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si pluribus opus sit, tribunos ad auxilium consulum paratos fore, et unum vel adversus omnes satis esse. Da- 4 rent modo et consules et primores patrum operam ut,

si minus omnes, aliquos tamen ex tribunis rei publicae ac senatui conciliarent. Praeceptis Appii moniti patres 5 et universi comiter ac benigne tribunos appellare, et consulares, ut cuique eorum privatim aliquid iuris adversus singulos erat, partim gratia partim auctoritate obtinuere ut tribuniciae potestatis vires salubres vellent rei publicae esse; novemque tribunorum adver- 6 sus unum moratorem publici commodi auxilio dilectum consules habent. Inde ad Veiens bellum profecti, quo 7 undique ex Etruria auxilia convenerant, non tam Veientium gratia concitata quam quod in spem ventum erat discordia intestina dissolvi rem Romanam posse. Prin- 8 cipesque in omnium Etruriae populorum conciliis fremebant aeternas opes esse Romanas, nisi inter semet ipsi seditionibus saeviant.

5. universi: as a body, without regard to private relations. -consulares: i.e. particularly these, as persons of importance, who would be likely to have relatives and influence. — aliquid iuris, any claims upon, business, social, or other. gratia... auctoritate: a good example of the difference between these words, the first referring to personal influence and popularity, the second to that arising from prominence in the community, and somewhat political in its nature. — obtinuere: belonging in sense also with universi (patres), as appellare also belongs with consulares, but the Latin so loves an antitheIsis that it makes one even where, as here, the precise form of the thought is disturbed by it; at the same time, by the present arrange

Id unum venenum, eam

ment, the main word is more closely connected with consulares, to which it most belongs. salubres: in the view of the aristocracy, to which body any agitation on behalf of the commons always seemed pernicious. - vellent: sc. the tribunes implied in ut cuique, etc.

6. novem: cf. 33. 2, where five in all are mentioned, but Livy (or his authority) is writing from a later point of view; or, as some think, he wrote quattuor here, and novem is due to a later hand.rem: cf. 43. 3.

morato

7. quo: i.e. ad Veios, implied in Veiens.

8. populorum: i.e. the different cities, each independent, but under one league. saeviant: the apod. osis is aeternas .. esse, which contains in it a future idea; cf.

labem civitatibus opulentis repertam, ut magna imperia 9 mortalia essent. Diu sustentatum id malum partim patrum consiliis partim patientia plebis iam ad extrema venisse. Duas civitates ex una factas, suos cuique parti 10 magistratus, suas leges esse; primum in dilectibus saevire solitos, eosdem in bello tamen paruisse ducibus. Qualicumque urbis statu manente disciplina militari sisti potuisse; iam non parendi magistratibus morem in castra I quoque Romanum militem sequi. Proximo bello in ipsa. acie, in ipso certamine consensu exercitus traditam ultro victoriam victis Aequis, signa deserta, imperatorem in 12 acie relictum, iniussu in castra reditum. Profecto, si instetur, suo milite vinci Romam posse. Nihil aliud opus esse quam indici ostendique bellum, cetera sua sponte fata et deos gesturos. Hae spes Etruscos armaverant multis in vicem casibus victos victoresque.

45

Consules quoque Romani nihil praeterea aliud quam suas vires, sua arma horrebant. Memoria pessimi pro

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thing; opposed to primum above. quoque: i.e. as well as in the city at the time of the levy.

max.

II. proximo, etc.: the final cliacie: this would refer to the time when the armies were only in array ready to fight, and so is less strong than certamine, which would mean only the moment of conflict. ultro: i.e. the soldiers gave the victory, as it were, for nothing, voluntarily to their enemies who were already beaten (victis).

12. si instetur, if they pressed matters, i.e. as he goes on to show, and made war energetically in appearance. - hae spes, etc., it was these hopes that had, etc.

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VEII AND THE ETRUSCANS. 45. consules Romani: though

ximo bello exempli terrebat, ne rem committerent eo ubi duae simul acies timendae essent. Itaque castris se 2 tenebant tam ancipiti periculo aversi: diem tempusque forsitan ipsum leniturum iras sanitatemque animis adla

turum.

