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ictus Remus cecidit. Vulgatior fama est ludibrio fratris Remum novos transiluisse muros, inde ab irato Romulo, cum verbis quoque increpitans adiecisset 'Sic deinde quicumque alius transiliet moenia mea!', interfectum. Ita solus potitus imperio Romulus; condita urbs condi- 3、 toris nomine appellata.

Palatium primum, in quo ipse erat educatus, muniit. Sacra diis aliis Albano ritu, Graeco Herculi, ut ab Euandro instituta erant, facit. Herculem in ea loca Geryone 4 interempto boves mira specie abegisse memorant ac prope Tiberim fluvium, qua prae se armentum agens

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FOUNDING OF ROME; CULT OF
HERCULES.

3. condita: the city was not fully built until after the fracas, so that Romulus was the founder in either case. Livy derives Roma from Romulus, which is etymologically impossible. -nomine: abl. of separation; cf. ab nomine, 23. 3. Palatium: the hill which was the site of the earliest city, or at least the citadel of it. Remains of the earliest walls are still to be seen on the hill. They did not occupy the whole of the summit, which was originally divided by a ravine into two parts, of which only the northwestern one was occupied by the citadel or Roma Quadrata. -sacra: in the minds of the ancients, an idea inseparable from the founding of a city, and hence next mentioned.— aliis, the other; as often in Livy. - Albano: i.e.

old Italian.. See Introd. 4. ritu: the ritual of Greek worship and of Italian seems to have been distinctly different.

Herculi: the worship of Hercules must have been very early introduced by Greek merchants. His altar, the Ara Maxima, was in the low land by the river, west of the Palatine, where must have been the commercial quarter; and this altar had a special connection with good faith in bargains. In the growth of legends the worship was naturally associated with Evander.

facit, performs; but implying the establishing of a permanent cult.

4. Herculem: this divinity, who came to the Greeks from the Phoenicians, had as his tenth labor to steal the cattle of Geryon, the threeheaded monster of the island of Erytheia. To accomplish this feat, he passed westward along North Africa, and, crossing at the Pillars of Hercules into Spain, on the coast of which the island was supposed to be, returned with the cattle by way of Europe. It was on this return that he was supposed to have come to Italy.

nando traiecerat, loco herbido, ut quiete et pabulo laeto reficeret boves, et ipsum fessum via procubuisse. 5 Ibi cum eum cibo vinoque gravatum sopor oppressisset, pastor accola eius loci, nomine Cacus, ferox viribus, captus pulchritudine boum cum avertere eam praedam vellet, quia, si agendo armentum in speluncam compulisset, ipsa vestigia quaerentem dominum eo deductura erant, aversos boves, eximium quemque pulchritudine, caudis in speluncam traxit.

6 Hercules ad primam auroram somno excitus cum gregem perlustrasset oculis et partem abesse numero sensisset, pergit ad proximam speluncam, si forte eo vestigia ferrent. Quae ubi omnia foras versa vidit nec in partem aliam ferre, confusus atque incertus animi ex 7 loco infesto agere porro armentum occepit. Inde cum actae boves quaedam ad desiderium, ut fit, relictarum

loco herbido: the low land between the Capitoline and Palatine and the river.-laeto, luxuriant; as in poetry. reficeret: the purpose of procubuisse ; i.e. he stopped, and being tired himself from his journey (as well as the cattle, implied in quiete) lay down.

5. ferox viribus, arrogant on account of his strength; what we express in other connections by 'a bully.' avertere: a technical term for carrying off cattle and other booty. Cf. Virg. Aen. X. 78.

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que limiting partitive apposition with boves. caudis: evidently an imitation of Hermes' trick; see Hymn to Apollo, 413.

