Lapas attēli

sancta generi hominum agresti fore ratus, si se ipse venerabilem insignibus imperii fecisset, cum cetero habitu se augustiorem, tum maxime lictoribus duodecim 3 sumptis fecit. Alii ab numero avium, quae augurio regnum portenderant, eum secutum numerum putant; me haud paenitet eorum sententiae esse, quibus et apparitores et hoc genus ab Etruscis finitimis, unde sella curulis, unde toga praetexta sumpta est, et numerum quoque ipsum ductum placet, et ita habuisse Etruscos, quod ex duodecim populis communiter creato rege singulos singuli populi lictores dederint.

Crescebat interim urbs munitionibus alia atque alia appetendo loca, cum in spem magis futurae multitudinis 5 quam ad id quod tum hominum erat munirent. Deinde ne vana urbis magnitudo esset, adiciendae multitudinis causa vetere consilio condentium urbes, qui obscuram atque humilem conciendo ad se multitudinem natam e

mon use of ita . . . si. — sancta, binding; sacred in the eyes of the people. se ipse: himself as the lawgiver; we should expect ipsum, but the Latin idiom is otherwise; see Gr. 195. 7. venerabilem, imposing, majestic. - insignibus: including all the insignia mentioned in 3.-imperii, of royalty. — lictoribus: as the executors of his supreme authority, carrying the rods and axes.

3. secutum, adopted; followed as a rule. - - me haud paenitet, I am content; have no reason to regret. apparitores: the lesser servants of the king and the magistrates. duodecim: the number twelve was closely bound up with all the reckoning of the Romans, though they had also a decimal system. One of

the systems was undoubtedly foreign, and the duodecimal system may have come from the Etruscans. Twelve

cities were reckoned as belonging to the Etruscan league.


4. interim: while the constitution was preparing.-in spem: as a hope looks forward, there is a natural tendency to say 'into the (future) hope,' rather than 'in the (present) hope.' Livy is the first who so uses in. — quod tum: of course, on Livy's interpretation of this myth, the number was small. There is little doubt, however, that the city grew for commercial reasons, as have Chicago and San Francisco, and that adventurers flocked thither from all quarters. The strength of a regal government, however, made an asylum more natural than a vigilance committee. 5. vana, weak and feeble; a mere extent without corresponding internal strength. - vetere consilio:

terra sibi prolem ementiebantur, locum, qui nunc saeptus descendentibus inter duos lucos est, asylum aperit. Eo 6 ex finitimis populis turba omnis sine discrimine, liber an servus esset, avida novarum rerum perfugit, idque primum ad coeptam magnitudinem roboris fuit.

Cum iam virium haud paeniteret, consilium deinde 7 viribus parat: centum creat senatores, sive quia is numerus satis erat, sive quia soli centum erant qui creari patres possent. Patres certe ab honore patriciique progenies eorum appellati.

cf. the example of Cadmus, Ov. Met. III. 105.-saeptus, enclosed for some purpose. - descendentibus, as you go down. Gr. 235. b. -lucos: the Capitoline Hill had two summits, on each of which seems to have been a sacred grove, and between these a depression. asylum: there were in Greece and Italy many such places of refuge (cf. Tac. Ann. III. 60 seq.), to which persons might flee and be under the protection of the divinity. This sanctity was often violated, but was in the main respected. There is no reason to believe that the statement here is not true. The growth of Rome seems to indicate an influx of adventurers (avida novarum rerum) who were attracted by the sudden mercantile importance of the city. It is more probable, however, that the asylum already existed than that it was opened expressly; cf. 30. 5; XXXV. 51. 2.

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6. id referring to the influx. ad, towards; looking forward to the size of the city as planned by Romulus; cf. 4. roboris, real strength; partitive with id or primum, with both of which it properly belongs, and having reference to vana magnitudo above.

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7. iam: i.e. after the accessions. paeniteret, had no reason to be dissatisfied. consilium, a head; properly, wise counsel to direct the powerful body; but the word is used in a half abstract and half concrete sense as being the regular name for any council, and especially for the senate. soli: i.e. these were all the heads of families that there were. -patres: i.e. heads of old clans. It must be remembered that the father, so long as he lived, was the only free member of a family, while all his descendants, however numerous, were

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in his power. - certe: as opposed

to the doubt in sive . . . sive.

ab honore, as a distinction, as a council of the elders; cf. senatus, earl, alderman, and similar words. This would agree with the first supposition tolerably well, but not at all with the second, unless we suppose the name to have become accidentally attached to them, as fathers par excellence. -patricii: this part is no doubt true, as the word is an adjective, like other words in -icius; cf. Cic. de Rep. II. 12.23, Romuli senatus, qui constabat ex optimatibus, quibus ipse rex tantum tribuisset ut eos patres vellet nominari patriciosque eorum liberos.

9 Iam res Romana adeo erat valida ut cuilibet finitimarum civitatium bello par esset, sed penuria mulierum hominis aetatem duratura magnitudo erat, quippe quibus nec domi spes prolis nec cum finitimis conubia essent. 2 Tum ex consilio patrum Romulus legatos circa vicinas gentes misit qui societatem conubiumque novo populo 3 peterent urbes quoque, ut cetera, ex infimo nasci; dein, quas sua virtus ac dii iuvent, magnas opes sibi magnum4 que nomen facere; satis scire origini Romanae et deos adfuisse et non defuturam virtutem: proinde ne gravarentur homines cum hominibus sanguinem ac genus miscere.

