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Dein familiarium quidam, qui insignem maestitia inter 4 ceteras cognoverat Veturiam inter nurum nepotesque stantem, 'Nisi me frustrantur' inquit oculi, mater tibi coniunxque et liberi adsunt.' Coriolanus prope ut amens 5 consternatus ab sede sua cum ferret matri obviae complexum, mulier in iram ex precibus versa 'Sine, priusquam complexum accipio, sciam' inquit 'ad hostem an ad filium venerim, captiva materne in castris tuis sim. In hoc me longa vita et infelix senecta traxit, ut exsulem 6 te, deinde hostem viderem? Potuisti populari hanc terram, quae te genuit atque aluit? Non tibi, quamvis in- 7 festo animo et minaci perveneras, ingredienti fines ira cecidit? Non, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit 'Intra illa moenia domus ac penates mei sunt, mater, coniunx liberique'? Ergo ego nisi peperissem, Roma 8 non oppugnaretur; nisi filium haberem, libera in libera

course the women generally. - possent: the thought of the women.

3. publica: i.e. of the state. 5. consternatus, springing wildly, indicating the frenzied start from his place at the news.— in iram, etc. i.e. she had come to supplicate, but at the sight of her son her feelings change, and she meets him with stern reproaches. - accipio: the present for the future, an almost regular construction with ante and priusquam in colloquial language.

sciam : see Gr. 331. f. R. captiva: if he was an enemy, then she, being in his power, was a slave, instead of having the authority of a mother.

6. in hoc, to this, though the Latin uses a stronger expression by means of traxit, as if, 'dragged me into this condition.' - potuisti: the emphasis gives the force of 'could you bring yourself to?' Cf. Hor. Od. III. II. 31. Notice, also, the emphasis on populari.

7. non: the emphatic position of the negative gives the force, it seems incredible that it did not.' - quamvis: this word, in classical Latin, from its meaning always takes the subjunctive, but beginning with the omission of the verb, which would be in that mood if expressed, the construction comes to allow the indicative, as if etsi or the like had been used; here quamvis infesto animo, with another conditional particle would be regular, and Livy forgets, as it were, that no such particle or any verb has been expressed, and goes on as if he had said, etsi quamvis infesto animo per

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patria mortua essem. Sed ego nihil iam pati, nec tibi turpius quam mihi miserius, possum, nec, ut sum mi9 serrima, diu futura sum: de his videris, quos, si pergis, aut immatura mors aut longa servitus manet.' Vxor deinde ac liberi amplexi fletusque ab omni turba mulierum ortus et comploratio sui patriaeque fregere tandem 10 virum. Complexus inde suos dimittit; ipse retro ab urbe castra movit. Abductis deinde legionibus ex agro Romano invidia rei oppressum perisse tradunt alii alio leto. Apud Fabium, longe antiquissimum auctorem, II usque ad senectutem vixisse eundem invenio; refert certe hanc saepe eum exacta aetate usurpasse vocem, multo miserius seni exsilium esse. Non inviderunt laude sua mulieribus viri Romani: adeo sine obtrectatione

12 gloriae alienae vivebatur. Monumento quoque quod esset, templum Fortunae muliebri aedificatum dedicatumque est.

Rediere deinde Volsci adiunctis Aequis in agrum Romanum, sed Aequi Attium Tullium haud ultra tulere

sed, etc. for the moment she has brought herself into prominence, and this she now corrects. ego is opposed to his below.- nihil... nec: loose writing for nec... quidquam, correlative with nec... sum below, and followed by non turpius. The case differs from the ordinary nec . . . nec after a negative, in that the two are not strictly correlative. Veturia herself has reached the height of wretchedness, and her son's further acts cannot increase her misery, but only his disgrace; but with the wife and children both may be increased.

9. videris: cf. videritis, I. 58. 10. 10. Suos: his family, taking the gender from the two sons. — alio: one was by suicide. — antiquissimum: cf. veterrimos, 18. 5.

II. refert, etc.: this implies that he continued to live in exile. certe: cf. 2 n.-laude: the regular earlier Latin construction would be laudi mulierum, but this construction becomes after Livy common, and is probably an imitation of the Greek (cf. pooveîv Tivi Tivos), though a natural enough use of language.

sua: allowed, instead of earum, on account of the idea of peculiar or special contained in it.

12. quoque: i.e. as well as glory. - templum: four miles out on the Latin Way, where the meeting was supposed to have taken place. rediere: Livy resumes, perhaps from other sources, his dry narrative after the picturesque incident, joining it on as well as he can. — Aequi, etc. cf. 39. I.

ducem. Hinc ex certamine, Volsci Aequine impera- 13 torem coniuncto exercitui darent, seditio, deinde atrox proelium ortum. Ibi fortuna populi Romani duos hostium exercitus haud minus pernicioso quam pertinaci certamine confecit.

Consules Titus Sicinius et C. Aquilius. Sicinio Vol- 14 sci, Aquilio Hernici — nam ii quoque in armis erant provincia evenit. Eo anno Hernici devicti, cum Volscis

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aequo Marte discessum est.