6. pergit: a continuance of the action implied in perlustrasset; i.e. having looked over all that were directly in sight, he proceeds farther, thinking they might have strayed. si . . . ferrent: i.e. to see whether, etc. Properly a construction of omitted apodosis; cf. Eng. in case, and Goodwin's Moods and Tenses, 494.- -foras, out; i.e. from the cave. incertus animi, puzzled; for constr., see Gr. 218. c. R. porro, away, farther on.occepit. rare with the complementary infinitive, but here used like other words of its class.

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7. actae, as they were driven away. ad, from; properly, in accordance with'; cf. ad famam belli, VI. 27. 9. ut fit, as usual; i.e. cattle usually miss their absent

mugissent, reddita inclusarum ex spelunca boum vox Herculem convertit. Quem cum ad speluncam vadentem Cacus vi prohibere conatus esset, ictus clava fidem pastorum nequiquam invocans morte occubuit.

Euander tum ea profugus ex Peloponneso auctoritate 8 magis quam imperio regebat loca, venerabilis vir miraculo litterarum, rei novae inter rudes artium homines, venerabilior divinitate credita Carmentae matris, quam fatiloquam ante Sibyllae in Italiam adventum miratae. eae gentes fuerant. Is tum Euander concursu pastorum 9 trepidantium circa advenam manifestae reum caedis excitus postquam facinus facinorisque causam audivit, habitum formamque viri aliquantum ampliorem augus

companions. This is a good example of the manner in which in Latin, and especially by Livy, one stroke is added after another to complete the statement, and each with reference to what has

just preceded. The only way to read Latin is to take it as it comes, and often a sentence must be broken up in translating, in order to keep the proper interdependence of the parts. - inclusarum: sc. in spelunca. ex spelunca: sc. reddita; the whole is a very common short-hand form of expression. convertit, drew the attention of. - fidem: the regular cry of one calling upon his companions or countrymen or the gods for assistance, and common in the comedy (O fidem popularium, etc.); here inserted to give a more striking picture.

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of writing, which evidently came to the Latins by way of Cumæ, an Æolic colony.

venerabilior: i.e. the power of writing seemed divine, but still more so did the famed origin of Evander.

- Carmentae: derived from carmen on account of the metrical form of prophecy, and the supposed divine inspiration of poetry; an Italian nymph whose name is preserved in the Porta Carmentalis at the foot of the capitol. There seems to be nothing strange to Livy in an Italian nymph being the mother of a refugee from Arcadia; but the names are doubtless all inventions. Probably the traditional mother of Evander was identified with this Latin prophetess; cf. Aen. VIII. 339; Ov. F. I. 499. fatiloquam: in appo

sition with quam.
Aen. VI. 9, seq.

Sibyllae: cf.

9. pastorum: cf. 7. trepidantium, crowding around; properly, hurrying hither and thither around Hercules, not venturing to arrest him, but holding him at bay. manifestae, etc., caught in the act of open murder. — ampliorem: properly, with formam; augus

10 tioremque humana intuens, rogitat qui vir esset. Vbi nomen patremque ac patriam accepit, 'Iove nate, Hercules, salve,' inquit. Te mihi mater, veridica interpres deum, aucturum caelestium numerum cecinit tibique aram hic dicatum iri, quam opulentissima olim in terris II gens maximam vocet tuoque ritu colat.' Dextra Hercules data accipere se omen impleturumque fata ara 12 condita ac dicata ait. Ibi tum primum bove eximia capta de grege sacrum Herculi adhibitis ad ministerium dapemque Potitiis ac Pinariis, quae tum familiae maxime in

tiorem: properly, with habitum, though attracted to formam; humana: belonging to both, but agreeing in gender with formam.. - qui: cf. qui mortales, 1. 7, and see Gr. 104. a.

10. patremque: notice the division into groups, the first two words in one, and the last one in the other.

Iove, etc. in accordance with the answer given to his question. - aucturum: the standard expression for being added to anything; cf. Aen. V. 565.cecinit: cf. Carmentae, 8 n. This prophecy accounts for the dedication of the altar before the apotheosis of the hero.