5 Nusquam benigne legatio audita est, adeo simul spernebant, simul tantam in medio crescentem molem sibi ac posteris suis metuebant. A plerisque rogitantibus dimissi, ecquod feminis quoque asylum aperuissent: id

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apologetic tone here is on account of the youth of the state (novo populo). It was young, to be sure, but had a great future before it.

4. deos, etc.: referring chiastically to virtus and dii. — proinde: the regular illative particle before any exhortation, summing up the reasons for the request or command. homines, etc. : an additional reason, through an intimation of equality.

5. adeo, to such a degree (as is indicated by the preceding); a very common trick of language in Livy, giving the reason in the form of an antecedent to a result clause, as if it were, to such a degree did they, etc., that they nowhere received them.' spernebant, etc.: i.e. they scorned them, and at the same time didn't wish to perpetuate them. -ecquod, etc.: a question implying a recommendation, as one might say, 'have you tried this means?' feminis of course, a most insult

enim demum compar conubium fore.

Aegre id Romana 6


pubes passa et haud dubie ad vim spectare res coepit. Cui tempus locumque aptum ut daret Romulus, aegritudinem animi dissimulans, ludos ex industria parat Neptuno Equestri sollemnis; Consualia vocat. Indici 7 deinde finitimis spectaculum iubet, quantoque apparatu tum sciebant aut poterant concelebrant, ut rem claram exspectatamque facerent. Multi mortales convenere, & studio etiam videndae novae urbis, maxime proximi quique, Caeninenses, Crustumini, Antemnates; iam 9 Sabinorum omnis multitudo cum liberis ac coniugibus. venit. Invitati hospitaliter per domos cum situm moeniaque et frequentem tectis urbem vidissent, mirantur tam brevi rem Romanam crevisse. Vbi spectaculi tem- 10 pus venit deditaeque eo mentes cum oculis erant, tum ex composito orta vis signoque dato iuventus Romana ad rapiendas virgines discurrit. quem quaeque inciderat raptae.

ing proposition, as only women of the worst character could be refugees in ancient times. demum, only; a common use of demum and denique.

6. pubes: a rather poetical word for all men of military age. - ad vim, etc. i.e. as though the men would resort to violence to avenge the insult and secure wives. - Nep tuno Equestri: i.e. as creator of the horse; cf. Virg. Georg. I. 12, and Ποσειδῶ τὸν ἵππιον, Arist. Clouds, 83.

Consualia: the origin and meaning of the cult is lost in antiquity, but it continued to be celebrated in later times, and was closely connected with the games of the Circus.

7. concelebrant: (sc. the people who were to take part) just as is the

Magna pars forte in I Quasdam forma excel

case in modern fêtes, and for the same object (ut rem, etc.).


8. mortales: the favorite word in historians for human beings. etiam: i.e. as well as the games. quique: the plural to express communities rather than individuals. Caeninenses, etc.: ancient towns, apparently Latin, long since destroyed.

9. iam, then again. — situm : the situation of Rome has always been famous; cf. V. 54. 4; Cic. Rep. II. 3. 5. 10. spectaculi: i.e. the races. deditae as an adjective; cf. Gr. 291. b. eo: equivalent to ei, as often (Gr. 207. a.).

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II. forte, just as it happened. in quem: sc. ab eo (raptae).

lentes primoribus patrum destinatas ex plebe homines, 12 quibus datum negotium erat, domos deferebant. Vnam longe ante alias specie ac pulchritudine insignem a globo Talassii cuiusdam raptam ferunt, multisque sciscitantibus cuinam eam ferrent, identidem, ne quis violaret, Talassio ferri clamitatum. Inde nuptialem hanc vocem 13 factam. Turbato per metum ludicro maesti parentes virginum profugiunt, incusantes violati hospitii foedus deumque invocantes, cuius ad sollemne ludosque per fas 14 ac fidem decepti venissent. Nec raptis aut spes de se melior aut indignatio est minor.

Sed ipse Romulus circumibat docebatque patrum id superbia factum, qui conubium finitimis negassent; illas tamen in matrimonio, in societate fortunarum omnium civitatisque et, quo nihil carius humano generi sit, libe15 rum fore; mollirent modo iras et quibus fors corpora dedisset, darent animos; saepe ex iniuria postmodum gratiam ortam eoque melioribus usuras viris, quod adnisurus pro se quisque sit, ut, cum suam vicem functus officio sit, parentium etiam patriaeque expleat deside

12. Talassii: of course an invention to explain the cry Talassio used at weddings, the meaning of which was as unknown to the ancients as it is to us.

13. turbato, broken up in confusion.

foedus, their hosts; properly, the implied agreement made by their hosts in inviting them. deum: Neptune. per fas ac fidem, by a pretence of piety and good faith. venissent: an indirect quotation of their appeal (venimus).

14. melior: i.e. than their parents had for them.


sed, etc.: as if it were, 'but when R. went about as he pro

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