Sp. Cassius deinde et Proculus Verginius consules 41 facti. Cum Hernicis foedus ictum, agri partes duae ademptae. Inde dimidium Latinis, dimidium plebi divisurus consul Cassius erat. Adiciebat huic muneri 2 agri aliquantum, quem publicum possideri a privatis criminabatur. Id multos quidem patrum, ipsos possessores, periculo rerum suarum terrebat. Sed et publica patribus sollicitudo inerat, largitione consulem periculosas libertati opes struere. Tum primum lex agraria 3 promulgata est, numquam deinde usque ad hanc memoriam sine maximis motibus rerum agitata. Consul alter 4

13. darent: depending on the idea of question in certamine; see Gr. 334. b.

14. provincia: in predicate apposition with the names of the two nations. For the origin and use of the word, see Harvard Studies, I. p. 101.

THE PUNISHMENT OF SP. CASSIUS.

41. foedus ictum, etc.: rather favorable terms for a people devicti, but exact history is not to be looked for here.

2. publicum: i.e. belonging to the state, and so available for distribution, were it not for the action of the patricians. — possideri: not merely held in the regular manner, as criminabatur shows, but 'ap

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largitioni resistebat auctoribus patribus nec omni plebe adversante, quae primo coeperat fastidire munus vul5 gatum; a civibus isse in socios; saepe deinde et Verginium consulem in contionibus velut vaticinantem audiebat pestilens collegae munus esse, agros illos servitutem 6 iis qui acceperint laturos, regno viam fieri. Quid ita enim adsumi socios et nomen Latinum? Quid attinuisse Hernicis, paulo ante hostibus, capti agri partem tertiam reddi, nisi ut eae gentes pro Coriolano duce 7 Cassium habeant? Popularis iam esse dissuasor et intercessor legis agrariae coeperat. Vterque deinde consul certatim plebi indulgere. Verginius dicere passurum se adsignari agros, dum ne cui nisi civi Romano 8 adsignentur; Cassius, quia in agraria largitione ambitiosus in socios eoque civibus vilior erat, ut alio munere sibi reconciliaret civium animos, iubere pro Siculo fru

4. nec omni: i.e. no doubt some rich plebeians were also interested in the great bodies of public lands let for pasturage and the like. primo opposed to deinde in 5. fastidire: see Gr. 333. b. vulgatum: in the fact that the socii were to enjoy it also. socios: possibly this part of the scheme is borrowed by the ancient historians from the later measures of Drusus.

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5. et: as well as their dissatisfaction with the extent of the boon. vaticinantem: not merely prophesying,' in our sense, anybody can do that, but with the idea of an - inspired foresight. regno: the suggestion of this bugbear was the second cause of the alarm of the plebs.

6. ita, in this way, as they were. - adsumi: see Gr. 338.- attinuisse: i.e. what did it mean?' 'why should it be done?'- nisi ut, etc. : i.e. that these nations should be used

by Cassius as a means to destroy the liberty of the Romans.

7. popularis, etc.: i.e. the opponent of these measures, ordinarily favored by the plebs, had begun, by these appeals to their prejudices, to be regarded as the true friend of the people. dissuasor, opponent, by argument; intercessor, nullifier, by the power of one colleague to stay the other's proceedings. uterque, etc.: i.e. it now became a race for popular favor between the two consuls. — adsignari, etc. : thus catering to the prejudices of those who wished to confine the largess to Roman citizens. - adsignentur: see Gr. 314. a.

8. agraria: opposed to the largess of money. — ambitiosus: in its regular meaning of catering to one for political purposes. Of course the point of view is a later one, as the struggle for equality of the Latins could hardly have begun so early.

mento pecuniam acceptam retribui populo. Id vero 9 haud secus quam praesentem mercedem regni aspernata plebes adeo propter suspicionem insitam regni, velut abundarent omnia, munera eius in animis hominum respuebantur. Quem, ubi primum magistratu abiit, dam- 10 natum necatumque constat. Sunt qui patrem auctorem eius supplicii ferant: eum cognita domi causa verberasse ac necasse, peculiumque filii Cereri consecravisse; signum inde factum esse et inscriptum Ex Cassia familia datum.' Invenio apud quosdam, idque propius fidem I est, a quaestoribus Caesone Fabio et L. Valerio diem dictam perduellionis, damnatumque populi iudicio, dirutas publice aedes. Ea est area ante Telluris aedem.

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I. 26.9.— peculium: the son was the property of the father, and could own nothing, but was allowed, like a slave, to enjoy some property as if it were his own. - Cereri: cf. sacrando cum bonis, etc., 8. 2; he was apparently put to death by the law of Valerius Publicola there mentioned. signum: cf. Plin. N. H. XXXIV. 15, Romae simulacrum ex aere factum Cereri primum reperio ex peculio Sp. Cassi.. familia: here used in its regular sense of res familiaris.

II. fidem: see Gr. 261. a. — quaestoribus: not in the later sense of officers of the treasury, but of commissioners who acted partly as judges in the first instance, and partly as prosecutors before the people; cf. the appeal of Horatius, I. 26. 8. diem dictam: cf. 35. 2 n. - perduellionis: : very likely a later attempt to bring the case under some general class of offences; cf. Cic. de Rep. II. 35. 60, Sp. Cassium de occupando regno molientem quaestor accusavit, etc.- - populi: in the comitia centuriata, doubtless. - Telluris aedem: in the Carinae, near

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