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omnis et periculum libertatis, cum in conspectu consulis singuli a pluribus violarentur, in creditores a debito10 ribus verterant. Super haec timor incessit Sabini belli; dilectuque decreto nemo nomen dedit, furente Appio et insectante ambitionem collegae, qui populari silentio rem publicam proderet, et ad id, quod de credita pecunia ius non dixisset, adiceret, ut ne dilectum quidem ex senaII tus consulto haberet; non esse tamen desertam omnino

rem publicam, neque proiectum consulare imperium: se 12 unum et suae et patrum maiestatis vindicem fore. Cum circumstaret cotidiana multitudo licentia accensa, arripi unum insignem ducem seditionum iussit. Ille cum a lictoribus iam traheretur, provocavit. Nec cessisset provocationi consul, quia non dubium erat populi iudicium, nisi aegre victa pertinacia foret consilio magis et auctoritate principum quam populi clamore: adeo super13 erant animi ad sustinendam invidiam. Crescere inde malum in dies non clamoribus modo apertis sed, quod multo perniciosius erat, secessione occultisque conloquiis. Tandem invisi plebi consules magistratu abeunt, Servilius neutris, Appius patribus mire gratus.

and maltreated) rather than the debtors. in conspectu: i.e. it showed the danger when the highest magistrate had no power to restrain the mob, and the single patrician creditor was attacked by many at once. - verterant: intransitive; cf. 8. I n.

10. super haec, on the top of all this. nomen dedit: cf. 24. 2, 6.populari: the same as ambitiosus; cf. 4, above. - silentio, inactivity, in that he refused to judge debtors, or join with his colleague in ordering the levy. - dixisset: informal indirect discourse; see Gr. 341. d.

II. non esse: emphatic, it was not (as they supposed).

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12. cotidiana, the usual, those who came every day. licentia, lawlessness.- seditionum: the plural, because each case of refusal was a mutiny. - provocavit: i.e. from the consul to his peers, the people; cf. 8. 2 n. nec, and yet . . . not, though the appeal was a sacred right. populi: i.e. the plebs would have a majority in the assembly. — auctoritate, influence.— adeo: i.e. to such a degree as to disregard the sacred right. — ad sustinendam: i.e. he was not abashed by the popular odium.

13. secessione: ie. secret conclave; cf. 28. 1, below. Servilius neutris cf. 3, above.

A. Verginius inde et T. Vetusius consulatum ineunt. 28 Tum vero plebs, incerta quales habitura consules esset, coetus nocturnos, pars Esquiliis pars in Aventino, facere, ne in foro subitis trepidaret consiliis et omnia. temere ac fortuito ageret. Eam rem consules rati, ut 2 erat, perniciosam ad patres deferunt, sed delatam consulere ordine non licuit: adeo tumultuose excepta est clamoribus undique et indignatione patrum, si, quod imperio consulari exsequendum esset, invidiam eius consules ad senatum reicerent. Profecto, si essent in 3 re publica magistratus, nullum futurum fuisse Romae. nisi publicum concilium: nunc in mille curias contio- 4 nesque, cum alia in Esquiliis, alia in Aventino fiant concilia, dispersam et dissipatam esse rem publicam. Vnum hercule virum id enim plus esse quam consulem, qualis Appius Claudius fuerit, momento tempo

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INCREASED ACTIVITY OF THE

PLEBS.

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28. Vetusius: cf. 19. I n. — tum vero: cf. 23. 13 n. — quales: i.e. in their political tendencies. tus: cf. secessione, 27. 13. — Esquiliis: construed like the name of a town, doubtless because it is a plural and represents a quarter (see I. 44. 3 n.). Livy's practice, however, is not consistent; cf. in Esquiliis in 4, below. -ne in foro, etc.: i.e. they organize and consult upon a plan of action, so as not to be taken unawares, just as in modern times measures are discussed in caucus.

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5 ris discussurum illos coetus fuisse. Correpti consules, cum, quid ergo se facere vellent, nihil enim segnius. molliusve quam patribus placeat acturos, percunctarentur, decernunt ut dilectum quam acerrimum habeant; 6 otio lascivire plebem. Dimisso senatu consules in tribunal escendunt; citant nominatim iuniores. Cum ad nomen nemo responderet, circumfusa multitudo in con7 tionis modum negare ultra decipi plebem posse; numquam unum militem habituros, ni praestaretur fides publica; libertatem unicuique prius reddendam esse quam arma danda, ut pro patria civibusque, non pro 8 dominis pugnent. Consules quid mandatum esset a senatu videbant, sed eorum qui intra parietes curiae ferociter loquerentur neminem adesse invidiae suae participem; et apparebat atrox cum plebe certamen. 9 Prius itaque quam ultima experirentur, senatum iterum consulere placuit. Tum vero ad sellas consulum prope

5. correpti: i.e. feeling rebuked. -vellent... placeat: see Gr. 336. B. a. N. I.— decernunt: sc. the senate.- acerrimum: a word often applied to a levy without the allowance of excuses, and rigidly enforced.

6. tribunal: a raised platform in the Forum, where magistrates exercised their functions. - citant: as opposed to the general order, to which ordinarily the people would respond by giving in their names (nomina dare). Here they are individually summoned. — contionis: i.e. the crowd was like a general meeting of the people summoned by a magistrate. negare: this word, in its emphatic position, represents an emphatic negative; cf. non, 23. 7, and nunquam below.

