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quin, si alia aliorum sit condicio, accendi magis discordiam quam sedari. Ap. Claudius, et natura immitis et 9 efferatus hinc plebis odio illinc patrum laudibus, non miseriis ait sed licentia tantum concitum turbarum, et lascivire magis plebem quam saevire. Id adeo malum 10 ex provocatione natum: quippe minas esse consulum, non imperium, ubi ad eos qui una peccaverint, provocare liceat. Agedum' inquit 'dictatorem, a quo pro- II vocatio non est, creemus! Iam hic, quo nunc omnia ardent, conticescet furor. Pulset tum mihi lictorem, 12 qui sciet ius de tergo vitaque sua penes unum illum esse cuius maiestatem violarit.'

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Multis, ut erat, horrida et atrox videbatur Appi sen- 30 tentia; rursus Vergini Larciique exemplo haud salubres, utique Larcii putabant sententiam, quae totam fidem tolleret. Medium maxime et moderatum utroque consilium Verginii habebatur; sed factione respectuque 2 rerum privatarum, quae semper offecere officientque publicis consiliis, Appius vicit, ac prope fuit ut dicta

vices, but a deep-seated evil was to be removed.-demersam, swamped, 'over head and ears in.'. sisti: i.e. there could be no solid ground to stand on, no stable equilibrium. quin, in fact. alia, etc. the distinction made would only breed discontent.

9. efferatus, maddened; used of the momentary state of his mind as opposed to his native disposition.

plebis: subjective genitive. lascivire: the effect of licentia; saevire the effect of miseriis.

10. id adeo, etc.: i.e. that was just the effect of the appeal allowed, just what was to be expected. - minas, etc. i.e. it was only an empty threat if it did not take immediate effect without appeal, inasmuch as the people would clear the offender.

12. pulset: i.e. if he dares, a sarcastic exhortation. de tergo

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vitaque i.e. to dispose of by flog-
ging and beheading.

APPOINTMENT OF A DICTATOR.
OUTBREAK Of War.

30. ut erat: cf. 28. 2. -rursus, on the other hand. — exemplo (ablative of specification): i.e. it would encourage such uprisings in future. utique: i.e. however it might be with the other one. — quae, one which. — fidem, etc. : i.e. destroyed credit by removing the security for loans. — utroque, in both respects, as a precedent and as a conciliatory measure.

2. factione: i.e. the influence of his partisans; cf. 27. 3.- rerum: i.e. those of the creditors.-ac, and even.

3 tor ille idem crearetur, quae res utique alienasset plebem periculosissimo tempore, cum Volsci Aequique et 4 Sabini forte una omnes in armis essent. Sed curae fuit consulibus et senioribus patrum, ut imperium suo vehe5 mens, mansueto permitteretur ingenio. M. Valerium dictatorem, Volesi filium, creant. Plebes etsi adversus se creatum dictatorem videbat, tamen, cum provocationem fratris lege haberet, nihil ex ea familia triste nec 6 superbum timebat. Edictum deinde a dictatore propositum confirmavit animos Servili fere consulis edicto conveniens. Sed et homini et potestati melius rati credi 7 omisso certamine nomina dedere. Quantus numquam ante exercitus, legiones decem effectae; ternae inde datae consulibus, quattuor dictator usus.

8 Nec iam poterat bellum differri. Aequi Latinum agrum invaserant. Oratores Latinorum ab senatu petebant ut aut mitterent subsidium aut se ipsos tuen9 dorum finium causa capere arma sinerent. Tutius visum est defendi inermes Latinos quam pati retractare arma. Vetusius consul missus est. Is finis populationibus fuit. Cessere Aequi campis, locoque magis quam armis freti 10 summis se iugis montium tutabantur. Alter consul in

3. utique: i.e. and that the election of Appius, at any rate, etc., however the other course might turn out. periculosissimo: the position and connection give the force, ' and it would have been a most dangerous time too.'

4. sed: referring back to prope fuit, etc.-ut, etc.: i.e. that the office naturally tending to forcible measures should be entrusted to a man of the opposite character.

5. M. Valerium: see chapters 16 and 20. There is an inconsistency in the account, because this man was said to be killed at the battle of

Lake Regillus. fratris: P. Valerius Publicola. - triste, harsh.

6. deinde: first they were reassured by the character of the man's family, and then by his proclamation. melius: than to contend with violence.

7. quantus: its antecedent, tantus exercitus, would be in apposition with legiones. inde: see Gr. 207. a.

8. capere arma: the Latins are here represented as denied the power of making war.