Veiens hostis Etruscique eo magis praepropere 3 agere, lacessere ad pugnam primo obequitando castris provocandoque, postremo, ut nihil movebant, qua consules ipsos qua exercitum increpando: simulationem in- 4 testinae discordiae remedium timoris inventum, et consules magis non confidere quam non credere suis militibus. Novum seditionis genus silentium otiumque inter armatos. Ad haec in novitatem generis originisque qua falsa qua vera iacere. Haec cum sub ipso vallo portis- 5 que streperent, haud aegre consules pati; at imperitae multitudini nunc indignatio, nunc pudor pectora versare et ab intestinis avertere malis: nolle inultos hostes, nolle

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successum non patribus non consulibus; externa et do6 mestica odia certare in animis. Tandem superant externa: adeo superbe insolenterque hostis eludebat. Frequentes in praetorium conveniunt, poscunt pugnam, 7 postulant ut signum detur. Consules velut deliberabundi capita conferunt, diu conloquuntur; pugnare cupiebant, sed retro revocanda et abdenda cupiditas erat, ut adversando remorandoque incitato semel militi adderent im8 petum. Redditur responsum immaturam rem agi, nondum tempus pugnae esse: castris se tenerent. Edicunt inde ut abstineant pugna; si quis iniussu pugnaverit, 9 ut in hostem animadversuros. Ita dimissis, quo minus consules velle credunt, crescit ardor pugnandi. Accen

dunt insuper hostes ferocius multo, ut statuisse non 10 pugnare consules cognitum est: quippe impune se insultaturos, non credi militi arma, rem ad ultimum seditionis erupturam, finemque venisse Romano imperio.

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what they were anxious for, to translate the emphasis. retro, etc.: a highly poetical expression for curbing the desire.

8. redditur: emphatic, as opposed to their keeping back their true intention, the answer that they gave was,' etc. — agi: i.e. that a plan was on foot that was not yet ready, apparently with a kind of irony; cf. matura res erat, 11. — edicunt: used of the formal proclamation; important on account of the threat at the end.

9. quo minus, etc.: i.e. the less they think the consuls wish it, the more they desire it. - ferocius multo the emphasis is not on multo but on ferocius, 'they were still fiercer and bolder when the formal determination not to fight became known.' The adverb belongs grammatically with accendunt, but modifies an implied occursant.

His freti occursant portis, ingerunt probra, aegre abstinent quin castra oppugnent. Enimvero non ultra con- 11 tumeliam pati Romanus posse; totis castris undique ad consules curritur. Non iam sensim, ut ante, per centurionum principes postulant, sed passim omnes clamoribus agunt. Matura res erat, tergiversantur tamen. Fabius deinde, ad crescentem tumultum iam metu sed- 12 itionis collega concedente, cum silentium classico fecisset: Ego istos, Cn. Manli, posse vincere scio; velle ne scirem ipsi fecerunt. Itaque certum atque decretum 13 est non dare signum, nisi victores se redituros ex hac pugna iurant. Consulem Romanum miles semel in acie fefellit, deos numquam fallet.' Centurio erat M. Flavoleius inter primores pugnae flagitator. 'Victor' in- 14 quit, M. Fabi, revertar ex acie;' si fallat, Iovem patrem Gradivumque Martem aliosque iratos invocat deos. Idem deinceps omnis exercitus in se quisque Arma capiunt; eunt in Nunc iubent Etruscos 15 quisque lingua promp

iurat. Iuratis datur signum. pugnam irarum speique pleni. probra iacere, nunc armati sibi

10. his i.e. the ideas expressed in the preceding discourse.

II. enimvero: equivalent to tum vero, but with a kind of colloquial force, 'really, now, they couldn't, don't you see?' as it were. — sensim, tentatively, feeling their way; cf. 2. 4.matura, etc.: cf. 8 n.; tergiversantur: in reference to the farce enacted in the next section.

12. ad, amid, but almost with the force of the English at, containing a suggestion of cause. iam: of course with concedente, but joined with metu, as the cause which at last forces Manlius to yield. -ego: only emphasized, according to Roman custom, as an antithesis to istos. velle: opposed to posse,

and implying, as usual in antitheses, the rest of the clause, istos vincere. -ne: see Gr. 319. a. N.

13. non dare . . . iurant: both containing an idea of futurity; see Gr. 307. a. N., and cf. 276. c. — fefellit: as much as 'broken his oath to,' an almost technical meaning of fallo; cf. 14.

14. si fallat: sc. deos; the oath is expressed in a kind of indirect discourse, for si fallo, etc.; cf. I. 24. 8, and see Gr. 341. c.. - iratos, a shorthand expression for 'the anger of' the gods. - idem : i.e. each man repeats the full oath.

etc.:

15. nunc belonging to iacere, being quoted from the soldiers' words. - armati: one would at

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