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8. quid, etc.: a good example of the variable order (and emphasis) of the Latin. If videbant had come first, as it well might, the sense would be 'they were well aware, but did not act in accordance with the knowledge.' Here it is, 'they knew the orders of the senate as a body, but they also saw that no one of the senators themselves came personally to bear the brunt of the fight.' -suae: i.e. of the consuls. Politics were much the same in ancient as in modern times, and our newspapers are as good a comment on Livy's account as could be desired. et apparebat: the connection of thought is, 'and there was good reason why they did not show themselves, for in fact it was evident that there would be a violent contest with the lower orders.' 9. itaque: in Livy often in the second place. ultima, extreme

convolavere minimus quisque natu patrum abdicare consulatum iubentes et deponere imperium, ad quod tuendum animus deesset.

Vtraque re satis experta tum demum consules: Ne 29 praedictum negetis, patres conscripti, adest ingens seditio. Postulamus ut ii qui maxime ignaviam increpant adsint nobis habentibus dilectum. Acerrimi cuiusque arbitrio, quando ita placet, rem agemus.' Redeunt 2 in tribunal, citari nominatim unum ex his qui in conspectu erant dedita opera iubent. Cum staret tacitus, et circa eum aliquot hominum, ne forte violaretur, constitisset globus, lictorem ad eum consules mittunt. Quo 3 repulso tum vero indignum facinus esse clamitantes qui patrum consulibus aderant devolant de tribunali, ut lictori auxilio essent. Sed ab lictore, nihil aliud quam 4

measures, which were likely to lead to armed collision. sellas: i.e. in the senate. - prope: i.e. there was not quite a turbulent mob round the chairs of the consuls, but it was not far from that. Some editions have

propere, which certainly makes good sense. convolavere: cf. 27. 8.

minimus: i.e. the younger, and so at the same time less cautious and more arrogant.

CONTINUED RESISTANCE OF THE
PLEBS.

29. utraque: i.e. both to hold
a levy by force, and to appeal to
the senate.- tum demum: it was
only then, after having tried both
courses, that the consuls stood upon
their own defence and demanded
the help of the sidewalk com-
mittee.'
- ne... negetis: see Gr.
317. c.- adsint: with its usual
meaning of being present to assist;
cf. the English 'stand by.' — cu-
iusque i.e. we will take as active
measures as the most violent de-

sires, since that is your pleasure, if you will stand by us.

2. citari, etc. i.e. they purposely (dedita opera) take some one at hand, in order to make a test case.

tacitus cf. nemo responderet, 28. 6. lictorem: the regular instrument of the magistrate, like a constable, sheriff, or marshal.

3. quo repulso: this was an overt act of rebellion. — qui, etc.: i.e. those who had responded to the call of the consuls to stand by them.

4. lictore, etc.: i.e. the officer of the law received no violence, being only prevented from arresting his man, but towards the assisting party the people were not so moderate, and proceeded to attack them. This encounter was stopped by the consuls, though after all (tamen) the moderation of the people showed itself by the fact that no real violence was used, not a stone, nor a deadly weapon, only angry abuse and fisticuffs, which Livy implies in

prendere prohibito, cum conversus in patres impetus esset, consulum intercursu rixa sedata est, in qua tamen sine lapide, sine telo plus clamoris atque irarum quam 5 iniuriae fuerat. Senatus tumultuose vocatus tumultuosius consulitur, quaestionem postulantibus iis qui pulsati fuerant, decernente ferocissimo quoque non sententiis 6 magis quam clamore et strepitu. Tandem cum irae resedissent, exprobrantibus consulibus nihilo plus sanitatis in curia quam in foro esse, ordine consuli coepit. 7 Tres fuere sententiae. P. Verginius rem non vulgabat : de iis tantum, qui fidem secuti Publi Servili consulis Vulsco, Aurunco, Sabinoque militassent bello, agendum 8 censebat. Titus Larcius non id tempus esse ut merita tantummodo exsolverentur; totam plebem aere alieno demersam esse, nec sisti posse ni omnibus consulatur;

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5. tumultuose: a kind of play on the word. The first time it means hastily, without the usual formalities, as in a tumultus; the second time it refers to the disorder in the meeting, which was a tumultus (cf. 28. 2 n). — quaestionem: i.e. an investigation and consequent punishment of the rioters. The latter had maltreated senators and resisted officials in the discharge of their duties. - decernente, etc.: i.e. the violent members voted not so much by the orderly expression of their sententiae as by a disorderly clamor, impliedly in favor of the investigation.

6. exprobrantibus, etc.: indicating what brought the angry senators to their senses, the taunting accusation that they were as mad as the populace.-coepit (see Gr. 143. a) : Weissenborn acutely remarks that coeptum est would refer to the action proceeding from the consuls,

whereas this means that the senate itself came to order. Perhaps all Livy's violations of the rule of coepit and coeptum est can be explained in like manner.

7. sententiae: the senators gave their opinions in order as called upon, either proposing some new course or agreeing with some one who had already spoken. In this case there were three different views, with which the others agreed according to their character and disposition. - rem non vulgabat: i.e. he proposed that the relief should not be made general, but only apply strictly to those who had acted on the promise given, evidently a middle course. The imperfect (generally conative) with a negative usually has a force expressed in English by would' or 'could'; here it means I was not disposed to,' and so 'advised not to'; cf. decernente, 5.

8. merita, etc.: i.e. that it wasn't merely a matter of rewarding ser

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