: Livy probably has in his mind the cycle of Meton of nineteen years, in which the sun came back to the same sign of the zodiac from which it started at the beginning. The whole story is no doubt one manufactured in later times. metam, etc.: i.e. the

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solstice would come at the same date.plenis spatiis: i.e. the time of the nineteen (or twenty) solar years would be exactly filled out by the months.

7. nefastos: i.e. properly days when it is nefas to hold courts. Livy here refers to days when it was not permitted to hold meetings. These were really different from the unlawful court days, but perhaps not made so until later than this time. — utile, convenient, i.e. for the king and the nobles. The Roman religion was in later times a very convenient political weapon.

RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES.

20. sacerdotibus: there were two classes of religious functionaries at Rome, special priests of particular divinities (flamines) and general supervisors of religious matters (pontifices). There was also a rex sacrificulus established after the overthrow of the kings. All religious observances of great antiquity were ascribed to Numa, but some of them evidently

quam ipse plurima sacra obibat, ea maxime quae nunc 2 ad Dialem flaminem pertinent. Sed quia in civitate bellicosa plures Romuli quam Numae similes reges putabat fore iturosque ipsos ad bella, ne sacra regiae vicis desererentur, flaminem Iovi adsiduum sacerdotem creavit insignique eum veste et curuli regia sella adornavit. Huic duos flamines adiecit, Marti unum, alterum 3 Quirino; virginesque Vestae legit, Alba oriundum sacerdotium et genti conditoris haud alienum. Iis, ut adsiduae templi antistites essent, stipendium de publico statuit, virginitate aliisque caerimoniis venerabiles ac sanctas fecit.

4 Salios item duodecim Marti Gradivo legit tunicaeque pictae insigne dedit et super tunicam aeneum pectori tegumen caelestiaque arma, quae ancilia appellantur,

belonged to the earliest customs of the Latin race. ipse: no doubt, as in all kingdoms of patriarchal origin, the king, as head of the clan, could perform sacrifices. Cf. the rex sacrificulus. — ea máxime, etc. these are assigned to the king as being the most venerable rites in the state. Dialem flaminem: the official title of the special priest of Jupiter. He was the most venerable and privileged of all the functionaries except the rex sacrificulus, who was substituted for the king himself, and formally represented him. The name flamen doubtless refers to building fires on the altar (cf. conflare aes).

2. regiae vicis, belonging to the office of the king. — adsiduum, in constant attendance; so much so that he could not leave the city to be gone over night. - veste he wore the toga praetexta, and a peculiar felt cap with a little cone (apex) and a fillet of wool on the top. His life was also surrounded

by a great number of religious restrictions. See Gell. X. 15.

3. virgines: these nuns, originally probably the custodians of fire in a community where it could not easily be obtained, became later an important body in the Roman religion. Their convent has lately been excavated at Rome. — Alba: though Numa is called the founder of the institution, yet, as Romulus was said to be a son of one of the virgins, it was necessary to account for this seeming discrepancy. They no doubt go back to the age of savagery. — virginitate, chastity. caerimoniis, observances. — venerabiles, reverend. sanctas, inviolable, as under the protection of religion.

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4. Gradivo: the gods were worshipped in various phases and at various places in such a way that one deity was often multiplied into several, like the later saints. ancilia: shields of peculiar shape, one of which was supposed to have

ferre ac per urbem ire canentes carmina cum tripudiis sollemnique saltatu iussit.

Pontificem deinde Numam Marcium, Marci filium, ex 5 patribus legit eique sacra omnia exscripta exsignataque attribuit, quibus hostiis, quibus diebus, ad quae templa sacra fierent atque unde in eos sumptus pecunia erogaretur. Cetera quoque omnia publica privataque sacra 6 pontificis scitis subiecit, ut esset quo consultum plebes veniret, ne quid divini iuris neglegendo patrios ritus peregrinosque adsciscendo turbaretur, nec caelestes 7 modo caerimonias, sed iusta quoque funebria placandosque manes ut idem pontifex edoceret, quaeque prodigia fulminibus aliove quo visu missa susciperentur atque curarentur. Ad ea elicienda ex mentibus divinis Iovi Elicio aram in Aventino dicavit deumque consuluit auguriis, quae suscipienda essent.

fallen from heaven.-carmina, etc.: this usage was retained long after the words of the songs had become unintelligible.-tripudiis, etc.: apparently a kind of Indian war-dance, in which the priests dramatically represented the divinity (cf. Gradivus).

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iussit: the starting of such a ceremony all of a sudden by order of the king seems as absurd as would be the establishment of All Hallow E'en by act of Congress.

5. sacra, etc.: there seem to have been several sets of records in regard to religious matters, gradually accumulated like modern law decisions in the hands of the pontifices; cf. 31. 8, 32. 2, and XL. 29. 7. — exscripta exsignataque: apparently copied (informally) and duly authenticated (in a formal manner). — attribuit, assigned; i.e. put into his hands to be interpreted and made known on occasion. quibus diebus: it was this knowledge

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of the calendar that gave the pa-
tricians later such a control over
the whole government and admin-
istration.-
- eos sumptus: i.e. of
the sacrifices.

7. caelestes: i.e. of the gods above as opposed to the spirits of the dead in the world below. iusta, due, with the proper solemnities which were necessary to 'lay the spirits' (placandos manes), which in all early civilizations are regarded as more or less inclined to take offence and do mischief. quo: indefinite. - susciperentur, taken up, noticed as significant, in contrast to others which would be unimportant and neglected. — curarentur: here equal to procurare, the technical term for doing the things which would avert evils threatened by an omen.-ea: sc. prodigia; a short expression for the knowledge of suscipienda prodigia, in contrast with others,

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