- maximam: the altar so called stood in the low ground by the Tiber, near the gate of the Circus Maximus. It was no doubt erected under Greek influence, and seems to have been connected from very early times with the foreign trade of the city. Upon it bargains were solemnized, and the deity, by the name Dius Fidius, was identified with Semo Sancus, the Sabine god of faith; see Mommsen, Book I. chap. xii. ritu: every cult had its own peculiar ritual, either borrowed from abroad or developed from very early times; cf. Graeco Herculi, 3.

The chief peculiarities of this rite were offering with uncovered head, consuming the offering sitting, and the exclusion of women, -all Greek forms, introduced, doubtless, by the early merchants along with the divinity himself.

11. accipere: a regular word upon the announcement of omens. It would seem to have been necessary for the favored mortal to accept the favorable omen to make it valid. Cf. accipio omen, mea filia, Cic. de Div. I. 46. 103; and Serv. to Aen. V. 530, nostri arbitrii est visa omina vel improbare vel recipere.—imple

turum: i.e. so far as he was concerned, by erecting and dedicating the altar; cf. IX. 34. 18; Aen. VIII. 271; Prop. V. 9. 67.

12. primum: the first offering to inaugurate the cult. - ministerium: i.e. as assistants to Hercules, who probably is conceived as having acted as chief priest. Potitiis ac Pinariis: the names seem manufactured; but they may well be relics of descriptive names in some still older rites; cf. IX. 29. 9; Virg. Aen. VIII. 269 seq.-familiae: logically appositive to the names, but, according to Latin usage, absorbed into the relative clause; cf. Gr. 201. d.

clitae ea loca incolebant, factum. Forte ita evenit, ut 13 Potitii ad tempus praesto essent hisque exta apponerentur, Pinarii extis adesis ad ceteram venirent dapem. Inde institutum mansit, donec Pinarium genus fuit, ne extis sollemnium vescerentur. Potitii ab Euandro edocti 14 antistites sacri eius per multas aetates fuerunt, donec tradito servis publicis sollemni familiae ministerio genus omne Potitiorum interiit. Haec tum sacra Romulus 15 una ex omnibus peregrina suscepit, iam tum immortalitatis virtute partae, ad quam eum sua fata ducebant, fautor.

Rebus divinis rite perpetratis vocataque ad concilium 8 multitudine, quae coalescere in populi unius corpus nulla re praeterquam legibus poterat, iura dedit; quae ita 2

13. exta: as particularly sacred, the heart, liver, etc. To this day, in Greece, these parts of the lambs, roasted whole on Easter Sunday, are treated as special dainties; and the editor, as a stranger, has had them presented to him on such an occasion.dapem: it is to be remembered that every sacrifice in ancient times, except those to the gods below, was a feast. Cf. for the whole matter Aen. VIII. 179 seq.· donec Pinarium, etc.: apparently this family became extinct first.

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14. antistites: i.e. for the ministerium above mentioned. dito: i.e. they abandoned the actual performance of the rites to slaves, and, thereby committing a religious offence, they as a consequence died out. publicis : to every worship were attached certain slaves who were considered the property of the divinity or of the commonwealth. In this case, instead of being only assistants, they were allowed to perform all the rites, and hence the pollution and consequent guilt of the Potitii. See IX. 29. 9.

15. tum i.e. this is the only foreign rite that dates back from time immemorial. Very many other foreign rites were afterwards introduced. fautor: this explains the adoption by Romulus of this particular foreign rite. As destined himself to follow the example of Hercules, he had a fellow-feeling for the hero, mentioned by Livy as a kind of omen or inspired consciousness. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE NEW

STATE.

8. divinis, etc.: attended to first according to the order of business taken in the senate; cf. rite (in due form). ad concilium: not a legislative assembly, but a contio to hear his determination. Cf. 6. 2. — corpus: i.e. an organized commonwealth. legibus: including the whole constitution. iura: not differing from legibus, but used for variety. - dedit: as king without the action of the community.

2. ita, only; properly, so (and so only), on this condition; a very com

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