9. is the regular agreement (attraction) with the predicate; it re

Volscos profectus, ne et ipse tereret tempus, vastandis maxime agris hostem ad conferenda propius castra dimicandumque acie excivit. Medio inter castra campo ante II suum quisque vallum infestis signis constitere. Multitudine aliquantum Volsci superabant. Itaque effusi et contemptim pugnam iniere. Consul Romanus nec pro- 12 movit aciem, nec clamorem reddi passus defixis pilis stare suos iussit; ubi ad manum venisset hostis, tum coortos tota vi gladiis rem gerere. Volsci cursu et 13 clamore fessi cum se velut stupentibus metu intulissent Romanis, postquam impressionem sensere ex adverso factam et ante oculos micare gladios, haud secus quam si in insidias incidissent, turbati vertunt terga; et ne ad fugam quidem satis virium fuit, quia cursu in proelium ierant. Romani contra, quia principio pugnae 14 quieti steterant, vigentes corporibus facile adepti fessos et castra impetu ceperunt, et castris exutum hostem Velitras persecuti uno agmine victores cum victis in urbem inrupere. Plusque ibi sanguinis promiscua om- 15 nium generum caede quam in ipsa dimicatione factum. Paucis data venia, qui inermes in deditionem vene

runt.

Dum haec in Volscis geruntur, dictator Sabinos, ubi 31

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longe plurimum belli fuerat, fundit fugatque, exuit cas2 tris. Equitatu immisso mediam turbaverat hostium aciem, qua, dum se cornua latius pandunt, parum apte introrsum ordinibus aciem firmaverant; turbatos pedes invasit. Eodem impetu castra capta debellatumque est. 3 Post pugnam ad Regillum lacum non alia illis annis. pugna clarior fuit. Dictator triumphans urbem invehitur. Super solitos honores locus in circo ipsi posterisque ad spectaculum datus, sella in eo loco curulis 4 posita. Volscis devictis Veliternus ager ademptus, Velitras coloni ab urbe missi et colonia deducta. Cum Aequis post aliquanto pugnatum est invito quidem con5 sule, quia loco iniquo subeundum erat ad hostes; sed milites extrahi rem criminantes, ut dictator, priusquam ipsi redirent in urbem, magistratu abiret inritaque, sicut ante consulis, promissa eius caderent, perpulere ut forte 6 temere in adversos montis agmen erigeret. Id male commissum ignavia hostium in bonum vertit, qui, priusquam ad coniectum teli veniretur, obstupefacti audacia

WAR WITH THE VOLSCI. RENEWAL OF CIVIL STRIFE. 31. fuerat: in reference to the time of fundit.

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2. turbaverat: in reference to invasit; cf. preceding note. pandunt: see Gr. 276. e. - parum, etc.: the centre had a thinner formation, because the rear lines of troops had been used to extend the wings. turbatos, being thus in disorder. eodem impetu: cf. 30. 14.- debellatum: cf. 26. 6. 3. urbem: see Gr. 237. d. invehitur: i.e. in the triumphal chariot; a detail thrown in to give liveliness. solitos: these were the recording of his name in the Annales, and the right to the toga picta and tunica palmata.— locus:

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a permanent seat secured at the games, according to Greek custom. No other example of this is mentioned in Roman history.

4. et colonia deducta: these words, perhaps a gloss, would be in themselves sufficient, but the preceding clause no doubt has reference to the relief afforded to the colonists by being sent, and also to the fact that they were cives Romani, who had special privileges. Aequis cf. 30. 9. — quidem: corresponding to sed.

5. promissa, etc.: see 24. 6 and 30. 6.-forte temere: a double expression for the same thing, the inconsiderate attack.

6. male commissum, unwise measure; cf. bene factum and the

Romanorum relictis castris, quae munitissimis tenuerant locis, in aversas valles desiluere; ubi satis praedae et victoria incruenta fuit.

Ita trifariam re bello bene gesta de domesticarum 7 rerum eventu nec patribus nec plebi cura decesserat : tanta cum gratia tum arte praeparaverant faeneratores quae non modo plebem sed ipsum etiam dictatorem frustrarentur. Namque Valerius post Vetusi consulis redi- 8 tum omnium actionum in senatu primam habuit pro victore populo, rettulitque, quid de nexis fieri placeret. Quae cum reiecta relatio esset, 'Non placeo' inquit 9 'concordiae auctor. Optabitis, me dius fidius, propediem ut mei similes Romana plebes patronos habeat. Quod ad me attinet, neque frustrabor ultra cives meos, 10 neque ipse frustra dictator ero. Discordiae intestinae, bellum externum fecere ut hoc magistratu egeret res publica; pax foris parta est, domi impeditur: privatus potius quam dictator seditioni interero.' Ita curia egressus dictatura se abdicavit. Apparuit causa plebi,

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which we get by using it seems or forsooth. - mei similes: i.e. instead of the much more dangerous ones that they will have.

10. quod ad me, etc.: as if he said, but that is your affair; as for myself, I will,' etc. frustra: a play on the kindred words. — discordiae, etc.: i.e. there were two purposes for which a dictator was needed, to remove civil strife and to carry on war; the latter has been accomplished, the former is hindered (as he implies) by the machinations of citizens, so that the dictator is powerless. — interero: not, of course, as a promoter, but to quell it.

II. apparuit: notice the emphasis, and see itaque below. -causa: the reason of his action explained by the following clause. - plebi:

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